No.TitleReport No.Report Date
1.BCOA-ME: A New Design Procedure for Thin Concrete Overlays of Asphalt Pavements 2014
Thin bonded concrete overlays of existing asphalt pavements (BCOA), also known as “whitetoppings”, are becoming increasingly popular as an economical way to extend the life of an in-place pavement. While there had been several procedures developed in the past to structurally design this pavement rehabilitation option, the need for a more rational mechanistic-empirical based procedure still existed. Recognizing this gap in knowledge, the Minnesota Department of Transportation began in 1993 to construct various BCOA test sections designed to develop data for a comprehensive new design procedure for BCOA. By 2007, many other states in the U.S. were also interested in improved design procedures for BCOA. So in 2008, a 5-year long pooled fund research project was initiated and funded by 6 states, including Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, New York, Pennsylvania and Texas. By the completion of the project, the states of Iowa, Kansas, North Carolina and South Dakota had also joined the project.... ...Burnham, Thomas
2.Colored Concrete Study 2014
Colored concrete can provide many benefits to pavement, such as improved aesthetics and safety. However, several recently constructed colored concrete pavements in Minnesota have experienced a considerable amount of early joint deterioration. Determining the cause for such deterioration is difficult, as there is very little knowledge in the literature on the performance of the material, especially in relation to its durability. Many different techniques have been used for obtaining colored concrete, such as granular pigments, acid dyes and stains, and dry shake powders. The various materials used to add color are all expected to influence the material properties of concrete differently.... ...Burnham, Thomas
3.Hot Mix Asphalt Surface Characteristics Related to Ride, Texture , Friction, Noise and Durability2014-072014
The objective of this investigation was to develop a model to predict on-board sound intensity (OBSI) on hot mix asphalt pavements using on-site and laboratory data. The data used included noise and physical property data collected on 25 asphalt-surfaced roadway test sections at the MnROAD pavement testing facility. These test sections were constructed mainly in 2007 and 2008 using a variety of materials, mixtures and layer thicknesses. A modeling approach called the mechanism decomposition approach was used to develop the models. In this approach, the contributions of different noise mechanisms to the overall noise level and to noise in certain frequency ranges are modeled separately then are combined to form the total noise spectrum. Ultimately, two nonlinear statistical models were developed that predict one-third octave band and overall sound intensity levels on asphalt-surfaced pavements. The models incorporate the pavement parameters that were found to have the most significant effects on tire-pavement noise including pavement macrotexture, air temperature, modulus of the pavement surface layer, and the combined effect of temperature and modulus. The models differ in the type of texture data used as an input parameter. The models have been found to predict the overall OBSI sound intensity level to within 1.5 dB and the onethird octave bands to within 2 dB for most of the pavements tested. Other metrics and evaluation of the model accuracy by cell, year, temperature and other factors are also reported. The models are provided in an Excel spreadsheet....Tire/pavement noise, Sound intensity, Asphalt pavements, Texture...Dare, Tyler; McDaniel, Rebecca; Shah, Ayesha; Bernhard, Robert
4.Micro-Milling 2014
Micro-milling provides an innovative way to rehabilitate asphalt pavements. Micro-milling uses a milling drum with more teeth and a tighter lacing pattern to create a smoother surface than the traditional milling process (about 3 times the teeth than regular milling heads). The smoother surface provides a better surface for thin overlays, ultra-thin bonded wearing course (UTBWC), chip seals, and microsurfacing.... ...Cole, Melissa; Geib, Jerry
5.Monitoring of Pervious Concrete Streets in City of Shoreview 2014
Storm-water runoff from the Woodbridge neighborhood of the City of Shoreview had previously been managed through culverts and other hydraulic structures. In adherence to the Clean Water Act, many watersheds instituted limits to the percentage of storm water that may be allowed into certain lakes and rivers. To minimize this run-off and the associated impacts and in accordance with the City’s sustainable design policy, the City of Shoreview built the Woodbridge neighborhood local roads using pervious concrete pavements in 2008. Pervious concrete pavements exhibit high hydraulic conductivity and high sound absorption coefficient in local or low volume roads. They also provide cost savings through the minimization of hydraulic structures.... ...Izevbekhai, Bernard
6.Recycled Asphalt Pavement Case Study: Effect of Asphalt Binder PG and RAP on Field Performance over Nine Years 2014
St. Louis County performed two HMA reconstructions on portions of County State Aid Highways during 2004 and 2005; CSAH 4 south of Biwabik, and CSAH 16 east of US Highway 53. The county saw differences in initial cracking performance and identified the two roads as potential research sections in 2005. Both projects were HMA reconstructions consisting of two 12-ft driving lanes with 6-ft shoulders. 24 in. of select granular modified (less than 7 percent passing the #200 sieve) was placed above the natural soil, followed by 6 in. of class 5 base material, and 5.5 in. of bituminous pavement. The bituminous pavement was constructed as 2.5 in. base lift, 1.5 in. binder lift, and 1.5 in. wear course lift. The recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) for the two projects all came from CSAH 16 millings. Bituminous mixtures were designed using Marshall MV criteria.... ...Johnson, Eddie
7.Design and Construction Guidlines for Thermally Insulated Concrete Pavements2013-022013
The report describes the construction and design of composite pavements as a viable design strategy to use an asphalt concrete (AC) wearing course as the insulating material and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) structural layer as the load-carrying material. These pavements are intended for areas with heavy trucks and problem soils to increase the service life and minimize maintenance. The project focused specifically on thermally insulated concrete pavements (TICPs) (that is, composite thin AC overlays of new or structurally sound existing PCC pavements) and developed design and construction guidelines for TICPs. Specific research objectives include determining behavior of the layers of the TICP system, understanding life-cycle costs and the feasibility of TICPs, and incorporating the results into design and construction guidelines. Both construction and design guidelines are considered in light of the construction and performance of TICP test sections at the Minnesota Road Research project (MnROAD)....Composite pavements, Asphalt pavements, Concrete pavements, Pavement design, Paving, Highway engineering...Khazanovich, Lev; Johanneck, Luke; Marasteanu, Mihai; Tompkins, Derek; Watson, Mark; Balbo, Jose; Lederle, Rita; Saxena, Priyam; Vancura, Mary; Harvey, John; Santero, Nicholas; Signore; James
8.Development of a Concrete Maturity Test Protocol2013-102013
An extensive field and laboratory project was undertaken to evaluate the applicability for using the concrete maturity method to predict opening to traffic criteria for portland cement concrete paving operations in Minnesota. The field study included visits to18 paving projects in the state over a three-year period. At these projects, different sensor types were evaluated. In the laboratory study, two-inch mortar cubes were tested to develop sensitivity analyses related to the proportions of cementitious materials, water-cementitious materials ratio, and other mix components. The study also evaluated different mathematical models and their ability to predict concrete strength relative to the computed maturity. In addition, a database of concrete mixes and their associated maturity curves were developed as well as a spreadsheet for viewing maturity curves and entering new information into the database. A draft laboratory manual and a construction specification for creating and using maturity curves were developed. The results of this project include recommendations for maturity equipment, the method and ages for testing flexural beams when developing and validating maturity curves, the use of the exponential model for maturity curves, and suggestions for a construction specification and a laboratory manual. Further data collection and evaluation should be conducted by MnDOT as the method is implemented into standard practice. Appropriate modifications should then be made to ensure the method’s ability to predict traffic opening and to enhance the effectiveness of paving operations....Pavements, Concrete, Maturity method, Maturity curve, Strength, Specification, Concrete hardening, Concrete tests...Wilde, James
9.Improving HMA Longitudinal Joints through Construction, Preventive Maintenance and Repair 2013
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) is currently conducting a research project aimed at reducing longitudinal joint (L JT) deterioration in hot mixed asphalt (HMA) pavements through improved construction techniques, preventive maintenance practices, and repair treatments. Constructing durable HMA pavements, with adequate (L JT) performance, has been well documented and extensively researched, however preventive maintenance and repair treatments specific for (L JT) have received little attention in the literature.... ...Geib, Jerry
10.Instrumentation of Navistar Truck for Data Collection2013-012013
The overarching goal of this project was to instrument the new MnDOT Navistar truck used at MN Road. A rugged data acquisition, data recording and wireless transmission system was established for collection of various sensor signals from the truck. The truck was instrumented with a suite of 20 accelerometers, with these accelerometers being located both on the five axles of the truck and on the tractor and trailer bodies. In addition, the truck was instrumented with a differential GPS system and an inertial measurement unit in the tractor cab. A cRIO-based data acquisition system, a rugged laptop and Labview software together serve as a flexible platform for data acquisition. A wireless communication system has been established to communicate trigger signals to roadside cabinets when the truck is at desired GPS locations on the road. Data recording by in-pavement sensors is triggered by this system. Software has also been set up for automatic downloading of data from the truck to a server on the network at MN Road. The experimental performance of the developed system has been verified by multiple tests conducted by the research team. The above instrumentation of the truck will enable data collection on truck vibrations, enable analysis of correlations between truck vibrations and variations in signals of weigh-inmotion sensors, and enable recording of truck movements and pavement loads at MnROAD....Trucks, In vehicle sensors, Instrumentation...Alexander, Lee; Phanomchoeng, Gridsada; Rajamani, Rajesh
11.International Comparison of Flexible Pavement Design (Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Minnesota) 2013
The goal of this research is to investigate each agencies current design method to discover similarities and differences in the way each agency designs and builds roadways for both low and high volume roads. Each agency was given design specific inputs of common climate, traffic, and existing subgrade soil (from MnROAD) and was asked to develop a design based on current design practice/standards. This paper documented the differences in construction, materials, and expectations on performance to provide and will provide a bases for future agency discussion. The initial survey contained more information that could be covered in this paper. Future goals could include the additional information for other research topics, developing possible test sections, and again to provide a common point of discussion for future efforts. This work also builds off of the efforts started with the NVF34/Nord FOU concept at the 2007 Iceland workshop....Mechanistic Pavement Flexible Design, Hot Mix Asphalt, Low Volume Road...Worel, Ben; Geib, Gerard; Winnerholt, T.; Wendel, M.; Baklokk, L.; Saba, L.; Erlingsson, S.; Sigursteinsson, H.; Gudmundsson, H.
12.Performance of Ultra Thin Bonded Wear Course Case Study: Interstate 35 Southbound, Mile Post 18 to 12 2013
This review was part of ongoing research to determine how Bituminous over Concrete (BOC) pavement cracks, and how to reduce or eliminate cracking of the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) overlay. View the complete field report from 2008 at: www.mrr.dot.state.mn.us/research/pdf/2008MRRDOC036.pdf... ...Wood, Thomas
13.Recycled Asphalt Pavement: Study of High RAP Mixtures for County Roads 2013
For the purposes of this project, the term “high RAP” refers to mixtures with more than 30% reclaimed asphalt pavement. Objectives were to: gather information on how RAP asphalt is activated when mixed with aggregate during plant production and in lab trial mixing, to research the performance of local roadways built with typical RAP levels, and to develop high-RAP mixtures and test them for low-temperature performance.... ...Johnson, Eddie
14.Recycled Asphalt Pavement: Study of High-RAP Asphalt Mixtures on Minnesota County Roads2013-152013
"This report summarizes lessons learned about the field performance of local roads containing Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and associated field and laboratory work with asphalt activation as well as the design and performance testing of high-RAP bituminous mixtures. Transverse cracking performance of Minnesota county highways averaging 20-26% RAP was improved when PG 52-34 binder was selected over PG 58-28 or other binder grades. Testing of the activation of RAP asphalt binder in plant and laboratory settings showed that coarse aggregates from plant mixing achieved a more uniform coating and were subjected to less abrasion than those from laboratory mixing. Low temperature testing of laboratory mixture designs containing up to 55% RAP, and new-to-total asphalt cement ratios as low as 43%, found that indirect tensile test (IDT) creep stiffness increased along with RAP content. IDT critical temperature results showed that the addition of RAP significantly increased the critical temperature, predicting less crack resistance. Semi-circular bend fracture testing showed that the addition of RAP lowered the fracture energy and increased the fracture toughness of the mixtures, and the highest RAP contents had the most reduced fracture performace."...Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP), Recycled materials, Binder Activation, Bituminous binders, SCB fracture, IDT creep, IDT strength, Tensile tests, Bend tests...Johnson, Eddie; Watson, Mark; Olson, Roger; Moon, Ki Hoon; Turos, Mugurel; Marasteanu, Mihai
15.Responses and Performance of Stabilized Full-Depth Reclaimed Pavements at the Minnesota Road Research Facility 2013
This paper details the construction and analysis of three stabilized fulldepth reclamation (SFDR) sections (Cells 2, 3, and 4) constructed at the Minnesota Road Research Facility on I-94 in 2008. Three test sections with different ratios of pulverized asphalt concrete to granular base were constructed, and the performance of full-depth reclaimed pavements stabilized with engineered emulsion was studied. Emulsion content and base structure varied between test sections. Each test section was designed for 3.5 million equivalent single-axle loads for a period of 5 years. As of June 30, 2012, the sections had been subjected to approximately 2.2 million such loads. Responses were measured with strain gauges embedded at the bottom of the hot-mix asphalt and SFDR layers in each test section. The strain gauges indicated that the bottom of both the hot-mix asphalt and the SFDR layers was subject to horizontal tensile strain from falling weight deflectometer testing and heavy vehicle loading. Pavement performance for rutting, cracking, and international roughness index was measured periodically. The results indicated that all three cells were performing well. The only crack in the three cells was in Cell 3; the roughness index values were well within the acceptable range and rutting, although progressing, was still acceptable. The paper concludes with modeled responses and performance predictions from DARWinME and BISAR. Model predictions indicate that an SFDR layer will provide greater structural benefits and increased performance than will similar structures with unstabilized full-depth reclaimed or granular base layers.... ...Johanneck, Luke; Shongtao, Dai
16.Stripping Under Chip Seals LRRB Project No. 904 2013
Stripping under the chip seal has been observed for more than twenty years; however recently, MnDOT has received increased reports of stripping of the upper ½ to 1 inch of hot mixed asphalt (HMA) pavements under chip seal surface treatments. The distress usually starts out as a small blister and develops to small potholes, at which point the chip seal delaminates from the pavement. This distress is an expensive maintenance problem. This appears to happen mainly on curb and gutter streets.... ...Wood, Thomas
17.Stripping of Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements under Chip Seals2013-082013
"The higher costs of hot-mix asphalt pavement are causing more agencies to choose pavement preservation techniques to maintain their pavements. Some agencies have experienced stripping of the asphalt surface under chip seals, this distress appears to occur mostly in urban areas on curb and gutter streets. The main objective of the study was to determine what causes the stripping and to develop test methods to determine if the street will strip prior to placement of the chip seal. Both field and lab methods were used. Research focused on determining air voids, permeability, and density of the samples. Once these were determined, correlations were developed to determine the conclusions."...Chip seals, Stripping (Pavements), Air voids, Density, Pavements, Permeability, Preservation...Wood, Thomas; Cole, Melissa
18.Subsurface Joint Deterioration Detection: A MnROAD Blind Test Comparison of Ultrasound Array Technology with Conventional Nondestructive Methods 2013
This paper presents the results of a blind test evaluation of various nondestructive testing techniques including well established methods such as chain dragging, rod sounding, and GPR as compared to an emerging ultrasonic array technology in determining the extent of the concrete joint deterioration. Nondestructive testing at two concrete pavement joints at MnROAD was performed and the results were independently evaluated and submitted to MnDOT. Significant discrepancies in subsurface deterioration assessments were observed among these techniques. Forensic evaluation (trenching and coring) were utilized to resolve the discrepancies in test results. It was concluded that the ultrasound array analysis was the only method able to accurately determine the horizontal extent of the deterioration otherwise undetected by the other available nondestructive evaluation methods. Additionally, ultrasonic tomography analysis was able to determine the depth of the deterioration. This makes this emerging technology an attractive alternative to traditional NDT methods for concrete pavement joint assessment.... ...Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev; Worel, Ben; Yu, Thomas
19.The Effect of Joint Sealing on the Performance of Thin Whitetopping Sections at MnROAD 2013
Bonded concrete overlays over existing asphalt pavements, also known as “whitetopping,” are becoming an increasingly popular rehabilitation solution for many agencies. As with any rehabilitation technique, it is important to understand and incorporate cost effective features that will insure long lasting performance. Since the long term performance of thin whitetopping is reliant on a strong bond to the underlying asphalt, it is important to protect that bond for as long as possible. The primary way to reduce bond degradation is by keeping water away from the surface of the underlying asphalt. This is typically done by filling or sealing the contraction and panel edge joints with liquid (“hot-pour”) asphalt sealant. Due to the thin slab designs typically used for whitetoppings, panel sizes need to be smaller, thereby resulting in many more joints than in typical concrete pavements. With today’s restricted budgets, owners and engineers must consider whether the sealing or filling of joints in whitetopping provides an economic benefit.... ...Burnham, Thomas
20.Comparison of Measured and Predicted Response of Six MnROAD Asphalt Test Sections 2012
The study, sponsored by MnROAD, aimed to compare the measured and predicted values of strains and stresses for six cells 33, 34, 35, 77, 78 and 79 of the third MnROAD experiments. Cells 33, 34 and 35 were constructed for studying the polyphosphoric acid study while cells 77, 78 and 79 for the fly-ash stabilization study, during 2007. Each cell is instrumented with three transverse strain gauges and three longitudinal strain gauges at the bottom of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) layer while three pressure cells were located at the top of the subgrade layer to measure vertical compressive stress.... ...Nagarajan, Veni
21.Full Depth Reclamation 2012
Full Depth Reclamation (FDR) is the process of pulverizing a roadway’s flexible pavement section and a portion of its underlying base, and crushing and blending the recovered material to create a uniform base material.... ...Watson, Mark; Dai, Shongtao; Beaudry, Terry
22.In-Place Pavement Recycling Implementation 2012
MnDOT is currently implementing in-place recycling techniques as a maintenance and rehabilitation strategy for bituminous pavement structures. The techniques being employed include: Full Depth Reclamation (FDR), Bituminous Stabilized Full Depth Reclamation (SFDR), and Cold In-Place (Partial Depth) Recycling (CIR). In-place recycling of bituminous pavements has been used in Minnesota for more than ten years at the local level, longer in other parts of the country and the world. MnDOT has constructed 10 state projects since 2010 using a variety of processes and stabilizing additives.... ...Watson, Mark; Beaudry, Terry; Shongtao, Dai
23.Investigation of Low Temperature Cracking in Asphalt Pavements National Pooled Fund Study - Phase II2012-232012
The work detailed in this report represents a continuation of the research performed in phase one of this national pooled fund study. A number of significant contributions were made in phase two of this comprehensive research effort. Two fracture testing methods are proposed and specifications are developed for selecting mixtures based on fracture energy criteria. A draft SCB specification, that received approval by the ETG and has been taken to AASHTO committee of materials, is included in the report. In addition, alternative methods are proposed to obtain mixture creep compliance needed to calculate thermal stresses. Dilatometric measurements performed on asphalt mixtures are used to more accurately predict thermal stresses, and physical hardening effects are evaluated and an improved model is proposed to take these effects into account. In addition, two methods for obtaining asphalt binder fracture properties are summarized and discussed. A new thermal cracking model, called “ILLI-TC,” is developed and validated. This model represents a significant step forward in accurately quantifying the cracking mechanism in pavements, compared to the existing TCMODEL. A comprehensive evaluation of the cyclic behavior of asphalt mixtures is presented, that may hold the key to developing cracking resistant mixtures under multiple cycles of temperature....Low temperature cracking, Asphalt mixtures, Asphalt binders, Fracture properties, Thermal stresses, Temperature fatigue, Fatigue (Mechanics), Strength of materials, Creep properties, Contraction (Thermodynamics), Thermal expansion, Materials at high or low temperatures, Pavement cracking...Marasteanu, Mihai; Buttlar, William; Bahia, Hussian; Williams, Christopher
24.Minnesota Concrete Flatwork Specifications 2012
This specification includes the requirements for the construction of concrete flatwork including pavements, curb and gutter, sidewalks, driveways, and aprons. When using these specifications, designers need to pick one or more of the following as additional bid items for additional quality improvements: concrete field testing, smoothness, maturity testing for strength, and enhanced aggregate qualities. Also the designer needs to decide which testing rate will be used on a project from either Table 5 or 6 of these specifications.... ...Frentress, Daniel; Grothaus, Jim;
25.MnDOT Furthers Pavement Micro Surfacing Research 2012
Minnesota’s Department of Transportationcontinues its practicalresearch of pavement preser vationtechniques with the recent demonstrationof micro surfacing containing emulsifiedhighly polymer modified asphalt (HiMA) on a section of Trunk Highway 23.ASTECH Corporation of St. Joseph, Minn.,applied the micro surfacing on a one-mile sectionof the two-lane highway near the city of St. Cloud, the county seat of Stearns County and thelargest population center in the state's central region. Bisected by the Mississippi River, St. Cloud isa regional transportation hub in Minnesota, with major roadways including Interstate Highway 94,U.S. Highway 10, and Minnesota State Highways (Trunk Highways) 15 and 23 passing through themunicipality.Located about 65 miles northwest of Minneapolis-St. Paul, the city of St. Cloud lies within MnDOT’s District 3, which has the largest population base outside of the Twin Cities metropolitan area.District 3 encompasses all or part of 14 counties, and its personnel plan, design, construct and maintainroughly 1,650 centerline miles (nearly 4000 lane miles) of Interstate, U.S. and trunk highways.... ...Fournier, Paul
26.MnROAD Data Release User Guide 2012
MnROAD, located near Albertville, Minnesota (40 miles northwest of Minneapolis-St. Paul) is one of the most sophisticated, independently operated pavement test facilities of its type in the world. MnROAD has collected data since 1993 on three unique road segments located parallel to Interstate 94.... ...Worel, Ben; Clyne, Tim; Burnham, Thomas
27.MnROAD Study of RAP and Fractionated RAP 2012
This report summarizes lessons learned about the field and laboratory performance of the Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and Fractionated Recycled Asphalt Pavement (FRAP) test cells at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) between 2008 and 2012. The project scope included: developing specifications for FRAP, construction of FRAP and RAP test cells at MnROAD, field performance evaluations, and laboratory testing of binders and mixtures. The project that monitored 11 test cells....Recycled materials, Asphalt tests, MnROAD...Johnson, Eddie; Watson, Mark; Clyne, Timothy
28.Mower County Bridge Instrumentation 2012
It is not often well enough noted when research techniques and practices cross over into real- world problem solving, bringing purpose and practice together in a pragmatic fashion. Research and practice do rely on each other for informative construction techniques and real- world application, whether successful or not, but they are separated by the bulk of time required for research to be verified and implemented and the necessity to practice road construction and repair in a concurrent manner. Recently though, a unique case involving a bridge, some fresh-poured concrete and a petulant flash- flood helped to spectacularly showcase how ongoing research projects, such as MnROAD, can help to effectively, practically and pragmatically solve situational crisis around the state of Minnesota.... ...Palek, Len
29.Porous Asphalt Performance in a Cold Climate 2012
Porous Asphalt Pavement is an emerging technology in the United States. It consists of standard bituminous asphalt with reduced fine particles and high (20 %) void content. The high porosity of the mix allows water to penetrate directly through the pavement surface. Beneath the pavement, a uniformly-graded stone bed allows water storage and slow infiltration into the subgrade soils. Filter fabric installed between the stone bed and the subgrade prevents migration of fine particles upward and contamination of the stone storage layer. Potential benefits of Porous Asphalt are compelling. The reduction of stormwater runoff peak and total flow volume may greatly decrease the need for water mitigation structures, ponds, and associated right-of-way. Water quality may be improved by the tendency of the porous pavement to bind and contain heavy metals and other contaminates and by preventing immediate runoff into surface water sources. Safety is improved with reduced water spray and ponding. Vehicle noise is also significantly reduced with porous pavements.... ...Lebens, Matthew
30.Recycled Asphalt Pavement: MnROAD Study of RAP and Fractionated RAP Project Summary –January 2013 2012
This project evaluated the field and laboratory performance of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and Fractionated Recycled Asphalt Pavement (FRAP) test cells at the Minnesota Road Research project (MnROAD) between 2008 and 2012. Project scope included: developing specifications, construction of FRAP and RAP test cells at MnROAD, field performance evaluations, and laboratory testing of binders and mixtures on 11 test cells.... ...Johnson, Ed
31.Recycled Unbound Materials2012-352012
The objective of this project was to characterize the properties of crushed recycled concrete (RCA) and asphalt pavement (RAP) as unbound base without being stabilized, to assess how RCA and RAP behave in the field and to determine how pavements can be designed using RCA and RAP. Issues to be considered include variability in material properties, purity of material, climatic effects, how to identify and control material quality, and leaching characteristics. This project included laboratory specimen and large-scale model tests and evaluation of field data from MnROAD test sections constructed using recycled materials. To identify the characteristics of RAP and RCA typically available in different parts of the country, samples were obtained from eight states: California, Colorado, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, Ohio, Texas, and Wisconsin covering a geographically diverse area. A conventional base course was used as a control material. The extensive investigation undertaken on RCA and RAP indicate that these materials are generally suitable for unbound base course applications and they show equal or superior performance characteristics compared to natural aggregates in terms of stiffness, freeze-thaw and wet-dry durability, and toughness. Their typical compositional and mechanical properties and their variability are defined in this study providing a basis for design considerations. Their relative differences from natural aggregate such as temperature sensitivity, plastic deformations, and water absorption and retention characteristics are also well established. It is noted that some RAP may be sensitive to temperature change that may lead to rutting. This aspect needs to be considered in design....Recycled materials, Concrete aggregates, Freeze thaw tests, Wetting and drying tests, Modulus of resilience, Plastic deformation, Compaction, Thermal stresses, Impurities, Brick, Durability, Experiments, Reflectometers, Hydraulic properties, Water retention, Leaching...Edil, Tuncer; Benson, Craig; Tinjum, James
32.Rolling Resistance Measurements at the MnROAD Facility2012-072012
The Minnesota Department of Transportation and Minnesota State University, Mankato, contracted with the Technical University of Gdansk, in Poland, to conduct rolling resistance at the MnROAD facility near Albertville, Minnesota. While the rolling resistance testing was conducted on all cells of the MnROAD mainline, the primary objective relative to this project was to obtain the rolling resistance data for Cells 7, 8, and 9 – the Portland cement concrete pavement cells with conventional and two innovative diamond grinding applications. The research team from Poland conducted the testing for a week in the middle of September, 2011. All cells on the MnROAD mainline were tested, as well as one off-site location (US 212 near Shakopee, Minnesota). The collected rolling resistance data were analyzed and are presented in this report. Additional analyses that were conducted include a comparison of the rolling resistance data to surface texture, friction, and noise. Some of the comparisons are not consistent with those measured on other pavement surfaces (in Europe), but the authors present some possible reasons for the differences....Materials by surface characteristics, Diamond grinding, Rolling resistance, Tire/pavement noise, Texture, Pavement friction, Friction, Ride quality, Pavements...Ejsmont, Jerzy; Ronowski, Grzegorz; Wilde, James
33.Structural Evaluation of Asphalt Pavements with Full-Depth Reclaimed Base2012-362012
Currently, MnDOT pavement design recommends granular equivalency, GE = 1.0 for non-stabilized full-depth reclamation (FDR) material, which is equivalent to class 5 material. For stabilized full-depth reclamation (SFDR), there was no guideline for GE at the time this project was initiated (2009). Some local engineers believe that GE of FDR material should be greater than 1.0 (Class 5), especially for SFDR. In addition, very little information is available on seasonal effects on FDR base, especially on SFDR base. Because it is known from laboratory studies that SFDR contains less moisture and has higher stiffness (modulus) than aggregate base, it is assumed that SFDR should be less susceptible to springtime thawing. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests were performed on seven selected test sections on county roads in Minnesota over a period of three years. During spring thaw of each year, FWD testing was conducted daily during the first week of thawing in an attempt to capture spring thaw weakening of the aggregate base. After the spring thaw period, FWD testing was conducted monthly to study base recovery and stiffness changes through the seasons. GE of SFDR was estimated using a method established by MnDOT using FWD deflections, and the GE of SFDR is about 1.5. The value varies from project to project as construction and material varies from project to project. All the materials tested showed seasonal effects on stiffness. In general, the stiffness is weaker in spring than that in summer and fall....Full-depth reclamation, Stabilized full-depth reclamation, Falling weight deflectometers, backcalculation, granular equivalency...Tang, Shuling; Cao, Yuejian; Labuz, Joseph
34.2011 MnROAD Reconstruction and Repairs 2011
MnDOT developed the plans and specifications to reconstruct three different pavement sections and repair another at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) during the 2011 construction season. The concrete construction contract was awarded to C.S. McCrossan and work began August 1, 2011 and concluded mid September 2011. The stabilized full depth reclaimation (SFDR) project was awarded to Midstate Reclamation and work began August 29, 2011 and finished in early September.... ...Cole, Melissa
35.Acoustic Perception in Pavement Rating 2011
A study examined thirty one pavement test sections in the Minneapolis St Paul area to determine if tire pavement noise (OBSI) from the pavement surface affects perception of pavement smoothness (MPR). Forty six volunteers rode as passengers in 2010 Chevrolet Malibu sedans over the contiguous ½ mile long rigid or flexible pavement test sections scoring MPR. Results of MPR were compared to the International Roughness Index (IRI) measured with the digital inspection vehicle at the same time. The AASHTO TP 76-09 procedure for OBSI procedure for near field measurement was used to measure tire pavement noise. Using statistical analysis and tests, the MPR and OBSI were examined for correlation of the latter to anomalies in the former. OBSI did not seem to explain anomalies in MPR referenced from measured IRI. However, the sequencing of the test sections for the ride survey appeared to have influenced some of the ratings of some test sections. Moreover there was some evidence of correlation of IRI and MPR to OBSI.... ...Izevbekhai, Bernard; Nelson, Tim
36.Acoustic Properties of Clogged Pervious Concrete Pavements 2011
Minnesota Department of Transportation and many municipalities in Minnesota have built sidewalks city streets, low volume roads, boat ramps and parking lots with pervious concrete. Since 2005 when the first pervious concrete initiative was constructed at the MnROAD facility, three test cells have been constructed, monitored and maintained. Paradoxically, non pervious pavements are similar to pervious pavements in their requirements for drainability for durability. However pervious concrete requires that the voids should be connected and free of clogging agents for durability of conductive and acoustic properties. The effect of clogging and the characteristics of pervious concrete, clogged with various agents are examined. Desirable acoustic absorption and hydraulic conductivity are reduced when pervious concrete is clogged and may be restored with adequate maintenance practices. ...Pervious, Acoustic, Tortuosity, Clogging, Sound absorption....Izevbekhai, Bernard
37.Composite Pavements at MnROAD: Cells 70, 71 and 72 Construction Report and Early Performance Evaluation 2011
This paper summarized the construction and early performance assessment of three composite test cells at the MnROAD: Cell 70, HMA over a recycled aggregate concrete; Cell 71, diamond grind concrete over recycled aggregate concrete; and Cell 72, exposed aggregate concrete over a low cost concrete. The construction of cells 70, 71 and 72 was part of R21 Composite Pavement project of SHRP 2. Although composite pavement systems have become extremely popular in Europe, they are a relatively new concept to the United States. Strength, on board sound intensity, sound absorption, friction, texture and international roughness index were tested. Results suggest that the exposed aggregate concrete surface does not provide significant noise reduction. Innovative diamond grinding of composite pavements may be beneficial for noise reduction. Exposed aggregate surfacing can provide more than adequate friction for driver safety, but does not show any improvement from typical HMA or diamond ground surfaces. Exposed aggregate surfaces have a similar texture (or mean profile depth) to traditional diamond ground surfaces, but may detrimental to ride quality. Continued monitoring of these test cells will help develop the wide understanding of composite pavement performance needed for more effective design and accurate service life models.... ...Akkari, Alexandra; Izevbekhai, Bernard
38.Concrete Delivery Time Study2011-262011
The MnDOT Concrete Transit Time Study is intended to evaluate the influence of concrete delivery time by measuring material properties from laboratory-batched concrete with different materials and admixtures. The laboratory test results will be used to develop a field testing and evaluation program. The field portion of the study will evaluate materials and admixture from ready mix plants in each region of the state. This will aid in the determination of whether there are any regional issues that need to be taken into account if the transit time specification is lengthened....Extended transit time, Travel time, Durability, Supplementary cementitious materials, SCM, Cement, Replacement, Air, Air content, Hardened air, Slump test, Slump loss, Air loss...Vruno, Daniel
39.Effect of PG XX-34 on Transverse Cracking in Minnesota22072011
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (DOT) adopted the use of performance-graded (PG) asphalt binders in 1997. In 1999 the Minnesota DOT required PG XX-34 binders for all new (not overlay) bituminous construction with the objective of reducing the amount of transverse cracking. Pavement management data were used to track the development of transverse cracking on PG XX-34 projects. The transverse cracking rate of the PG XX-34 projects was then compared with the cracking rates for similar projects from the pre-PG era. The comparison found that after 7 years of service, transverse cracks on the PG projects were developing at approximately 1/10th the rate experienced before performance grading was implemented.... ...Lukanen, Erland
40.Effects of Implements of Husbandry (Farm Equipment) on Pavement Performance2012-082011
The effects of farm equipment on the structural behavior of flexible and rigid pavements were investigated in this study. The project quantified the difference in pavement behavior caused by heavy farm equipment as compared to a typical 5-axle, 80 kip semi-truck. This research was conducted on full scale pavement test sections designed and constructed at the Minnesota Road Research facility (MnROAD). The testing was conducted in the spring and fall seasons to capture responses when the pavement is at its weakest state and when agricultural vehicles operate at a higher frequency, respectively. The flexible pavement sections were heavily instrumented with strain gauges and earth pressure cells to measure essential pavement responses under heavy agricultural vehicles, whereas the rigid pavement sections were instrumented with strain gauges and linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs). The full scale testing data collected in this study were used to validate and calibrate analytical models used to predict relative damage to pavements. The developed procedure uses various inputs (including axle weight, tire footprint, pavement structure, material characteristics, and climatic information) to determine the critical pavement responses (strains and deflections). An analysis was performed to determine the damage caused by various types of vehicles to the roadway when there is a need to move large amounts agricultural product....Load limits, Damage, Stress, Strain, Axle loads, Instrumented pavement, MnROAD, Full scale testing, Failure, Pavement distress, Flexible pavements, Rigid pavements, Farm vehicles, Prototype tests, Strain gages...Lim, Jason; Azary, Andrea; Khazanovich, Lev; Wang, Shiyun; Kim, Sunghwan; Ceylan, Halil; Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan
41.Evaluation of Skid Resistance of Turf Drag Textured Concrete Pavements2011-122011
Dragging a broom or an inverted piece of AstroTurf in the longitudinal direction currently textures concrete pavements built in Minnesota. The macro-texture is specified to have a mean texture depth of 1 millimeter measured by the Sand Volumetric Technique (ASTM E 965). Newly textured pavements are usually evaluated for adequacy in providing a safe riding surface through texture measurements for acceptance and friction measurements as required. The current Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)’s Technical Advisory on texture requires that performance of non-convention textures be monitored and reported....Friction, Concrete pavements, Skid resistance, Texture, Hysteresis, Adhesion, AstroTurf, Chi square test, Nonparametric analysis, Mann-Whitney Z test...Nelson, Tim
42.Evaluation of a Polyvinyl Alcohol Fiber Reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composite for a Thin-Bonded Pavement Overlay2011-112011
A need arose at the MnROAD research facility to provide a thin beam structural overlay on a moderately deteriorated concrete pavement test cell. This research was done to evaluate a polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composite (PVA-ECC) and assess the prospects to utilize the material in the bonded pavement overlay. PVA-ECC is a ductile material that can achieve extremely high flexural strength and tensile strain capacity, characteristics which can prevent reflective cracking in pavement. The PVA-ECC mix was tailored by including coarse aggregate to maintain some of the benefits of typical concrete pavements. Workability, flexural and compressive strength, ductility and durability tests were done to assess the performance at varying fiber contents. Results show that fiber at 16 lbs/cy achieved the highest flexural and compressive strength, at 1030 and 6910 psi respectively. The paired student’s t-test shows that 16 lbs/cy of fiber can improve flexural strength by between 150 and 300 psi with 95% confidence. This small increase and lack of any noticeable ductile behavior do not make the PVA-ECC beneficial for overlay applications. This research found that the modified PVA-ECC with the low doses of fiber examined in this study are not suitable for the overlay at MnROAD....Polyvinyl alcohol fiber, Smart materials, Engineered cementitious composite, Pavement performance, Flexible pavements, Concrete overlays, Thin-bonded overlay...Akkari, Alexandra
43.Friction and Noise Improvement at MnROAD 2011
Construction and evaluation of transverse drag textures and the development of a quiet grinding configuration with sufficient friction are two surface improvement strategies discussed in this paper. With the growing interest in quiet pavements, prospects for post-construction acceptance of a concrete pavement surface is minimal unless it provides adequate skid resistance and good ride quality as well as good acoustic properties. Acoustic properties of a transverse brooming alternative to longitudinal brooming improved friction in the drag textures but resulted in increased noise.... ...Izevbekhai, Bernard
44.Improving HMA Longitudinal Joints through Construction, Preventive Maintenance and Repair 2011
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) is currently conducting a research project aimed at reducing longitudinal joint (Ljt) deterioration in hot mixed asphalt (HMA) pavements through improved construction techniques, preventive maintenance practices, and repair treatments. Constructing durable HMA pavements, with adequate Ljt performance, has been well documented and extensively researched, however preventive maintenance and repair treatments specific for Ljt have received little attention in the literature. It is commonly accepted that adequate density is critically important in achieving a durable HMA pavement. Insufficient density, or high air voids, usually results from the difficulty of compacting an unconfined pavement edge, and the localized area of low density creates a density gradient. Pavements with lower densities can have more interconnected air voids, leaving them more susceptible to moisture and environmental deterioration resulting in distresses such as weathering and raveling.... ...Watson, Mark; Geib, Jerry
45.Installation and Early Field Performance of Mastic Patches on City Streets2010-122011
Problem: The transition from winter to spring is normally causes the formation of potholes and other distresses as streets and highways weaken and adjust to warmer conditions. At times the extent of this seasonal deterioration can be so vast that maintenance crews are required to give full-time attention to the problem. Patching with asphalt mix often continues, or is repeated, as the seasons pass from spring to fall. Solution: The goal of the study was to compare the performance of several mastic products versus bituminous patching. In the spring of 2011, the cities of Bloomington and Minnetonka, Minnesota collaborated on a field investigation of the installation and field performance, of two “mastic” patching materials along with standard patches that were applied at the same time.... ...Tschida, Larry; Struve, Tom; Johnson, Ed
46.Laser Induced Roughness in Drag and Box car configurations 2011
Some improvements made over the single laser equipped accelerometers often used in light weight profilers include the triple point laser (TriODs) and the line (Roline) laser. In the specifications for post-construction pavement smoothness acceptance of concrete pavements, a distinction is not made of the type of laser to be used. However preliminary research shows a consistent disparity between the TriODs generated roughness index and the line laser generated roughness index in most concrete textures. Moreover in certain longitudinal box car configurations including the quiet innovative diamond grind configurations, the two data sets are significantly different. Construction induced skewness and waviness as well as squirm phenomena trigger effective lateral traversing of these longitudinal textures, causing anomalous IRI when the single or triple laser is used.... ...Izevbekhai, Bernard; Lukanen, Erland
47.MnDOT Trial Seeks to Reduce Pavement Cracks 2011
The Minnesota Department ofTransportation (MnDOT) hastaken aim at cracked pavementswith a new highly modified asphaltmix.MnDOT sanctioned the installation ofhot mix asphalt modified with a high concentrationof a new type of polymer ona section of Trunk Highway 100 westof Minneapolis, to see if the advancedproduct could reduce a certain type ofpavement cracking.“The 12.5 millimeter Superpave mix we’ve been using for our mill-and-fill operations has done agood job of reducing thermal cracking , but we need a way to reduce reflection cracks,” said Jerry Geib,MnDOT research operations engineer.As a member of the Federal Highway Administration’s Pavement Preservation Expert Task Groupand Midwestern Pavement Preservation Partnership (MPPP), Geib learned about a series of planned field demonstrations of thin-lift asphalt overlay incorporating highly polymer-modified liquid asphaltbinder (HiMA). The demonstrations were to be held by the Northeast Pavement Preservation Partnership(NEPPP), which, like MPPP, is a regional partnership dedicated to advancing pavement preservationpractices through education, research and outreach.... ...Fournier, Paul
48.MnROAD Brochure 2011
MnROAD, located near Albertville, Minnesota (40 miles northwest of the Twin Cities) is a cold region testing facility and laboratory operated by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) is unique to the world. MnROAD consists of two road segments that are divided into over 50 test cells, each representing various combinations of road-building materials and designs... ...Jensen, Maureen
49.Otta Seal – Thin Bituminous Surfacing Option for Aggregate Roads 2011
An Otta seal is an asphalt surface treatment constructed by placing a graded aggregate on top of a thick ap.plication of relatively soft bituminous binding agent. Minnesota has used emulsified asphalt exclusively (HFMS-2s). The binder works its way into the aggregate with rolling and traffic. In comparison to other surface treatments, material and construction specifications are not as strict. Local aggregates that would not meet the requirements for high quality paving aggregate are often used in Otta seals.... ...Johnson, Ed
50.Pavement Surface Characteristics New Concrete MPR 6-(021)MPR 6-(021)2011
This study examines various new textures and monitors them over time with a litany of standard tests. In the process certain analytic initiatives are performed.... ...Izevbekhai, Bernard
51.Pervious Concrete Test Cells on MnROAD Low-Volume Road2011-232011
Local agencies are interested in pervious pavements ability to reduce storm water runoff by allowing direct infiltration through the pavement structure. However, concerns about the ability of pervious pavements to perform in Minnesota’s extreme climate, maintenance needs, and effect on groundwater quality needed to be understood. This report includes the design, construction, and early performance of three pervious concrete test cells construction at MnROAD in 2008. These cells were constructed to evaluate the performance of pervious concrete pavements on a low-volume road in a cold weather climate. The three cells discussed in this report are as follows: porous concrete overlay, pervious concrete on granular subgrade, pervious concrete on cohesive subgrade. This report has the following chapters, which uniquely discuss each phase of this project: research synthesis; mix design, concept design, and geotechnical exploration; construction sequence; initial testing; hydrologic evaluation; early two year performance; implementation; effect of sound absorption on OBSI; and acoustic properties of clogged pavements....Pervious concrete pavement, Porous concrete, Concrete pavements...Izevbekhai, Bernard; Akkari, Alexandra
52.Pervious Concrete at MnROAD 2011
Pervious pavement provides a solution for many highly developed urban areas where an excessive amount of contaminated water is diverted into storm and sewer systems and left untreated before entering natural water sources such as rivers and streams. By allowing water to flow through the pavement surface and infiltrate the underlying soil, pervious pavements can reduce the amount of this pollution. Test cells were constructed at MnROAD to be monitored for drainability to evaluate the possibility of using pervious pavements to mitigate this problem. Other important criteria influencing the performance of pervious concrete in pavements will also be monitored, including mechanical and structural properties, surface characteristics, noise, and durability.... ...Akkari, Alexandra; Izevbekhai, Bernard
53.Pervious Concrete at MnROAD 2011
Pervious pavement provides a solution for many highly developed urban areas where an excessive amount of contaminated water is diverted into storm and sewer systems and left untreated before entering natural water sources such as rivers and streams. By allowing water to flow through the pavement surface and infiltrate the underlying soil, pervious pavements can reduce the amount of this pollution. Test cells were constructed at MnROAD to be monitored for drainability to evaluate the possibility of using pervious pavements to mitigate this problem. Other important criteria influencing the performance of pervious concrete in pavements will also be monitored, including mechanical and structural properties, surface characteristics, noise, and durability.... ...Akkari, Alexandra; Izevbekhai, Bernard
54.Pressure Aging Vessel and Low-Temperature Properties of Asphalt Binders22072011
The oxidative aging during the service life in asphalt binders used in construction of asphalt pavements significantly affects the performance of these pavements. A study investigating the effect of the pressure aging vessel (PAV) laboratory aging procedure on low-temperature properties of asphalt binders is presented. Bending beam rheometer creep tests and direct tension fracture tests were performed on laboratoryaged binders as well as extracted binders. Significant differences existed between extracted binder and PAV binder behavior at low temperatures. PAV aging was not always detrimental for asphalt binder fracture properties compared with the aging from rolling thin-film oven testing.... ...Teshale, Eyoab; Moon, Ki-Hoon;Turos, Mugurel; Marasteanu, Mihai
55.Response and Performance of Flexible Pavement Test Sections with Stabilized Full Depth Reclamation Base at MnROAD 2011
Three test sections were constructed in 2008 on Interstate 94 at the MnROAD test facility to study pavement performance with stabilized full depth reclamation base using engineered emulsion. Each section used a different emulsion content due to the inherent differences in the sections. Pavement testing, including rut and crack measurements, was performed, along with falling weight deflectometer tests. The three sections had slight increases in rutting from April 2009 to July 2009 but leveled off by September 2009. This was likely due to material consolidation, which is commonly observed for most asphalt pavements immediately after opening to traffic. The amount of rutting is still low, with most of rutting less than 0.15 inches. No cracking has been observed. FWD testing showed the least average deflection occurred in cell 3, but cell 4 was the stiffest material, based on the Area index. Laboratory testing characterized the mechanical properties of the three mixtures. The testing results showed that the mixture used in cell3 has the highest dynamic modulus, slightly greater than cell 4 at most frequencies. Cell 3 also has the best fatigue life, which indicates that this mixture type is probably an optimal design in terms of material strength and performance. Ultimate performance, however, will be determined from field results, dependent on materials and design of all layers and construction quality. The sections were designed for 3.5 million ESALs in five years, and it must be pointed out that the sections are still in early stage of the study and performing well.... ...Dai, Shongtao; Thomas, Todd
56.Sound Absorption - Impedance Tube 2011
The sound absorption test measures the sound absorptiveness of a pavement surface. The sound analyzed is not generated by the interaction of the rolling tire with pavement surface but by noise source above the impedance tube. During the test, the impedance tube is placed on the pavement surface and a set of sensitive microphones are attached to the pre-installed housing at the lower end of the tube. These microphones are also connected to an analyzer. The noise source sends the incident sound energy (white noise) to the surface and the incident and reflected waves are captured by the two microphones. Software analyzes the reflected waves and converts the data to the 3rd octave sound absorption coefficient at 315, 400, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1650 Hertz. Thus, the sound absorption coefficients at each frequency are between one and zero, where a value of one would mean that all of the sound is being absorbed by the pavement surface.... ...Izevbekhai, Bernard; Clyne, Tim
57.Synthesis of Performance Testing of Asphalt Concrete2011-222011
At present, like many other agencies, the Minnesota Department of Transportation asphalt material specifications rely primarily on volumetric properties to ensure good field performance. There have been considerable amounts of research efforts to develop so called “asphalt performance tests” that can link laboratory-measured parameters to pavement performance. Research efforts are also undertaken to refine the asphalt mix-design method so that laboratory tests and procedures can be incorporated into material specification. This research project explored availability of such tests, their suitability, and their use by other agencies....Asphalt tests, Performance based specifications, Surveying, Survey of material specifications, State of the art, State of the practice....Dave, Eshan; Koktan, Philip
58.The Effect of Implements of Husbandry "Farm Equipment" on Pavement PerformanceTPF-5(148)2011
The production of larger manure hauling and application equipment has been attributed to significant changes in both farm size and equipment, and a regulatory emphasis encouraging farmers to store manure as liquid and apply it in shorter time frames. The equipment innovations created from these changes, such as steerable axles, flotation tires, and new tire designs, are not reflected in state regulations because the shift has occurred at a faster rate than the research required to study the effects of this new equipment implementation. This has led to the adoption of equipment and practices that while complying with the letter of the law, may actually create more pavement damage. The objectives of this study are to determine pavement response under various types of agricultural equipment (including the impacts of different tires and additional axles) and to compare this response to that produced by a typical 10- ton road.... ...Khazanovich, Lev; Shongtao, Dai
59.The Effects of Implements of Husbandry “Farm Equipment” on Pavement PerformanceTPF-5(148)2011
Over the past few decades, there have been significant changes in both farm size and farm equipment. These factors combined with a regulatory emphasis that has encouraged farmers to store manure as a liquid and apply it in a short time frame, have encouraged the farm equipment industry to produce larger manure hauling and application equipment. The shift to larger and heavier equipment has occurred at a faster rate than pavement design, materials technology, or state regulatory structures could match. Today, equipment innovations such as steerable axles, flotation tires, and new tire designs are not reflected in state DOT regulations. This situation has led to the adoption of equipment and practices that, while complying with the letter of the law, may actually create more pavement damage. The objectives of this study are to determine pavement response under various types of agricultural equipment (including the impacts of different tires and additional axles) and to compare this response to that produced by a typical 5-axle tractor-trailer.... ...Dai, Shongtao; Khazanovich, Lev
60.Using Geosynthetics to Improve Road Performance2011-20TS2011
To increase performance, roads are sometimes reinforced with geosynthetic polymer materials, including geogrids and geotextiles. Geogrids consist of polymers formed into relatively rigid, gridlike configurations. They are commonly placed between the subgrade and base or base and subbase layers of roads to add strength and stiffness and to slow deterioration. Geotextiles are polymer fabrics that may also provide some reinforcement, but are used primarily to: • Facilitate filtration and water drainage through road foundation soils without the loss of soil particles. • Provide separation between dissimilar base materials, improving their integrity and functioning. • Provide a stable construction platform over soft or wet soils, facilitating the movement of equipment and the process of soil compaction. Of several kinds of geotextiles, Type V is the most commonly used in Minnesota, primarily as a separator. Despite the relatively widespread use of geosynthetics in reconstructing paved county roads and state trunk highways as well as in constructing new roads, their performance has not been well documented in Minnesota. Research was needed to obtain field data that would indicate whether geosynthetics extend the service lives of roads and reduce the need for maintenance.... ...Tasa, Lou; Warzala, Dan; Clyne, Tim
61.Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) 2011
Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a general term describing the use of any additive or technology that allows for lower asphalt plant mixing temperatures. Developed in Europe, WMA was brought to the United States in 2004 and has since gained widespread use around the country. Environmental benefits experienced with WMA include reduced emissions, fumes, and odors. With a cooler work environment enabled by WMA technology, reduced production temperatures add up to energy savings. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) saw the promise in this technology, especially the anticipated benefit of reduced low temperature and reflective cracking because of the reduced binder aging at the plant.... ...Clyne, Tim; Garrity, John
62.2008 MnROAD Unbound Quality Control Construction Report 2010
The objective of this research is to obtain data for further refinement/development of QC/QA specifications and procedures, enhancement of material property based compaction requirements, development of statistically based requirements and tests, and further development of the link between mechanistic-empirical pavement design and construction. This report details the field and laboratory test results and an engineering analyses of the tests performed. A summary and analysis of the following tests results is included: Intelligent Compaction, Light Weight Deflectometer, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, Falling Weight Deflectometer, Nuclear Gauge, Moisture Testing, Proctor, Hydrometer, Atterberg Limits, Gradation ... ...Petersen, Lee
63.Appropriate Use of RAP Based on Field Performance 2010
This study was developed to investigate the perception that asphalt pavements containing Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) may be prone to early failures. The work plan included a survey of local agencies, field performance observations of new bituminous and bituminous overlay construction, and laboratory testing.... ...Johnson, Eddie
64.Best Practices for Surface Treatments 2010
Preventive maintenance is defined by AASHTO as “a planned strategy of cost-effective treatments to an existing roadway system that preserves the system, retards future deterioration, and maintains, or improves the functional condition (without adding additional structural capacity)”. Thus a treatment used as a stop-gap measure to hold together a distressed pavement would not be considered a cost effective PM treatment. The AASHTO definition encourages a paradigm shift away from a reactive mindset that responds to distresses in the pavement, toward a proactive one that seeks to prevent, or reduce the occurrence of distresses by selecting the right road and using the best methods at the proper time.... ...Wood, Thomas
65.Concrete Pavement Thickness and Materials Optimization – Design Concepts and Performance in a Cold Climate 2010
"Sustainability in the design of pavements can be accomplished in two different ways. Either a pavement is designed to be more robust, so that it will have a significantly longer service life, or a pavement is optimized and designed to use significantly less materials, with the potential for a shorter service life. This paper examines the design concepts and field performance related to the latter type of concrete pavement systems in a cold climate. Several thin full-depth concrete and thin unbonded concrete overlay pavements have been recently constructed in Minnesota. These pavements are being intensely studied to examine how truly optimized the design can be and still deliver safe, economical, and reliable performance. This paper summarizes the early and long-term performance of several thin concrete pavement test sections at the MnROAD test facility, as well as early performance observations from a larger scale project in northern Minnesota. Design concepts and details of multilayered concrete pavement test sections utilizing recycled concrete and other low cost materials are also discussed. Based on the many valuable lessons learned from test sections at the MnROAD facility and throughout the state, local engineers are now comfortable designing and constructing thinner full-depth concrete pavements, as well as thin bonded and unbonded concrete overlays. "... ...Burnham, Thomas
66.Construction Report for MnROAD Thin Unbonded Concrete Overlay Test Cell 5 (Sub-Cells 105-405)2010-302010
In the summer of 2008, after roughly fourteen years of service many of the pavement test cells at the Minnesota Road Research project (MnROAD) required rehabilitation or reconstruction. This massive construction effort was also known as “Phase II” (SP 8680-157). Among the cells that were rehabilitated was Cell 5, which is located on the mainline or interstate 94 section of the research facility. Cell 5 received a thin (4 to 5”) unbonded concrete overlay. This cell was heavily instrumented with electronic sensors designed to collect environmental and load response data. In addition the pavement in this cell will be thoroughly evaluated and rigorously tested at various times during the year. The thin design, and consequently shorter life, of this overlay should produce valuable data over the life of the sensors. This report describes the physical characteristics of the new thin unbonded concrete overlay test cell 5 (sub-cells 105-405). Included in the report are the construction plans (including sensor layouts), quantities and bid prices, as well as the special provisions. The report also summarizes the results from the initial material tests, various surface characteristics measurements and other initial test results....Concrete Pavements, Thin Unbonded Concrete Overlay, interlayer, MnROAD project, Pavement Instrumentation...Watson, Mark; Burnham, Thomas
67.Construction Report for a Thin Unbonded Concrete Overlay on Minnesota TH 532010-232010
Unbonded concrete overlays are generally used to rehabilitate pavements by restoring lost ride and structural capacity. Historically, their design has been conservative (thick) due to the lack of a rational design method. In the summer of 2008, TH 53 near Duluth, MN, was rehabilitated with a thin (5-inch thick) unbonded concrete overlay. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) included the TH 53 overlay as part of a research project on thin unbonded concrete overlays. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measurements were taken both before and after construction. A short section of the project was instrumented with electronic sensors designed to collect environmental and load response data. The TH 53 test section is currently undergoing thorough evaluations and rigorous testing in accordance with the research project work plan. This report presents the initial baseline testing results, which include: distress survey and mapping, ride quality measurements, and structural testing. A visual distress survey, conducted in April 2009, revealed that approximately 40 transverse cracks have formed in the overlay over the nearly nine mile project length. FWD measurements indicate that the new pavement is providing good structural support. ...Concrete pavements, Concrete overlays, Thin Unbonded ,Concrete Overlay, Pavement Performance, Pavement Instrumentation...Watson, Mark; Burnham, Thomas; Lukanen, Erland; Olson, Steven
68.Crack Sealing 101: Hot Mixed Asphalt Pavements 2010
The two primary types of crack sealing methods commonly used in Minnesota include: ROUT AND SEAL and CLEAN AND SEAL. The ROUT AND SEAL method is preferred on transverse cracks less than ¾” wide. The clean and seal method is recommended for longitudinal cracks, or if the cracks are too numerous or too large for the route and seal method. Crack Sealing is intended to prevent moisture from entering the base and subgrade, which can weaken the pavement’s subsurface structural layer and contribute to pavement deterioration. Sealing the pavement cracks and preventing the intrusion of moisture can be expected to extend the pavements’ service life and slow the rate of deterioration.... ...Johnson, Eddie
69.Effect of Drainage on the Performance Concrete Pavement Joints in Minnesota 2010
After 13 years of live interstate traffic and the extreme climate of Minnesota, the condition of the original concrete pavement test sections at the MnROAD facility was still very good. The introduction of Phase 2 research studies at MnROAD prompted the need to remove or replace several of those test sections. To extract all useful information from the sections before they were reconstructed (or overlaid), a comprehensive forensic investigation was conducted. This investigation focused principally on joint performance, as little panel cracking had occurred.... ...Burnham, Thomas
70.Evaluation of the SafeLane(TM) Overlay System for Crash Reduction on Bridge Deck Surfaces2010-132010
The winter performance of the SafeLane™ commercial overlay system has been evaluated at four installations on bridge decks in the state of Minnesota. The study was conducted over a period of a total of three years. Analyses included mechanical and chemical testing of the components, chloride analysis as a function of depth, friction by skid test and visual inspection. At one site plow operator’s comments were gathered to access retention of deicing chemicals from event to event. All sites were included in a comparison of accident frequency before and after overlay installation....Polymer overlay systems, winter bridge deck safety, Overlays, Polymer, Bridge decks...Evans, John
71.Fly Ash: Stabilizing the Base 2010
Many states currently use fly ash to stabilize foundation materials during road construction projects. In Minnesota, the recent implementation of new specifications, tools, and projects at the local level is supporting increased use within the state. In 1994, the Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) funded a study that explored the use of several materials, including fly ash, to stabilize soils for road reconstruction projects. The LRRB also supported follow-up studies, including evaluations of several demonstration projects.... ...Triplett, Joe
72.Impacts of Heavy Farm Equipment on Rural Roads 2010
Over the past few decades, farms have consolidated and farm size has increased significantly. The farm equipment industry has responded by producing larger and heavier equipment. For example, it is not unusual to see liquid manure application equipment that hauls 9,000 gallons or more. Innovations such as steerable axles, flotation tires (spreading the load over a much larger area), and new tire designs have been implemented on the equipment in recent years. The length, width, and axle loads of the large equipment could potentially accelerate damage on roads. However, there is insufficient data to show the effects of the equipment on pavement response and performance.... ...Dai, Shongtao
73.Improving HMA Longitudinal Joints Through Construction, Preventive Maintenance and Repair 2010
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) is currently conducting a research project aimed at reducing longitudinal joint (LJT) deterioration in hot mixed asphalt (HMA) pavements through improved construction techniques, preventive maintenance practices, and repair treatments. Constructing durable HMA pavements, with adequate LJT performance, has been well documented and extensively researched, however preventive maintenance and repair treatments specific for LJT have received little attention in the literature.... ...Watson, Mark; Olson, Roger
74.In Place Recycling Using Stabilized Full Depth Reclamation 2010
To demonstrate and test the concept of stabilized full depth reclamation as pavement base material. Full Depth Reclamation (FDR) with asphalt emulsion re-uses the existing asphalt mixture and adds stabilized additive to further increase material stiffness. This method was applied on three (3) cells located on the MnROAD mainline (Cells 2, 3 and 4).... ...Dai, Shongtao; Wood, Thomas
75.Incorporation of Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS) in Hot Mixed Asphalt Pavement Mixtures 2010
This study investigated the effect of asphalt binder grade and content, RAP source and content and different shingle sources and proportions on HMA mixture properties. Research included testing a matrix of laboratory-produced mixtures that incorporated TOSS, MWSS, and RAP.... ...Johnson, Eddie
76.Incorporation of Recycled Asphalt Shingles in Hot-Mixed Asphalt Pavement Mixtures 2010
Rises in construction and asphalt binder costs, as well as the growing pressures on landfills, have contributed to the increased use of tear-off scrap shingles (TOSS) and manufacturer waste scrap shingles (MWSS) into hot-mixed asphalt (HMA) pavement mixtures. This research project was undertaken to address the responsible incorporation of recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) into HMA pavement mixtures to ensure environmental benefits are realized and pavement durability is retained or improved....Recycled asphalt shingles (RAS), Shingles, Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), Recycled materials, Hot mix paving mixtures, Mixture design, Laboratory tests, Asphalt binder extraction and gradation, Dynamic modulus of elasticity, Field performance, Pavement performance, Virgin binder criterion, Binders, Asphalt, Pavement...Johnson, Eddie; Johnson, Greg; Dai, Shongtao; Linell, Dave; McGraw, Jim; Watson, Mark
77.Influence of Pavement on Traffic Noise – Statistical Pass-By Measurements of Traffic on Several Interstate Pavements2010-402010
This research project performed statistical pass-by (SPB) measurements of tire/pavement noise influence on overall traffic noise levels. The pavement specimens included in the project were a conventional grind surface, an innovative grind surface, a transverse tine surface, and a burlap drag surface, all located on I-94 to the northwest of Minneapolis. Due to the high volume of traffic on the interstate highway, field measurements were not feasible. An alternative method was adopted of recording video and high-quality audio of all the traffic over several hours, along with a calibration reference level, and analyzing the recorded traffic in the office. This allowed selection of several hundred pass-by events meeting data quality requirements out of the several thousand vehicles present in the recordings. The results showed the innovative grind was clearly the quietest pavement with four-wheeled passenger cars. The results also showed the innovative grind was quieter than most other pavement surfaces, but was inconclusive against the conventional grind with dual-axle and multi-axle heavy vehicles due to insufficient data. On-board sound intensity measurements showed a dBA difference of 4.7 to 5 between the innovative grind and the pre-existing surface texture....Statistical pass-by, Sound intensity, Tire/pavement noise, Texture, Grinding...Casey, Tim; Izevbekhai, Bernard; Dick, Elliott
78.Innovative Diamond Grinding on MnROAD Cells 7, 8, 9, and 372011-052010
This report describes the innovative grinding conducted on cells 7, 8, 9, and 37 at the MnROAD research facility of the Minnesota Department of Transportation, and the initial measurement of surface characteristics. The three types of diamond grinding studied include a conventional method (1/8” x 1/8” x 0.120 groove kerf configuration), the “innovative grind” (flush grind and groove) and the “ultimate grind” (flush grind and groove, with wider spacing between grooves than the innovative grind). The report describes the construction efforts followed by the initial testing, and the plans for long-term observation, monitoring, and surface characteristics testing. Surface characteristics (noise, friction, texture, and ride) were measured immediately prior to and after the grinding operation. As expected, each of the measures of surface characteristics was improved initially. Subsequent testing and monitoring will be conducted over the next five years to evaluate the long-term performance of the different grinding methods....Materials by surface characteristics, Diamond grinding, Tire/pavement noise, Texture, pavement friction, Friction tests, Ride quality...Wilde, James; Izevbekhai, Bernard; Krause, Michael
79.Investigation of Deflection and Vibration Dynamics of Concrete and Bituminous Pavements Constructed Over Geofoam2011-012010
Geofoam, an XPS polystyrene with a unit weight of 1 to 3 lb/ft.3, was used as embankment fill for Minnesota Trunk Highway (TH) 100 segment 3 (SP 2735-159) in 2000. It was also used at Technology Drive in 2002 to correct a slope failure that had occurred in a large embankment near a ramp. The TH 100 segment consisted of a 10 in. dowelled jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) and the Technology Drive section was a 7 in. bituminous pavement. Concerns about the vibration issues during and immediately after paving led to a retrofit of the sites with multi-depth deflectometers (MDD) and a two-year study of pavement response. The authors seasonally investigated flexible and rigid pavement response to Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) loads, loaded and calibrated snow and ice trucks through the MDDs, and a seismograph. This study compared seasonal deflection basins, elastic moduli, and dominant frequencies of flexible and rigid pavements built with Geofoam fill to their corresponding contiguous control sections built without Geofoam fill. The 3-ft. of granular fill above the 4 in. concrete cap covering the Geofoam compounded the process of layer moduli computations. The report concludes with interesting findings, particularly that the response of Geofoam pavements may exhibit higher deflections and vibration amplitudes and they are in a time series. However, these are not resonant vibrations that would require design changes from the current practice....Geofoam, Deflectometers, Falling weight deflectometer, Multidepth deflectometers, Deflection, Deflection Basins, Modulus of elasticity...Pederson, Nathan; Izevbekhai, Bernard
80.Investigation of Joint Deterioration in MnROAD Phase 1 Jointed Concrete Pavement Test Sections 2010
A comprehensive forensic investigation was conducted at MnROAD in 2008. This investigation focused principally on joint performance, as little panel cracking had occurred. The most interesting observation was a unique distress phenomenon in the transverse joints. This distress occurred where jointed concrete pavements were built on undrained gravel bases. Cores showed that a significant amount of concrete material was missing from the middle section of the joint, with the area of greatest distress just below the saw cut, approximately at mid-depth....PASB, Drainage, Join Sealant, Class 5, Transverse Joints, JPCP...Rohne, Ryan; Burnham, Thomas
81.MnROAD Cell 4 Forensic Investigation 2010
Bituminous test cell 4, on the Mainline at MnROAD was constructed in October 2008 as a partnership between Mn/DOT and Road Science LLC. Cores were taken by Road Science staff soon after construction and then filled the holes with an open graded Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). In the spring of 2010 significant heaving was noticed in the pavement surrounding the core hole areas. It was decided that a small scale forensic be conducted to determine what caused the heaving in these areas in conjunction of repairing the pavements.... ...Clyne, Timothy; Cole, Melissa
82.MnROAD Mining, Evaluation and Quantification Phase I2010-262010
"A data filtering system for the MnROAD temperature database was designed and implemented. Fourteen inter-dependent quantitative tests were developed to identify and flag erroneous, questionable, or exceptional data. Four of the tests identify missing and intermittent data streams. Three of the tests analyze the time series from individual sensors and identify outliers. Three of the tests compare data streams of similar sensors; “similar” implies identical pavement type, general location, and sensor depth. The remaining four tests are summary tests that identify periods of unreliable data. The specific analysis and quantitative results are based upon the 471,178,324 data records from 1,313 thermocouple sensors in 48 MnROAD test cells collected from 1 January 1996 through October 2007. The considered test cells include both hot mix asphalt and Portland cement concrete sections from both the Mainline and Low Volume Road. The majority of the sensors performed very well: 714 of the 1,282 operational sensors produced reliable data more than 99 percent of the time. Only 18 of 1,282 operational sensors produce reliable data less than 50 percent of the time. Only 31 of the original 1,313 sensor were wholly non-operational. A wide variety of statistical tables and graphical representation were produced in a digital format for the considered data. Although this project focuses on a particular set of data, the concepts and tools developed in this project are designed to be extensible to accommodate the filtering of the ongoing and future data collection efforts at MnROAD."...MnROAD, Thermocouples, Pavements, Pavement temperature,Data processing operations, Data filtering, Data mining...Barnes, Randal
83.Performance of Thin Unbonded Concrete Overlays in Minnesota 2010
One of the best performing solutions for restoring or improving the performance of older concrete pavements in Minnesota has been unbonded concrete overlays. One reason for their good performance may be the inherent conservatism in their design. Since a rational mechanistic-empirical design method has not been adopted yet, their design relies on methods derived for concrete pavement placed on more traditional base layers. Since one of few variables one can change when placing an overlay is slab thickness, optimizing this thickness will ultimately lead to lower overall costs for this effective rehabilitation solution. Determining optimized overlay thickness is best accomplished by monitoring actual field test sections.... ...Burnham, Thomas
84.Performance of Thin Unbonded Concrete Overlays on High Volume Roads 2010
Unbonded concrete overlays consist of a new concrete layer, typically 7 - 8” thick, over a 1 - 1.5” thick new bituminous interlayer, all placed over an existing, deteriorated concrete pavement. These conventional overlays have performed very well in Minnesota’s extreme climate. Historically, however, their structural design has been somewhat controversial and therefore conservative (thicker), due to the lack of rational design methods devoted strictly to their characteristics.... ...Watson, Mark; Burnham, Thomas
85.Performance of Thin and Ultra-Thin Whitetopping Test Sections at MnROAD 2010
For the past 15 years, whitetopping has been increasing in popularity in the U.S. However, few rationally based design methods are available for these overlays, particularly those based on mechanistic-empirical research derived from actual field performance. The study of the performance of thin and ultra-thin concrete inlays/overlays (of distressed asphalt pavements) at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) is working toward the development of such performance based design methods.... ...Burnham, Thomas
86.Predicting Bumps in HMA Overlays 2010
The use of hot mix asphalt (HMA) overlays is common in Minnesota. However, while overlaying pavements with sealed cracks, bumps tend to form in the overlay resulting in decreased overlay smoothness and poorer ride quality.... ...Johnson, Eddie; Wilde, James
87.Predicting the Occurrence of Bumps in Overlay2010-312010
This report presents the results of two field evaluations in rural Minnesota counties to investigate the development of bumps in asphalt overlays. The primary objective was to identify crack sealant types, reservoir geometries, and construction methods that provide a higher probability of avoiding the occurrence of bumps in an asphalt overlay. One field site evaluated various crack sealant methods and materials while holding construction methods constant, and the other site evaluated different construction practiced intended to prevent bumps while utilizing constant crack sealant methods and materials, as well as other overlay preparation methods. The results of this research indicate that there are specific types of sealant materials and methods (type of sealant, reservoir geometry) as well as specific construction activities (rolling pattern, roller type, mat temperature at rolling) that can have great impact on the formation (and prevention) of bumps in asphalt overlays. ...Bituminous overlays, Speed control bumps, Construction management, Construction practices, Cracking, Crack sealant, Sealing compounds, Routing, Maintenance, Pavement maintenance, Instrumentation...Wilde, James; Johnson, Eddie
88.Taconite Aggregate in 4.75 mm Asphalt Mixture: Research in Progress 2010
Fine mixtures are attractive for their potential for surface course and thin lift applications. In October 2008 Mn/DOT Road Research constructed a test section to evaluate the performance of thin-layered-asphalt containing fine aggregates. The asphalt was also part of a performance evaluation of a composite pavement system.... ...Johnson, Eddie
89.Use of Taconite Aggregates in PavementMN/RC – 2010-242010
The construction and maintenance of highways creates a demand for high quality paving aggregates, which are becoming scarce in many parts of the country. Taconite industry waste rock and tailings are a potential new source of virgin aggregates. Currently there is limited information available for implementing these products in construction specifications. The goal of this project was to assess available taconite aggregate resources that could supply a high quality, low cost aggregate for roadway use, especially in areas where aggregates are becoming scarce. This report summarized the work completed under a government-academia-industry partnership that investigated the use of taconite aggregates for pavement applications. The following results were learned from this study: Taconite aggregates can be used successfully to construct high quality aggregate base, asphalt, and concrete pavement layers.; The test sections constructed at MnROAD have performed as well as or better than those built using conventional aggregates.; A demonstration project was successfully completed in which microwave technology was used to patch a pothole on a local county road, and that pothole patch performed well over time.; Several laboratory tests performed on taconite aggregates or on asphalt mixtures consisting of taconite aggregates have shown very good performance....Taconite, Mesabi Hard Rock, Hot Mix Asphalt, Portland Cement Concrete, Aggregate ...Clyne, Timothy; Johnson, Eddie; Worel, Benjamin
90.2008 MnROAD Phase II Construction Report 2009
This report documents substantial work for MnROAD Phase II Construction, which began in 2007 and continued in 2008. Funding sources for the construction and research have come from many partners both locally and nationally. New test cells consisted of both new construction and rehabilitation techniques representing both national and regional interests. Funding for this phase of MnROAD is $10.9 million, which covers construction, research, instrumentation, and administration costs. The core research areas that guided Phase II Construction are mechanistic design, innovative construction, preventive maintenance, recycled materials, pavement rehabilitation, surface characteristics, and other non-pavement research. The purpose of this report is to provide details on the MnROAD construction that was completed during the 2008 construction season. It features projects that involved the reconstruction of Cells 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 on MnROAD’s Mainline section and Cells 24, 39, 53, and 85 - 89 on MnROAD’s Low Volume Road section. The new test cells included various asphalt and concrete pavement materials as well as various aggregate base materials. This report documents the research projects and objective, pavement structural and mix designs for each cell, instrumentation plan, field construction activities, material sampling, and laboratory test results....Warm mix asphalt, full depth reclamation, RAP, whitetopping, porous/pervious pavements...Johnson, Ann; Clyne, Timothy; Worel, Benjamin
91.Appendices to Use of Fly Ash for Reconstruction of Bituminous Roads2009-27A2009
Recycling part or all of the pavement materials in an existing road during reconstruction is an attractive construction alternative. When reconstructing roads surfaced with hot mix asphalt (HMA), the HMA, underlying base, and a portion of the existing subgrade often are pulverized to form a new base material referred to as recycled pavement material (RPM). Compacted RPM is overlain with a new HMA layer to create a reconstructed or rehabilitated pavement. This process is often referred to as full-depth reclamation. Similarly, when an unpaved road with a gravel surface is upgraded to a paved road, the existing road surface gravel (RSG) is blended and compacted to form a new base layer that is overlain with an HMA surface. Recycling pavement and road materials in this manner is both cost effective and environmentally friendly. However, recycled base materials may contain asphalt binder, fines, and/or other deleterious materials that can adversely affect strength and stiffness. To address this issue, chemical stabilizing agents can be blended with RPM or RSG. Use of industrial material resources for stabilization (e.g., cementitious coal fly ash) is particularly attractive in the context of sustainability. The purpose of this study was to develop a practical method to design local roadways using stabilized RPM or SRSG as the base layer and Class C fly ash as the stabilizing agent. The design method was developed in the context of the “gravel equivalency” (GE) design methodology employed for local roads in Minnesota....Recycled materials, sustainability, gravel, full-depth reclamation, modulus of resilience, design methods, field tests, environmental impact analysis, environmental modeling, fly ash, pavement maintenance, environmental risk assessment...Craig Benson, Craig ; Edil, Tuncer ; Ebrahimi, Ali; Kootstra, Brian; Li, Lin; Bloom, Paul
92.Asphalt Mixture and Binder Fracture Testing for 2008 MnROAD Construction 2009
This report summarizes the results of an experimental effort to characterize the low-temperature behavior of asphalt mixtures and binders from the recently reconstructed cells at the MnROAD facility. In depth analysis of the data was not part of this study; this will be accomplished in several concurrent research projects....Asphalt, Binders, Asphalt mixtures, Fracture properties, Creep properties, Thermal stresses, Bend tests, Notch tests...Marasteanu, Mihai; Moon, Ki Hoon; Turos, Mugur
93.Best Practices for Dust Control2009-042009
This study evaluated the performance and cost of commonly used dust palliatives using a mobile air sampling technique. Treatments of calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, and organic polymer-plus-binder were evaluated at standard application rates during the first year and at variable rates during the second year. The treatments were applied to a variety of subject roads that were located throughout Minnesota. Average daily traffic levels varied from 25 to 700 vehicles per day. The overall data trend showed that treatments reduced dust levels and measurements showed that aggregate surface moisture content was the best predictor of dust control efficiency. Positive relationships were measured between dust control efficiency and other variables in the study, generally reinforcing the concept that higher application rates may be more successful on gravels containing greater amounts of material passing the #200 sieve. A negative relationship was measured between dust control efficiency and sand equivalency, showing that treatments on gravels containing more sand material were less effective....Dust control efficiency, moisture content, mobile dust collector....Johnson, Eddie; Olson, Roger
94.Best Practices for RAP Use Based on Field Performance2009-152009
This study included a survey of practicing local engineers, field performance observations of new bituminous and bituminous overlay construction, and laboratory testing. The most common binder performance grades were identified along with the most common percentage of recycled asphalt in bituminous mixtures. Local engineers regarded cracking, rutting, and construction as the most important issues when using recycled asphalt pavement. Roughly one-third of Minnesota agencies exclude RAP from wear course mixture. Analysis of dynamic modulus curves from field cores showed that full-depth specimens were more useful for relating field and laboratory performance than were the wear or non-wear course specimens. Analysis showed stronger relationships existed to low temperature performance grade and to the percentage of new asphalt binder in the mixture than to the percentage of RAP in the mixture. Field performance related well to mixture master curves in the middle portion of the test frequency range. Recommendations include using low-temperature grades of PG-34, including RAP in the wear course, and using material control to achieve good performance. Other consideration are specifying the source material origin, screening and separating by particle size (fractionated RAP), or specifying RAP asphalt content....Recycled asphalt, performance grade, field performance....Johnson, Eddie; Olson, Roger
95.Demonstration of Concrete Maturity Test Process on TH-694/ TH-35E Interchange – Unweave the Weave2009-262009
A maturity protocol will allow a more precise identification of the time when sufficient strength has been gained such that a pavement can be opened to traffic. This way traffic can be regulated to protect the integrity of the pavement while simultaneously streamlining construction operations by avoiding excessive initial cure periods. The overall goal of this research initiative is to develop maturity strength curves for the majority of the paving mixes used by Mn/DOT and test maturity meter implementation on several projects to observe potential difficulties/successes with their use. As such, Mn/DOT SP 6280-304, the TH-694/TH-35E interchange known as “Unweave the Weave” is one of the first Mn/DOT projects to test the implementation of maturity meters in a field setting....Unweave the Weave, Datum Temperature, Concrete Maturity...Rohne, Ryan; Izevbekhai, Bernard
96.Early Performance of Pervious Concrete Pavement 2009
This paper discusses the construction and early performance of a pervious concrete test cell at the MnROAD facility. The cell is subjected to daily loading of an 80-Kip 5-axle semi-trailer, two times a day, four days a week and 102-Kip 5-axle semi-trailer twice a day, one day a week. Performance was evaluated by comparing Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) deflection basins to those of normal concrete pavements of similar thickness design. Stress-strain response of the pavement system was computed from dynamic strain gauge data. Temperatures and freeze-thaw cycles at various pavement depths where monitored. An in-situ method for measuring time rate of flow was developed. Petrographic analysis reveled differences in porosity between the surface and bottom layers as well as drying shrinkage cracking. Normal sanding and salting operations during the winter do not appear to have impacted the pore structure within the pervious concrete after three years of service. Spalling and raveling were prevalent at the tooled joints and occurred in sections where the surface could have prematurely dried due to overworking. The test cell driveway showed superficial wear near the joints after its first season in service. Large 12x12 ft rectangular block cracking was observed after 2 ½ years as well as reflective cracking propagated from joints of the surrounding curb. Critical parameters including time rate of flow, raveling, and cracking will continue to be monitored. TRB Conference 2009... ...Rohne, Ryan; Izevbekhai, Bernard
97.Effect of Concrete Materials on Permeability of Concrete Mixes Used in MnDOT Paving Projects 2009
This report analyzed the mix designs and permeability of 230 concrete mixes from Minnesota paving projects paved between 2004 and 2008....Permeability, 8-18 gradation, Aggregate gradation, HPCP, ASTM C 1202, High performance concrete, RCP, Rapid chloride permeability, Testing, Recycled materials...Rohne, Ryan
98.Evaluation of the MIT Scan-2 On MnDOT's 15 Inch Long Dowels 2009
Developed by Magnetic Imaging Tools GmbH (Dresden, Germany), the MIT Scan-2 is a nondestructive testing device that uses magnetic imaging technology to measure the position of metal dowel bars embedded in concrete.... ...Rohne, Ryan; Golish, Robert
99.Exploring Porous Pavement Maintenance Strategies 2009
Mn/DOT demonstrated a porous pavement vacuuming process. The test cells were approximately one year old at the time of the demonstration and were in good condition.... ...Rohne, Ryan; Lebens, Matthew
100.Hydraulic and Mechanical Properties of Recycled Materials2009-322009
Construction and maintenance of roads requires large volume of aggregates for use as base and subbase materials. Because of the cost of virgin aggregates, federal and state agencies are encouraging the recycling of waste materials including materials in old pavements. This study assessed the suitability of four recycled materials relative to virgin aggregates for use as base and subbase materials. The four recycled materials were the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), fly ash (FA), reclaimed concrete material (RCM), and foundry sand (FS). Assessment of these materials was done in terms of their hydraulic, mechanical, and leaching properties when mixed in with various proportions of virgin aggregates. Except for slightly higher fine content in some RAP-aggregate mixtures, particle size distribution of all mixtures was within the Mn/DOT specification band for Class 5 materials. Water retention (pore size distribution), hydraulic conductivity, resilient modulus, and shear strength measurements were generally similar to that of 100% aggregates. Exception was the mixtures of FS. Heavy metal concentrations in the leachate were also generally less than the EPA drinking water standards. We concluded that FA, RAP, and RCM mixtures will be good substitutes of virgin aggregates as base and subbase materials....Modulus of resilience, Shear strength, Pore size distribution, water retention, Permeability coefficient, hydraulic conductivity, Breakthrough curves, Fly ash, Recycled asphalt pavement, Recycled concrete material, Recycled materials, Foundry sand, Virgin aggregates ...Gupta, Satish; Kang, Dong Hee; Ranaivoson, Andry
101.IC, LWD, DCP: On the Rise; New Technologies in Road Foundation Construction Promote Improved Quality and Productivity2009-12TS2009
As one of the most important processes in roadway construction, compaction is critical to achieving high-quality and uniform pavement materials. Agencies are using new technologies for quantifying quality during construction that offer a number of benefits. Intelligent compaction (IC) is one of those technologies. IC: • Uses smooth drum or pad-foot rollers equipped with a measurement system Includes global positioning system (GPS) mapping and software to document results • Allows real-time corrections, manual or automated, during compaction by integrating measurement and control systems • Maintains a continuous record of roller-generated measurements and roller passes using color-coded plots and electronic files The Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD) and Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) also play a role in IC by providing independent quality assurance test results to the agency owner. They also can be used independently without IC. These testing devices measure quality more precisely, quickly, and safely than traditional methods, such as sand cone testing. The LWD measures elastic deflection during construction, and the DCP measures shear strength.... ...Embacher, Rebecca; Siekmeier, John
102.Implementation of Intelligent Compaction Performance Based Specifications in Minnesota2009-142009
This study documents relationships between intelligent compaction measurement values (IC-MVs) and various insitu point measurement techniques for monitoring compaction of non-granular and granular materials. Factors affecting correlations are discussed (e.g., soil type, moisture contents, stress level, etc.). Measurements from earth pressure cells document the relationship between in-ground stresses for rollers and various in-situ test methods. Comparisons were made between test roller rut depth measurements and IC-MVs and various point measurements as a quality assurance (QA) check for the subgrade pavement foundation layer. It was concluded that IC-MVs and in-situ point measurements can serve as reliable alternatives to test rolling. Site specific target values were calculated for IC-MVs, dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP), light weight deflectometer, (LWD), and shear strength. Measurement error and protocols for field testing were evaluated for LWDs. Laboratory compacted samples were used to assess an approach for determining LWD field target values. Future research is recommended to evaluate this approach for materials on a state-wide basis. Results from field studies were used to develop four IC specification options. Three specifications do not require on-site roller calibration. One specification option requires on-site calibration of IC-MVs and in-situ point measurements. This specification option has the advantages of quantifying risk, establishing a framework for a performance specification, providing information for incentive-based pay, and better linking as-built quality to long-term performance. An IC training/certification program, new IC field data analysis tools, and additional pilot projects will assist with greater implementation of these technologies....Earthwork quality, intelligent compaction, geostatistics, in-situ testing, laboratory compaction testing, resilient modulus...White, David;Vennapusa, Pavana; Zhang, Jiake; Gieselman, Heath; Morris, Max
103.Implementation of the MEPDG for New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures for Design of Concrete and Asphalt Pavements in Minnesota2009-062009
The recently introduced Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and related software provide capabilities for the analysis and performance prediction of different types of flexible and rigid pavements. An important aspect of this process is the evaluation of the performance prediction models and sensitivity of the predicted distresses to various input parameters for local conditions and, if necessary, re-calibration of the performance prediction models. To achieve these objectives, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) and the Local Road Research Board (LRRB) initiated a study “Implementation of the MEPDG for New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures for Design of Concrete and Asphalt Pavements in Minnesota.”...MEPDG, pavement design, pavement performance, distress models, cracking, rutting, faulting, local calibration...Velasquez, Raul; Hoegh, Kyle; Yut, Iliya; Funk, Nova; Cochran, George; Marasteanu, Mihai; Khazanovich, Lev
104.Low Temperature Cracking 2009
Low temperature cracking occurs when cold weather temperatures cause the upper part of a pavement section to contract, while the pavement’s bottom section is held in place by its granular base and prevented from contracting. To relieve stress, cracks are formed at semi-regular intervals, thus degrading the pavement and reducing riding comfort. Low temperature cracking is the main cause of pavement roughness and reduced service life in northern climates.... ...Clyne, Timothy; Worel, Benjamin
105.MN/DOT DISTRICT-3 Large Stone Base Field Review 2009
A field review was done to investigate three roadways that incorporated a strong stone base or Scandinavian design built in central Minnesota (Mn/DOT District-3). These were initially built though a partnership with Mn/DOT and Finland where Gary Niemi (now retired D-3 engineer) visited Finland and brought back these designs to Minnesota in the late 1990’s. The whole idea of a large stone base design is to gain the strength or support for your roadway through the unbound base materials and have a relatively thin asphalt layer that can be milled and recycled at a lower cost while still preserving the underlying base materials. The top asphalt layer is not designed to carry the traffic loadings.... ...Clyne, Timothy; Worel, Benjamin
106.Managing Intelligent Compaction Data2009-35TS2009
To provide a strong and uniform foundation for a pavement, underlying layers must be compacted by rollers. Since 2005, Mn/DOT has completed several demonstration, pilot and implementation projects designed to improve the use of intelligent compaction. IC involves using sensors to measure the vibrations of rollers, which can be correlated to soil stiffness during the compaction process, allowing operators to make real-time adjustments. Rollers are also equipped with Global Positioning System technology to map the measures and time of compaction to its location, and store this data for future use in forensic analysis, long-term pavement management and mechanistic-empirical pavement design. IC-equipped rollers produce very large quantities of data. Further, the software provided by roller manufacturers to manage this data is proprietary and expensive, may change and does not always include the capabilities desired by Mn/DOT. Previous pilot projects encountered problems using proprietary software for quality control and quality assurance; Mn/DOT required software customized to its needs.... ...Embacher, Rebecca; Moe, Clark; Petersen, Lee
107.Mechanistic Modeling of Tests of Unbound Granular Materials2009-21TS2009
For a pavement to perform well, it is crucial that its base layer be well-designed. This layer is commonly composed of unbound aggregates, and designing this layer involves choosing aggregate grades and taking into account the thickness to which the layer will be compacted by machine rollers. Historically, design guidelines for aggregate layers have been based largely on past experience rather than mechanistic principles. Recently, however, there has been an effort to use the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide to apply mechanistic principles to pavement design. Applying these principles requires evaluating existing tests used to measure the stiffness and strength of base layers composed of unbound aggregates. These tests include the California bearing ratio and resilient modulus laboratory tests as well as the dynamic cone penetrometer test for quality control in the field. While there are a number of empirical correlations among the results of these tests, they are limited to the specific conditions under which the tests were performed. It would be helpful to have a more general, reliable, repeatable and well-defined mechanistic method for correlating test results. To develop this method, it would also be helpful to have a three-dimensional computer model that provides a detailed analysis of the mechanics of unbound materials. Specifically, the model should show how individual particles composing the aggregate interact with each other when subjected to different kinds of stresses, including how they resist deformation caused by uniform pressure and how they deform under different shearing stresses.... ...Amundson, Lee; Cruz, Nelson; Hill, Kimberly
108.Mechanistic Modeling of Unbound Granular Materials2009-212009
Several tests are used for characterizing unbound granular materials for pavement applications. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR), resilient modulus (MR), Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) tests are three of the most common tests used for this purpose. The objective of this research is twofold. The first is to develop numerical models for these three tests. The second is to investigate relationship between basic material properties, boundary conditions, and test results, ultimately, to develop a physics-based correlation between these tests. A 3-D discrete element method (DEM) based model is adapted to simulate these tests. Good agreement is observed between the results of the simulations and sample numerical and experimental studies on granular materials. The DEM code is used to determine effects of aggregate shape, coefficient of friction, gradation, stiffness and other details on test results. The model is also used to investigate statistics of inter-particle interaction between the granular particles....Discrete Element Method, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, Resilient Modulus, California Bearing Ratio, Mechanistic Pavement Design, Granular Material...Yohannes, Bereket; Hill, Kimberly; Khazanovich, Lev
109.Mn/DOT Intelligent Compaction Implementation Plan: Procedures to Use and Manage IC Data in Real Time2009-352009
Mn/DOT research has indicated that intelligent compaction (IC) will improve construction quality and efficiencies for the Contractors and Mn/DOT field staff. Experience thus far has illustrated that quality control, quality assurance and research activities were problematic using the software provided by the roller manufacturers. The manufacturers’ software is proprietary, expensive, subject to change, and generally did not provide the functionality required by Mn/DOT. Hence, the Department chose to develop software and processes fitting their specific needs....Intelligent compaction, IC, Quality control, QC, Database, Geographic information systems, GIS...Petersen, Lee; Morgan, Jeff; Graettinger, Andrew
110.MnROAD Cell 64 Pervious Concrete: Third Year Performance Report2009-192009
This report evaluates the third year performance of the pervious concrete test Cell 64 located in the parking lot/driveway on the south side of MnROAD’s pole barn. In this report, a device and procedure to evaluate the drainability of pervious concrete and a threshold for clogging was developed. In addition, the condition of the test cell was determined by Schmidt hammer measurements and distress mapping using the Mn/DOT Pavement Distress Identification Manual. Watermark/thermocouple data was also recorded to measure freeze-thaw cycles. The number of freeze-thaw cycles at discrete depths in the pavement was then compared to impervious concrete test cells at MnROAD. The Mn/DOT and Cemstone petrographic reports on cores that had been taken 4.5 months after construction are also included, although they were outlined in previous reports. It was found that the pervious concrete of Cell 64 experienced less freeze-thaw cycles than impermeable concrete pavements of similar thickness. The main change in surface distress from the first year to the third year of service was the presence of a longitudinal crack that extended the entire cell length and raveling of the top layer of concrete. Initiating at the pole barn at a joint in the concrete curb, the crack could have propagated the length of Cell 64 due to Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD), traffic, or thermal loading. Knowledge of pervious concrete will be greatly expanded with the study of newly constructed test cells. These cells are Cell 85, Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pervious on sand and 89, PCC pervious on clay on the MnROAD Low Volume Road....Cell 64, Pervious Concrete, Freeze-Thaw Cycles, Drainability, Thermodynamics...Rohne, Ryan; Izevbekhai, Bernard
111.MnROAD Green Initiatives 2009
Transportation and its supporting infrastructure have significant economic, social, and environmental impacts. Using more sustainable methods to design, construct, and preserve roads will better protect the environment and meet our ongoing needs. Mn/DOT and our partners in government, industry, and academia have been researching and implementing ways to make our roads greener, while maintaining or improving roadway quality. MnROAD is conducting research on several “green” pavement technologies that reduce environmental impacts, reuse roadway materials, or use recycled materials in pavement applications:... ...Clyne, Timothy; Worel, Benjamin
112.Preventative Maintenance for Recreational Trails2009-252009
The growth in recreational trails owned by the State, Cities, Counties, and Park systems over the last 20 plus years has exploded. Most if not all efforts related to recreational trails over these years has been focused on construction of new trails. There have been little organized efforts in trail preservation and or preventive maintenance (PM) methods to extend the usable life of the trails. The agencies that have a PM programs for their recreational trails rely on treatments that started out as highway or street treatments that may have been modified for use on the trails. The goals of this research project where to study existing treatments, how effective they are, promote new methods, and promote regular scheduled PPT for preserving trail systems....Recreational Trails, Preventive Maintenance, PM Treatments. Hot Mix Asphalt aging....Wood, Thomas; Pantelis, John; Watson, Mark; Olson, Roger
113.Preventive Maintenance Best Management Practices of Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements2009-182009
Highway agencies have constructed expansive networks of pavements that are vital to the economic prosperity and vitality of the nation. These networks are currently deteriorating at such a rate that most agencies cannot afford to reconstruct them in a timely manner. Consequently, many agencies have employed low-cost preventive maintenance (PM) techniques such as crack and surface treatments in an attempt to slow the deterioration rates of the pavements, thus extending the service life and delaying the time until reconstruction. This study sought to address whether or not recent advances in bituminous mixtures and binder selection through SuperPave necessitated a re-examination of current PM practices. In other words should SuperPave pavements be managed differently, compared to other mixture types in the network. The first project task sought to analyze the effectiveness of PM treatments by using historical pavement management data to develop pavement decay curves with time. The results of the analysis indicated a life extension; however due to data limitations, a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) as well as a specific life extension value were not conclusively determined. The second project task assembled a pavement owner’s manual to provide general guidance on applying PM treatments throughout a pavement’s life. The recommendations of applying PM are based primarily on the pavement’s age and general surface characteristics. The recommendations of task 2 are based upon experienced engineering judgment, empirical evidence and a literature review; consequently they must be tempered to the local conditions, environment and materials....Preventive Maintenance, Pavement Preservation, PM Treatments. Hot Mix Asphalt aging....Wood, Thomas; Olson, Roger; Lukanen, Erland; Wendel, Mats; Watson, Mark
114.Preventive Maintenance Fog Sealing of HMA Cul-de-Sacs 2009
Many governments and agencies responsible for the maintenance of local street systems have been applying low cost preventive maintenance (PM) treatments to their pavement network to extend pavement service life and reduce costs. Chip seals have become a popular PM treatment for these local streets; however cul-de-sacs have historically been less receptive to the treatments due in part to their geometry. This has caused many agencies to stop chip sealing their cul-de-sacs which not only creates a non-uniform appearance, but leaves the pavement more vulnerable to environmental induced damage. As an alternative to chip seals, fog seals can be considered as a PM treatment for cul-de-sacs.... ...Pantelis, John; Wood, Thomas
115.Preventive Maintenance for HMA Recreational Trails 2009
The growth in recreational trails owned by the State, Cities, Counties, and Park systems over the last 20 plus years has exploded. Most if not all efforts related to recreational trails over these years has been focused on construction of new trails. There have been little organized efforts in trail preservation and or preventive maintenance (PM) methods to extend the usable life of the trails. The agencies that have a PM programs for their recreational trails rely on treatments that started out as highway or street treatments that may have been modified for use on the trails. The goals of this research project where to study existing treatments, how effective they are, promote new methods, and promote regular scheduled PPT for preserving trail systems....Recreational Trails, Preventive Maintenance, PM Treatments. Hot Mix Asphalt aging....Wood, Thomas; Pantelis, John; Watson, Mark; Olson, Roger
116.Putting Research into Practice: Intelligent Compaction Performance-Based Specifications in Minnesota2009-14TS2009
Before a road is paved, soils are compacted until they are stiff enough to provide a stable foundation for the pavement layers above them. Contractors typically determine the right amount of compaction effort to apply by measuring the in situ density or the ruts created by test rolling, or both. These techniques can be expensive and labor-intensive, and variability in soil properties makes it unreliable for achieving uniformly high-quality compaction over a large area. Since 2004, Mn/DOT has completed several demonstration and pilot projects designed to improve this process using intelligent compaction. IC uses roller sensors to make real-time measurements of soil stiffness during compaction to optimize the compaction effort. IC is best used in combination with alternative spot-checking devices such as light weight deflectometers that provide a point of comparison to measurements of soil stiffness. LWDs can be used in situ, without requiring that samples be sent to a laboratory. These past efforts still left several challenges to implementing IC. Protocols and target values for the use of LWDs required further development, and IC target values also needed to be improved through correlation with test rolling rut-depth measurements and mechanistic-empirical pavement design parameters. Finally, investigators needed to evaluate IC measurements for a wider range of materials, characterize them for spatial variability and improve IC data handling.... ...Siekmeier, John; Clark, Moe; White, David
117.Putting Research into Practice: Using the DCP and LWD for Construction Quality Assurance2009-12TS2009
For a highway to perform well over the long term, its soil and aggregate layers need to provide a stiff, stable foundation. Mn/DOT standards require inspections during construction to ensure that pavement foundation materials have been compacted enough to ensure this condition. The sand cone test, which measures the density at a single point in a subgrade or base lift, has been used for many years to confirm an inspector’s visual inspection. This test can take more than an hour and includes a laboratory component, which pulls the inspector away from observing construction at the site. New methods to replace this test have been developed that are quicker, can be performed entirely on-site and allow more flexibility by contractors so that construction doesn’t have to stop for testing. These new methods are safer for inspectors because less time is spent kneeling near traffic at construction sites. These new methods use devices that accurately measure in-place soil parameters such as stiffness and strength. These properties provide a more representative picture of a pavement’s ability to handle traffic loads than laboratory density measurements, and they allow direct verification of the soil values used during pavement design. Since 1997, Mn/DOT has had a standard for using dynamic cone penetrometers; DCPs test soil strength by driving a metal cone into the ground with repeated drops of a weight. Now, Mn/DOT is also implementing light weight deflectometers, which determine stiffness by measuring the deflection of the ground induced by a dropped weight. Standard, robust LWD and DCP specifications are needed to enable effective transfer of these technologies around the state.... ...Earley, Merle; Sherkow, Shirlee; Siekmeier; John
118.Recycled Pavements Using Foamed Asphalt in Minnesota2009-092009
Foamed asphalt was discovered in Iowa by Csanyi in 1956, and has become a useful road rehabilitation tool when used in conjunction with cold in-place recycle (CIR) and full-depth reclamation (FDR) processes. The advance of pavement recycling and foaming technology has made foamed asphalt a common rehabilitation technique in many parts of the world including Europe, Asia, Africa, Canada, and parts of the United States. Iowa has used the technique extensively and has developed specifications for the construction of foamed asphalt FDR and CIR stabilized roadways. The intention of this research project, Investigation 873, is to develop FDR and CIR foamed asphalt specifications and report data and information that will assist engineers in Minnesota with successfully implementing foamed asphalt recycling techniques....Foamed asphalt, pavement, recycling, rehabilitation, Minnesota, modulus...Eller, Andrew; Olson, Roger
119.Reduce. Reuse. Recycle. 2009
Transportation and its supporting infrastructure have significant economic, social, and environmental impacts. Using more sustainable methods to design, construct, and preserve roads will better protect the environment and meet our ongoing needs. Mn/DOT and our partners in government, industry, and academia have been researching and implementing ways to make our roads greener, while maintaining or improving roadway quality.... ...Worel, Ben; Clyne, Tim
120.Retrofit Dowel Bars in Jointed Concrete Pavement— Long-Term Performance and Best Practices 2009
"As jointed concrete pavements age, they typically experience panel cracking, joint or crack faulting, and surface distress. To maintain user satisfaction and safety, the agency or owner must identify the causes of the distress and consider types of feasible repairs, if any. These repairs range from partial to full-depth concrete repairs for spalled or cracked panels, to load-transfer and ride-quality restoration schemes for faulted cracks and joints. Retrofitting dowel bars into a distressed and faulted concrete pavement has become a proven technique for restoring or improving the capacity of jointed concrete pavements. The backfill materials and installation techniques used in retrofitting dowel bars must, however, be carefully designed. Numerous field and laboratory trials have been carried out in Minnesota in the recent past, allowing engineers and contractors to refine the installation techniques and materials necessary to produce long-lasting and effective projects. This paper provides a history of the development of best practices for retrofitting dowel bars into jointed concrete pavements located in the extreme climate of Minnesota. The performance of field test sections, up to 13 years old, are discussed in relation to dowel bar location, long-term loadtransfer capability, and durability of backfill materials. Implemented design changes based on results from accelerated loading laboratory studies are discussed. An effective installation method and materials testing process, required of contractors before constructing retrofit projects in Minnesota, is described. Retrofit dowel bar installation, in conjunction with restoration of the surface through diamond grinding, has been proven to significantly extend the capacity and serviceable life of many concrete pavements in Minnesota."... ...Burnham, Thomas; Izevbekhai, Bernard
121.Shoulder Safety and Maintenance 2009
Shoulders are critical roadway components. They provide repose for vehicles to stop during an emergency and a recovery area when vehicles depart the driving lane. Granular shoulder installation is inexpensive and therefore is a commonly found roadway section. However, they often result in a condition called shoulder drop-off.... ...Olson, Roger; Johnson, Eddie
122.Strength and Drainage in Aggregates Mixed with Recycled Materials2009-32TS2009
The performance of pavements depends critically on the stiffness and strength of the foundation that supports them. The base and subbase layers of this foundation are constructed using large volumes of aggregates such as crushed stone, gravel and sand. Because of the high cost of purchasing and transporting aggregate, Minnesota transportation agencies are interested in replacing a portion of it with recycled construction and industrial materials when constructing new pavements. These materials include asphalt shingle, fly ash, municipal solid waste bottom ash, shredded tires, and concrete or asphalt reclaimed during the reconstruction of existing pavements. Using these materials also benefits the environment by enabling productive use of materials that might otherwise be sent to landfills.... ...Siekmeier, John; Cruz, Nelson; Gupta, Satish
123.Subgrade Temperature and Freezing Cycles in Pervious Pavements 2009
With the construction of four new test cells in 2008, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) now has six unique pervious pavement test sections at the MnROAD test facility. Recorded temperatures in the pervious pavements and subgrades were compared to impervious Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) test sections over the same time interval. It was found that the subgrade in pervious PCC and Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) was up to 4 °C warmer in the winter than impervious PCC pavements. The frost depth in an impervious PCC pavement was found to be 45.7 cm deeper than in a pervious PCC pavement of similar thickness. One pervious pavement test cell experienced 60% less freezing cycles over a three year interval than impervious PCC pavements of similar thickness. The air trapped in the pavement voids was suspected to be the main reason for the reduced number of freeze-thaw cycles by creating an insulating effect. In another pervious pavement, entrapped air within the base material may also insulate the pavement from the subgrade.... ...Rohne, Ryan; Lebens, Matthew
124.Surface Characteristics of Flexible Pavements 2009
Pavement surface characteristics include ride quality, frictional resistance, hydroplaning potential, texture, sound absorption properties, and overall pavement performance. Growing interest in pavement surface characteristics and concerns about safety, traffic noise and performance has resulted in focused pavement research. Research shows that porous pavements absorb more traffic noise than normal pavements. There is an optimal porosity for durability and sound attenuation characteristics. In general, pavements with smaller aggregates and more open surface textures provide more noise reduction than a typical dense-graded Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) mixture. How they perform over time depends on their ability to maintain porosity.... ...Clyne, Tim
125.Surface Characteristics of New PCC Pavements 2009
The traveling public desire pavements that are smooth, safe and quiet. This has generated research into developing pavements that optimize performance and are durable and affordable. Pavement Surface Characteristics include smoothness, frictional resistance, hydroplaning potential, texture, sound absorption properties, and tire-pavement noise including their effects in overall pavement performance. Pavements like Mn/DOT’s innovative Astro-Turf drag texturing technique, attempt to reduce tire-pavement noise while optimizing other desirable pavement characteristics. While surface characteristics are important, performance of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements are substantially affected by joints, while the continuously reinforced concrete pavements are affected by the intermittent structural cracks. These features in conjunction with other distress and surface conditions affect performance characteristics of the pavements. This study focuses on fundamental surface characteristics of new Portland Concrete Cement (PCC) pavements, how they interact and how they change over time.... ...Izevbekhai, Bernard
126.The Use of Volume Increase Ratio on Dense-Graded Mixtures 2009
For many years, average film thickness (AFT) has been proposed for use in determining the minimum asphalt content required to produce a durable hot-mixed asphalt concrete (HMAC) [1, 2, 3]. The inherent problem in measuring film thickness is determining accurate surface area factors for aggregates of widely varying shapes and specific gravities [2, 4, 5]. In 2002 this author et al. developed an alternate means of measuring asphalt cement coating for use on open-graded mixtures [6]. The method involved comparing the volume of effective asphalt to the bulk volume of the aggregate. This simple ratio was called the Volume Increase Ratio (VIR). VIR was shown to be a better means than AFT for characterizing open-graded mix properties during mixture production. Recent escalations in the price of asphalt cement has triggered the need to better characterize film coatings on dense-graded mixtures with the goal of producing least cost mixtures while still maintaining the desired durability characteristics essential to long term performance. This paper covers the equations that relate VIR to established volumetric computations for dense-graded mixtures. Comparisons are made between VIR and AFT using existing databases from MnROAD and the Iowa DOT. VIR is correlated with performance data from MnROAD.... ...Thompson, Gary
127.Use of Fly Ash for Reconstruction of Bituminous Roads2009-272009
Recycling part or all of the pavement materials in an existing road during reconstruction is an attractive construction alternative. When reconstructing roads surfaced with hot mix asphalt (HMA), the HMA, underlying base, and a portion of the existing subgrade often are pulverized to form a new base material referred to as recycled pavement material (RPM). Compacted RPM is overlain with a new HMA layer to create a reconstructed or rehabilitated pavement. This process is often referred to as full-depth reclamation. Similarly, when an unpaved road with a gravel surface is upgraded to a paved road, the existing road surface gravel (RSG) is blended and compacted to form a new base layer that is overlain with an HMA surface. Recycling pavement and road materials in this manner is both cost effective and environmentally friendly. However, recycled base materials may contain asphalt binder, fines, and/or other deleterious materials that can adversely affect strength and stiffness. To address this issue, chemical stabilizing agents can be blended with RPM or RSG. Use of industrial material resources for stabilization (e.g., cementitious coal fly ash) is particularly attractive in the context of sustainability. The purpose of this study was to develop a practical method to design local roadways using stabilized RPM or SRSG as the base layer and Class C fly ash as the stabilizing agent. The design method was developed in the context of the “gravel equivalency” (GE) design methodology employed for local roads in Minnesota....Recycled materials, sustainability, gravel, full-depth reclamation, modulus of resilience, design methods, field tests, environmental impact analysis, environmental modeling, fly ash, pavement maintenance, environmental risk assessment...Craig Benson, Craig ; Edil, Tuncer ; Ebrahimi, Ali; Kootstra, Brian; Li, Lin; Bloom, Paul
128.Use of Taconite Aggregates in Pavement Applications - Task F Report: Laboratory Testing of Taconite Materials MPR-6(023)2009
The objective of this study is to demonstrate the use of fine and coarse taconite aggregate materials in hot mix asphalt, Portland cement concrete, and other pavement applications for both its constructability and field performance over time. This would help create a greater comfort level for the use of taconite aggregate and help promote its use in the state and around the nation. The specific goal of Task F is to perform laboratory tests on taconite aggregates and on pavements made out of taconite aggregates to establish how these materials will be used in the most appropriate manner for long-lasting roadways. Mn/DOT has the laboratory equipment and expertise to do this required material testing. ... ...Clyne, Timothy; Johnson, Eddie; Worel, Benjamin
129.Using Fly Ash to Improve Recycled Pavement Foundations2009-27TS2009
To minimize costs and environmental impact, Minnesota often recycles existing pavements during road reconstruction using methods like full depth reclamation where the hot-mix asphalt pavement is pulverized with a portion of the aggregate base to create a blend of recycled pavement material. This serves as the new pavement foundation and is compacted and overlaid with fresh HMA. Similarly, when an unpaved road with a gravel surface is upgraded to a paved road, the existing road surface gravel can be blended with recycled power plant ash and then compacted to form a new base layer. These recycled materials may contain aged asphalt binder, fines and other elements that affect the strength and stiffness of the pavement base. To address this issue, another recycled material called fly ash—a byproduct of coal-burning power plants that is self-cementing when it reacts with water—can be blended with RPM and RSG to increase their strength and stiffness. The use of these stabilized materials in Minnesota, referred to as SRPM and SRSG, is still relatively new, and the Local Road Research Board has been involved in ongoing research to establish their performance, required design specifications and environmental impact.... ...Siekmeier, John; Cruz, Nelson; Edil, Tuncer; Benson, Craig
130.Using the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer and Light Weight Deflectometer for Construction Quality Assurance2009-122009
Specification target values for granular materials and fine grained soils are proposed. For granular material, the grading number and field moisture content are used to select the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and light weight deflectometer (LWD) target values. A sieve analysis is used to determine the grading number and an oven dry test to determine the field moisture content. For compacted fine grained soil, the plastic limit and field moisture content are used to determine the target values. The plastic limit is used to classify the soil and to estimate the optimum moisture content for compaction. This report also provides further standardization of the LWD and DCP testing procedures and recommends three seating drops to ensure greater uniformity during testing. The DCP and LWD estimate the strength and modulus of compacted materials. More specifically, they measure the penetration and deflection. When measuring penetration and deflection, the moisture content remains a critical quality control parameter for all compaction operations. Therefore, the moisture content needs to be measured, or estimated confidently, at each location. The LWD and DCP are performance related construction quality assurance tests that are expected to: increase compaction uniformity, lower life cycle pavement costs, increase inspector presence at the construction site, improve documentation, and increase inspector safety and productivity. ...Dynamic cone penetrometer, light weight deflectometer, in-situ testing, pavement foundations, construction quality assurance, compaction, performance related specifications...Siekmeier, John; Pinta, Cassandra; Merth,Scott; Jensen, Julie; Davich, Peter; Camargo, Felipe; Beyer, Matthew
131.Validation of a Pavement Performance Model for Flexible Pavements Based on Tests Results in MnROAD 2009
Permanent deformation, known as rutting, is believed to be one of the most significant distresses mechanisms of asphalt pavements. In cold climate areas, such as Sweden, studded tires because significant road surface wear in terms of rutting. NordFoU is a cooperation program for Nordic countries aimed at research and development in the road sector. . The main goal of the project is to develop a practical performance model for flexible road constructions based on already existing models. The computer software VägFEM and the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide used for calculating of permanent deformation were to be validated. There are seven cases which two in Sweden and five in the Minnesota's Cold Weather Road Research Facility (MnROAD) was predicted for permanent deformation (rutting) and compared with actual measured rutting. In VägFEM, both NCHRP 1-37A model and Gidel model which developed by SAMARIS project (Sustainable and Advanced Materials for Road InfraStructure) for the unbound material for instance base and sub-base was validated. Results from validation present that Rutting predictions from VägFEM and M-E PDG are similar and can be validated with real measurements. NCHRP 1-37A and Gidel Models for unbound materials are validated and predict similar rutting in VägFEM....Permanent deformation, rutting, MnROAD, Gidel Model, b NCHRP 1-37A Model, VägFEM, M-E P Designguide, MnPAVE etc....Epifanio, Eduardo Gabriel; Gan, Liu
132.Warm Mix Asphalt 2009
To help roads better endure cold climates, Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) researchers are studying the impacts of warm mix asphalt.... ...Clyne, Timothy; Worel, Benjamin
133.Whitetopping: Concrete Overlays of Aspalt Pavements 2009
Due to increased traffic congestion and reduced highway construction budgets, engineers are seeking economical, effective techniques to rehabilitate concrete pavements. One proven solution is a thin concrete overlay called “whitetopping”. Whitetopping is a rehabilitation alternative for flexible pavements, which overlays an existing flexible Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement with Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Surface. ... ...Burnham, Thomas
134.Why MnROAD Asphalt Mixtures Performed Well in the TxDOT Overlay Tester 2009
In 2008 and 2009, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) obtained samples of seventeen asphalt paving mixtures that were designed and utilized by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT). These mixtures included both wearing and non-wearing course mixtures as well as specialty mixtures, such as, a permeable friction course mix, a stress-relief mix designed for placement beneath Portland cement concrete as a permeable separation layer, and a very fine (minus No. 4 sieve) mix surface mix. Several mixtures contained twenty to thirty percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP); both fractionated and non-fractionated were used. Two mixtures contained five percent roofing shingles, one with tear-off shingles and the other with manufacturing waste shingles. ... ...Button, Joe
135.2007 - 2008 MnROAD Construction and Research Activities 2008
MnROAD was initially built in the early 1990s and has seen approximately 13 years of traffic and environmental loadings. As MnROAD enters Phase II of its existence several research projects were initiated that necessitated the reconstruction of pavement test sections over the next three years for 2007-2009. These research projects were prioritized and developed to help answer the local and national questions we have related to the Design Guide, Innovative Construction, Preventive Maintenance, Recycled Materials, Rehabilitation, Surface Characteristics, and other Non-Pavement Research MnROAD can help support. The primary efforts related to the construction for 2008-2009 will be National Pooled Fund Research, SHRP-II composite pavements, and Mn/DOT/partner research studies. Details related to the 2007 research projects are listed below....Pavements, Minnesota, Research, Testing, Design and construction, Implementation...Worel, Benjamin; Clyne, Timothy
136.2007 Low Volume Road & Farm Loop (Cells 33, 34, 35, 77, 78, 79, 83, 84) Construction Report 2008
The purpose of this report is to provide details on the 2007 reconstruction of several cells on MnROAD's Low Volume Road. As MnROAD enters Phase II of its existence several research projects were initiated that necessitated the reconstruction of pavement test sections. The first research study plans to test various configurations of heavy farm equipment (manure tankers in particular) and assess the resulting damage in comparison to a typical 80,000 lb truck. A new "Farm Road" was built in the MnROAD stockpile area and is comprised of Cells 83 and 84. The second consists of stabilizing a full-depth reclamation base material with off-spec fly ash and comparing its performance to both a non-stabilized FDR and a conventional aggregate base. This study removed Cells 29 and 30 on the LVR and replaced them with Cells 77, 78, and 79. The third study is a field validation of previous laboratory work on polyphosphoric acid modified asphalt binders. It is located on Cells 33, 34, and 35. A fourth study involved innovative diamond grinding of concrete pavements to optimize their surface characteristics (noise, ride, texture, friction, splash and spray). Cells 37, 7, and 8 were ground during the summer of 2007....Pavements, Minnesota, Research, Testing, Design and construction, Implementation...Clyne, Timothy; Palek, Leonard
137.Benefits of The Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) 2008
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) began construction on the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) in 1991 and opened the full-scale pavement research facility to live traffic in 1994. Since the time of its construction, MnROAD, the first major test track since the AASHO Road Test of the 1950s and 1960s, has learned many lessons in pavement testing and pavement engineering on behalf of the greater pavement community. Researchers at the University of Minnesota reviewed these lessons from the first phase of MnROAD (the facility's first ten years of operation) for a project titled MnROAD Lessons Learned. The Lessons Learned project involved over fifty interviews, three hundred published and unpublished reports, papers, and briefs, and an online survey of pavement professionals. This paper, based on the Lessons Learned project, presents a sample of the lasting benefits of MnROAD at the local, state, and national levels. Furthermore, the paper provides extensive references for these benefits in hopes of increasing awareness of this pavement test facility's under-publicized contributions to pavement engineering....Pavements, Performance, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, design methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, calibration, MnROAD...Tompkins, Derek; Khazanovich, Lev; Johnson, David
138.Best Practices for Dust Control 2008
This summary presents dust control performance data and observations obtained during the LRRB Investigation 842, focusing on the performance of three dust control products that were applied to three aggregate surface types. Task 2 and 3 reports provide details regarding selection, location, and characterization of the test sections as well as treatment details. Test sections were a minimum length of one half mile. One control section was evaluated per treated roadway. Most of the subject roadways were surfaced with various types of modified Class 5 "river gravels" and sandy gravels. One subject was surfaced with a Class 5 limestone. Dust control strategies included calcium chloride solutions and flakes, magnesium chloride solution, and a formulation of organic polymer and binding agents. Treatment costs varied from $0.50 to $1.45 per gallon....Low Volume Roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Rural roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Aggregates surface,...Johnson, Eddie
139.Compaction Remediation for Construction Sites2008-012008
The goal of this project is to develop a sub-soiling regimen that will enhance and be compatible with existing erosion control measures. This project is important in minimizing the effect of construction-induced compaction on the urban and rural landscape. This activity, if successful, will become a building block for use in Best Management Practices (BMPs) that will ensure full vegetative growth post construction, and save on the cost of reapplication of erosion control measures. For a good comparative study, several sites were selected for typical slope and soil type....Sub-soil, erosion, ROW, slopes, tillage, urban and rural landscapes, BMPs...Chaplin, Jonathan; Pulley Reid; Min, Min
140.Comparison of Treatments Used to Stabilize Aggregate Shoulders 2008
Unsafe conditions exist on aggregate surfaced shoulders when material erodes either from vehicular means or from erosion caused by wind, rain, and other forces. Most of the material is unrecoverable and therefore wasted. This adds to the labor, equipment, and additional costs of maintaining the shoulder. The following results are from a study sponsored by the Mn/DOT Maintenance Operations Research Fund and the Mn/DOT Office of Materials...Shoulders, Treatements, Minnesota, Design and construction, Rural roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Aggregates surface, Base courses Subgrades Soils identification...Johnson, Eddie
141.Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Program, Site Evaluation Report 2008
Site evaluation report outlining results of On-Board Sound Intensity, RoboTex Texture, CTM Texture, DFT Friction testing equipment on various cells at MnROAD....Pavements, Asphalt, Concrete, Texture, Noise, Tire / Pavement noise, Minnesota, Traffic noise, Prevention, Noise control...Izevbekhai, Bernard; Transtec
142.Cost of Upgrading an Aggregate Road 2008
Annual Minnesota Department of Transportation State Aid Office reports, cost estimates, and interviews were used to determine a typical county spending history for low volume roads. It was found large initial costs for bituminous roads (HMA), but the ongoing routine annual maintenance activity in later years was less costly than for gravel. The graph of cumulative maintenance costs verifies that annual maintenance costs/mile for a gravel road increase with traffic volume....Low Volume Roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Rural roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Aggregates surface...Johnson, Eddie
143.Determination of Optimum Time for the Application of Surface Treatments to Asphalt Concrete Pavements - Phase II2008-162008
Significant resources can be saved if reactive type of maintenance activities are replaced by proactive activities that could significantly extend the pavements service lives. Due to the complexity and the multitude of factors affecting the pavement deterioration process, the current guidelines for applying various maintenance treatments are based on empirical observations of the pavement surface condition with time. This report presents the results of a comprehensive research effort to identify the optimum timing of surface treatment applications by providing a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that control the deterioration process of asphalt pavements. Both traditional and nontraditional pavement material characterization methods were carried out. The nontraditional methods consisted of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for quantifying aging, while for microcracks detection, electron microprobe imaging test (SEM) and fluorescent dyes for inspection of cracking were investigated. A new promising area, the spectral analysis of asphalt pavements to determine aging, was also presented....Asphalt binder, SEM, asphalt mixture, XPS, surface treatments, chip seal, low temperature cracking, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep compliance, fluorescent dye, spectral analysis, heat transfer, strength...Marasteanu, Mihai; Velasquez, Raul; Herb, William; Tweet, John; Turos, Mugur; Watson, Mark; Stefan, Heinz
144.Developing Improved Test Rolling Methods for Roadway Embankment Construction2008-08TS2008
Before pavement construction, crews test roll the soil that will act as the pavement subgrade by towing a two-wheeled vehicle of known weight over the soil and measuring the depth to which its wheels penetrate the soil. If this depth exceeds a Mn/DOT- specified limit, the subgrade must be further compacted before it is considered acceptable for placing the road’s aggregate base. The weight of Mn/DOT’s current test rollers makes them impossible to use for projects that are not intended to support very heavy loads, and they use wheels that are no longer manufactured. The current test rolling procedure is also very time- and labor-intensive, and involves safety risks: One or two inspectors must walk alongside roller tires, which are prone to exploding. To best redesign this system, Mn/DOT had to address limitations of the current test. Test rolling measurements using flexible pneumatic tires can vary due to coupled deformation of the wheel and soil. Crews often infer wheel penetration by measuring the distance between the wheel axle and the soil level surface, but this measurement can be misleading because of the effect of tire flexibility.... ...Andersen, Tim; Moe, Clark; Drescher, Andrew; Hambleton, James
145.Development of Improved Test Rolling Methods for Roadway Embankment Construction2008-082008
Test rolling is a quality assurance test in which penetration of the wheels of a heavy vehicle into subgrade soils is used as a measure of the adequacy of compaction. Current criteria for acceptable test roller penetration are empirical. Two theoretical approaches for modeling test rolling are developed. One is analytic and the other is numerical, based on the finite element code ABAQUS. Both approaches relate wheel penetration to wheel geometry, wheel load, and soil strength parameters (friction angle and cohesion). Elastic soil properties are included in the numerical simulations but play a secondary role. The models accommodate both rigid and flexible wheels. Homogeneous and layered soil structures are considered. Scaled laboratory tests support the theoretical predictions, although full validation requires execution of extensive full scale field testing. The models developed can be used to enhance interpretation of test rolling data and assess the effects of test roller modifications....wheel penetration, analytic method, ABAQUS, subgrade, strength, finite element method...Hambleton, James; Drescher, Andrew
146.Economic Benefits Resulting from Road Research Performed at MnROAD 2008
The Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) was built in the early 1990s and has led to positive economic benefits during its initial research phase. As MnROAD enters Phase II of its existence several research projects have been initiated to help both Minnesota and its research partners to better understand how to build and maintain our roadway network. Phase-I road research has benefited Minnesota by providing insight into policies resulting in increased pavement life. Some of these areas include seasonal load policies (winter and spring), mechanistic-empirical design (asphalt and concrete), asphalt binder grading, low temperature cracking reduction, and improved pavement maintenance operations. The benefits gained at MnROAD have led to an annual savings for Mn/DOT of at least $33 Million. Phase-II road research has been designed around continuing the effort to provide transportation research to help provide the safe, efficient and cost-effective movement of people, goods, and services that is the backbone of our economy. Priority research and implementation activities include the development and calibration of a mechanistic-empirical design guide; implementation of innovative construction technology; improved preventive maintenance techniques; effective use of recycled materials; development and refinement of techniques for cost-effective pavement rehabilitation; understanding of pavement surface characteristics; and continued support of many non-pavement research areas. This paper documents Minnesota’s economic benefits resulting from MnROAD’s initial phase and estimates of the potential future savings for its phase-II efforts currently being constructed. This paper will show how small increases in performance and pavement life can result in large savings for society.... ...Worel, Benjamin; Jensen, Maureen; Clyne, Timothy
147.Effect of Crack Sealant Material and Reservoir Geometry on Surface Roughness of Bituminous Overlays 2008
Many state, county, and municipal highway agencies have experienced the formation of bumps when placing single-lift overlays or the first lift of a multiple lift overlay. These bumps are produced at the location of a previously-existing crack, and even then almost exclusively when the crack has been sealed prior to the overlay. When such bumps are not covered with a subsequent lift, what remains is often a rough ride on a newly-overlaid roadway. This paper describes the effects of crack sealant material type and the geometry (shape) of the routed cracks in the existing surface on the formation of bumps in bituminous overlays. A matrix of four sealant type treatments and six geometries was designed, and mplemented in a test section in Jackson County, Minnesota. The overlay on the test section was constructed in September 2007. The results of this investigation indicate that cooler pavement surface temperatures, no overband, hot-poured crumb rubber and hot-poured elastic sealants provided the best resistance to the formation of bumps in overlays.... ...Wilde, James; Johnson, Eddie
148.Effect of Dowel Bar Embedment Length on Joint Load Transfer Efficiency of MnROAD Concrete Pavement Test Cells 2008
It is well understood that for heavily loaded concrete pavements, the use of dowel bars across transverse joints can significantly improve their performance. To function effectively, dowel bars must be properly aligned and have sufficient embedment length to transfer stresses to the surrounding concrete. The use of new high accuracy dowel bar location equipment has brought renewed interest to understanding reasonable construction tolerances for dowel bar alignment. The thirteen-year history of pavement performance data from the Minnesota Road Research (MnROAD) facility provides a unique opportunity to examine the effects of dowel bar alignment on joint performance. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of dowel bar embedment length on joint load transfer efficiency. Results of the analysis show that most test cells demonstrate little effect on the overall level and variability of LTE from dowel embedment lengths as low as 10 cm (4 in). Findings of this study could lead to important changes in construction specifications for dowel bar embedment length.... ...Burnham, Thomas
149.Effects of Seasonal Changes on Ride Quality at MnROAD2008-232008
This project studied frost heave as it relates to different pavement design parameters and ride quality deterioration. Elevations of frost pins embedded in MnROAD test sections were measured over four years. Pin elevation changes were analyzed to show the amount of frost heave and degree of frost heave uniformity within a cell. Various plots were made to show the elevation change and interquartile range of the pins over time. Statistical approaches such as visual analyses, Student-t hypothesis testing, and ANOVA analysis were used in this study to evaluate the effect of pavement design features on frost heave and roughness. Subgrade and base type, pavement thickness, and drainage capabilities are the major design factors that affect frost heave. The effects of frost heave on ride quality deterioration for flexible and rigid pavements could not be confirmed or statistically rejected in this study. No seasonal adjustment factor for IRI measurement is recommended for use in a pavement management system because no firm conclusions could be made from the data concerning a seasonal effect on IRI measurements....Frost Heave, Pavement, IRI, Pavement Design, Ride Quality...Khazanovich, Lev; Bly, Peter; Shamin, Atika; Barnes, Randal
150.Evaluation of Concrete Pavement Texturing Practice in Minnesota Using the Wet Weather Accident Evaluation Criterion2008-462008
Concrete Pavements built in Minnesota are currently textured by dragging an inverted Turf or broom in the longitudinal direction. This process imparts a macro texture required to be greater than a mean texture depth of 1mm measured by the ASTM Sand Volumetric test (ASTM E 965-95). At present, this texture guideline is communicated through a special provision in pavement construction. Newly textured pavements are usually evaluated for adequacy in providing a safe riding surface through texture measurements for acceptance and friction measurements as required. The current FHWA Technical Advisory on Texture requires that performance of non-conventional textures be monitored and reported. This report identifies pavement sites in the network where the original texture, mainly the transverse tining plus Burlap, was either overlaid or rebuilt and the new surface finished with longitudinal inverted turf drag, or broom drag. It extracts wet weather accident data from the Mn/DOT Office of Traffic, Safety and Operations (OTSO) database and analyzes the annual wet weather accident and crash rates, preconstruction, during construction and after construction. It performs a descriptive statistics of the period before and the period of the new texturing to determine if, wet weather accident counts, percentage of wet weather accidents in total count and crash rates and /or ratio of annual wet to dry accident counts, and crashes clearly increased with current texturing practices. Data was analyzed with statistical tools for data comparison including the descriptive statistics, U-test & and “before and after“ comparison (Z-test)....Wet weather, Accident counts, Crash rates, Texture, Hydroplaning, Hysteresis, Friction...Izevbekhai, Bernard; Watson, Mark
151.Evaluation of Current Texturing Practices in Minnesota 2008
In Minnesota, concrete pavements are finished by dragging an inverted turf or a stiff-bristled broom longitudinally on the surface of freshly placed concrete pavements, right behind the paving machine. Prior to 1998, most concrete pavements were finished with a combination of the burlap-drag and transverse-tining. Subsequently those pavements were reconstructed and finished with current broom or turf drag. The study sought to ascertain if current texturing techniques resulted in higher wet weather accident events. A Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) study selected segments in the network where current texturing techniques replaced previous textures. Annual wet weather accidents data from the Mn/DOT database were analyzed. By examining annual wet weather accident counts, total accident counts and crash rates for a ten year period, current textures were compared to previous textures. The paper discusses how 3 statistical tools were used to compare wet weather accident data from previous texturing to data from current texturing. Statistical tools showed that current texturing practices did not cause increase in the annual wet weather accidents, crash rates as well as ratio of wet to dry weather accidents in the chosen test sections.... ...Izevbekhai, Bernard; Eller, Andrew
152.Geocomposite Capillary Barrier Drain for Limiting Moisture Changes in Pavements: Product ApplicationNCHRP Report 1132008
The overall purpose of this project is to facilitate the transfer of the GCBD technology to engineering practice through demonstration and documentation of GCBD fabrication, field installation and performance, and the development of the capability to incorporate the GCBD in subsequent designs. The project is organized into three stages. Each successive stage is built upon the product of the previous stage. The first stage involves selecting materials for the GCBD field test, developing a method to terminate the GCBD in an edgedrain trench, and provide specifications and details for field installation. The second stage involves construction and installation of the field test at MnDOT’s test facility, including installing numerous measurement systems to quantify the GCBD performance. A parallel effort of this project is to contact geosynthetics and other manufacturers to advise them of the possibility of licensing this technology for commercial applications. The third phase of the project is to develop design guidance for the use of the GCBD. The transport layer is the key element of the GCBD, and a material referred to as TGLASS was selected as the best possible transport layer material. This material was used in the MnROAD field test. There has been discussion with a geosynthetic manufacturer regarding the production of a lower cost transport layer. A method to connect the GCBD to the edgedrain pipe system was developed in the laboratory and used in the MnROAD demonstration. Details and specifications regarding the field installation of the GCBD system were developed and implemented at MnROAD.... ...Stormont, John; Pease, Eric
153.Implication of Time-Dependent Texture-Degradation on Pavement On- Board-Sound-Intensity Patterns in Mnroad Test Cells 2008
Pavement texture is an important parameter in tire-pavement-interaction-noise (TPIN). As pavements carry traffic load over the years measurable degradation occurs in texture. As the pavement is exposed to environmental and traffic elements, changes occur in ride quality measured by the International Roughness index (IRI) as well as the Surface Rating (SR). Research investigated the correlation between TPIN measured with the On-Board Sound intensity (OBSI) Protocol, Estimated Single Axle load (ESAL); SR and age of pavement in MnROAD test cells. General observation shows decrease of OBSI with respect to traffic evident in the relative values of driving and passing lane in the rigid pavements and conversely an increase in OBSI in the bituminous segments with time. An initial overall model of all the cells was not feasible as various pavement types exhibited unique characteristic residuals. This led to the development of individual models for each surface type. Although hysteretic effects are implicated in both parameters, no tenable relationship between Friction Number (FN) and TPIN was yet established. TPIN exhibited non-linear characteristics with respect to the Pavement age ESALS IRI and SR using the universal Levenberg –Marquardt hybrid of steepest-descent and least-squares non-linear model fitting technique.... ... Khazanovich, Lev; Izevbekhai, Bernard
154.Improved model to predict flexible pavement temperature profile 2008
The performance of asphalt pavements is greatly influenced by environmental conditions. One of the most important environmental factors th at significantly affect the mechanical E333properties of asphalt mixtures is temperature. Thus, accurate prediction of the temperature distribution within the pavement structure is important. This paper proposes regression models to predict flexible pavement temperature profile by means of the least square method and measured values for air temperature, humidity, wind speed and calculated solar radiation at different pavement cells located at MnROAD accelerated pavement facility. A total of 13869 average meas urements of pavement temperature at different depths collected over the past 11years were used to develop regression models. Linear and polynomial regression models are presented to predict the maximum and minimum pavement temperatures independently. Forma l statistical analysis of the residuals of the models proposed is presented to verify the assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity. Additionally, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) is used to quantify the relative goodness -of-fit of the models and to discourage over fitting. It was found that the interaction terms proposed in full linear models are not adding important information to the models and therefore can be removed. Moreover, binder type does not strongly affect the prediction of the maxim um and minimum pavement temperature.... ...Velasquez, Raul; Marasteanu, Mihai; Clyne, Timothy; Worel, Benjamin
155.Intelligent Compaction Implementation: Research Assessment2008-222008
The objective of this project was to provide a qualitative assessment of the Minnesota Department of Transportation’s Intelligent Compaction (IC) Specifications. IC is an attractive approach to evaluate the compaction quality because it involves continuous and instantaneous evaluation of the soil through machine-drive power or drum vibration monitoring. Four construction sites utilizing IC were visited: (1) TH 36 in North St. Paul, involving both granular and nongranular soils; (2) US 10 in Staples, with granular soil; (3) TH 60 in Bigelow, with nongranular soil; (4) US 10 in Detroit Lakes, involving both granular and nongranular soils. The report integrates comments from the four site visits and provides an interpretation on the use of IC at each site. As the technology now exists on the equipment used at these locations, IC provides only an index, which is specific to the conditions associated with a particular site....Control strips, Intelligent compaction, Light weight deflectometers, Test rolling...Labuz, Joseph; Guzina, Bojan; Khazanovich, Lev
156.Investigation of Winter Pavement Tenting 2008
This research looked at the perceived causes and winter maintenance strategies of tenting through a survey sent to municipal, county, and state engineers in Minnesota, before conducting field research based on the theory that deicing chemicals, sands, and crack sealing all influence pavement tenting. The research found that crack sealing can reduce the roughness and height of tented cracks....Pavements, Asphalt, Effect of low temperatures on, Pavements, Asphalt, Tenting, Minnesota, Testing, Low temperature tests,...Johnson, Eddie; Olson, Roger
157.Investigation of Winter Pavement Tenting2008-032008
This research looked at the perceived causes and winter maintenance strategies of tenting through a survey sent to municipal, county, and state engineers in Minnesota, before conducting field research based on the theory that deicing chemicals, sands, and crack sealing all influence pavement tenting. The research found that crack sealing can reduce the roughness and height of tented cracks....Pavements, Asphalt, Effect of low temperatures on, Pavements, Asphalt, Tenting, Minnesota, Testing, Low temperature tests,...Johnson, Eddie; Olson, Roger
158.Long Term Maintenance Effects on HMA Pavements Caused by Rumble Strips and Available Preventive Treatment Methods2008-502008
Rumble strips are a cost effective safety treatment for rural pavements, however they allow water to pool and increase the surface area of the pavement exposed to the elements. This research sought to address the maintenance effects of rumble strips on HMA pavements and what effect, if any, these have on the service life of the pavement. A survey was conducted which found that most respondents either noted the presence of distresses in rumble strips, or were concerned that the rumble strips were the direct cause of distresses. Next this study recommended several treatment options for pavements with rumble strips. Many of these recommendations are anecdotal and based on engineering judgment, which underscores the need for additional research. The recommended preventive maintenance treatment is to use construction funds to apply a cationic rapid set polymer modified diluted (CRS-2pd) fog seal over the entire shoulder, including the rumble strips. This will ensure an initially sealed surface and provide the maximum benefit in terms of service life extension. Crack sealing, although not an integral part of preventive maintenance for rumble strips should be applied to the adjacent cracks to slow the growth of cracks into ground in rumble strips....Rumble strips, Crack sealing, Asphalt, Pavements, HMA...Watson, Mark; Olson, Roger; Pantelis, John; Johnson, Eddie; Wood, Thomas
159.MnROAD Cell 54: Cell Constructed With Mesabi-Select (Taconite-Overburden) Aggregate; Construction and Early Performance2008-182008
Cell 54 was constructed on October 22nd 2004 on the straight portion of the MnROAD low-volume loop coterminous with the curved portion on the south-east side. It is made up of 8-inches of concrete underlain by variable depth of class 5 aggregate base and approximately 3 in. of compacted in-situ fill. Mn/DOT constructed thus cell to study properties of Mesabi-Select as aggregate in Concrete. This mineral aggregate that contains less iron than the ore, was obtained from overburdens in the iron ore ledges in northern Minnesota. There is no record of a previous cell constructed to study the suitability of Mesabi-Select in concrete. This project consisted of a 192-ft jointed-plain-dowelled concrete pavement comprising two lanes of 12- by 15-ft slabs paved by slip-form construction process on October 22, 2004. The longitudinal joints were tied and unsealed. Mn/DOT obtained samples and laboratory tested them for mechanical properties after rheological properties had been field evaluated. The inside lane and the outside lane will be loaded with the standard MnROAD 80-kip and 110-kip truck in the same frequency and load spectrum as other parts of the load volume road. Performance data will be continuously obtained from embedded strain gauges, vibrating wires, moisture sensors and thermocouples....Cell 54, Taconite, Concrete Pavement, Taconite-Overburdens, ASR, Shrinkage, Mesabi-Select...Izevbekhai, Bernard; Rohne, Ryan
160.MnROAD High Carbon Fly Ash Research Project 2008
The goal of this research project is to study a road base at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD) constructed with high carbon fly ash for long term monitoring of engineering and environmental characteristics. This study will provide a controlled long term evaluation of pavement base materials stabilized with High Carbon Fly Ash (HCFA). Engineering laboratory testing has shown HCFA to be a viable stabilizing material. Field construction of road test segments is necessary to validate the structural and environmental performance of high carbon fly ash stabilized bases.... ...Haifang, Wen
161.MnROAD Low Volume Road Cell Layout - Map 2008
This document contains Cell maps which describes the MnROAD Low Volume Road pavement test cell layout for the 2008 session. Newer versions may be available. Contact MnROAD staff for updates....Pavements, Testing, Minnesota, Design and construction, MnROAD...
162.MnROAD Low Volume Road Lessons Learned 2008
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) built the Minnesota Road Research Project MnROAD and its low volume road (LVR) between 1990-1993. The 2.5-mile LVR consists of a 2-lane roadway that originally contained gravel, hot mix asphalt, and concrete test sections designed for low volume road research. Each of these test sections are trafficked by a controlled 5-axle tractor-semi-trailer to simulate conditions of rural roads in two load configurations, resulting in the same equivalent axle loads (ESALs). Over the years a number of activities/studies have taken place using information from MnROAD's LVR. This paper is broken into six areas including the facility, hot mix asphalt, Portland cement concrete, aggregate surfacing, seasonal load limits, and non-pavement releated lessons learned. Each area will summarize the first 10 years of findings relating to the LVR and its impact on low volume roadways....Pavements, Performance, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, design methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, calibration, MnROAD...Worel, Benjamin; Clyne, Timothy; Burnham, Thomas; Johnson, David; Tompkins, Derek
163.MnROAD Low Volume Road Performance Related to Traffic Loadings 2008
The Minnesota Department of Transportation built the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) between 1990-1993. The Low Volume Road consists of a 2-lane roadway that originally contained hot mix asphalt (HMA) and Portland cement concrete (PCC) test sections. Each of these test sections is trafficked by a controlled 5-axle tractor-semi-trailer. The trucks have two different load configurations, resulting in the same Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs) over time. The first configuration consists of a legally-loaded 80,000 lb truck that runs on the inside lane four days per week, and the second configuration consists of an overloaded 102,000 lbs truck that runs on the outside lane one day per week. This paper compares the field performance of the different MnROAD test sections over time resulting from the different loading applications. As expected, the thermal cracking performance of HMA was not affected by the traffic loadings, as it is a distress caused by the environment. Similarly, the ride quality of both HMA and PCC pavements was not noticeably different between the two lanes. However, rutting and fatigue cracking of asphalt pavements and faulting of PCC pavements were more severe in the 80K lane than in the 102K lane. The higher number of repetitions at a lower load level in the 80K lane produced more distress than the lower number of repetitions at a higher load level in the 102K lane. The data presented in this paper shows that the concept of ESALs may not be appropriate for mechanisticempirical design procedures....Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Pavements, Performance, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, design methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, calibration, MnROAD...Worel, Benjamin; Clyne, Timothy
164.MnROAD Mainline Cell Layout - Map 2008
This document contains Cell maps which describes the MnROAD I-94 Mainline pavement test cell layout for the 2008 session. Newer versions may be available. Contact MnROAD staff for updates....Pavements, Testing, Minnesota, Design and construction, MnROAD...
165.Pavement Evaluation Using Ground Penetrating Radar2008-102008
The objective of this project was to develop an efficient and accurate algorithm for the back analysis of pavement conditions measured by ground penetrating radar (GPR). In particular, more reliable information about the thickness of the asphalt concrete (AC) layer and the dielectric constants of the AC and base layers were obtained from the electromagnetic field measurements performed on roads using GPR. A brief introduction to the existing methodology for interpreting GPR images is reviewed, and the theory associated with electromagnetic wave propagation in layered structures is described. Utilizing the full waveform solution, algorithms for back analysis of pavement conditions were developed based on the artificial neural network approach and the frequency response function concept. Software called ''GopherGPR'' uses the GPR signal from one antenna to interpret the characteristics of the AC layer with no assumptions on material properties. Thus, the new technique has the capability of providing information not previously available....GPR, thickness, dielectric constant evaluation...Cao, Yuejian; Guzina, Bojan; Labuz, Joseph
166.Performance of Ultra Thin Bound Wear Course Case Study Interstate 35 Southbound Mile Post 18 to 12 Field Review 2008
The roadway was originally constructed in 1970. The pavement was nine inches of reinforced concrete pavement laid 24 feet wide with panel length of 27 feet with skewed joint with doweled reinforcement. The shoulders widths are three feet inside and ten feet outside shoulder paved with HMA. The concrete had deteriorated to the point that the District personnel recommend doing a HMA overlay. The recommend overlay was placed with two 1½ inch of HVNW37540E layers and 1½ inches of HVWE37540E wearing coarse. The binder used was a P.G. 64-28. The length of the overlay was approximately covered six miles. The Northern two miles and Southern two miles received a total overlay thickness of ± 4.5 inches of HMA. The Center two miles received ± 4.5 inches of HMA followed by ¿ to ¾ inch of Ultra Thin Bonded Wearing Coarse (UTBWC). Observations in 2004, the two Sections that did not receive the UTBWC were cracked at a much greater rate then the Center Section that received the UTBWC.... ...Wood, Thomas
167.Putting Research into Practice: Using the DCP and LWD for Construction Quality AssuranceIMPL-LWDTS2008
For a highway to perform well over the long term, its soil and aggregate layers need to provide a stiff, stable foundation. Mn/DOT standards therefore require inspections during construction to ensure that pavement foundation materials have been compacted enough to ensure this condition. The sand cone test, which measures the density at a single point in a subgrade or base lift, has been used for many years to confirm an inspector’s visual inspection. This test can take more than an hour and includes a laboratory component, which pulls the inspector away from the site. New methods to replace this test have been developed that are quicker, can be performed entirely on-site and allow more flexibility by contractors so that construction doesn’t have to stop for testing. These new methods are safer for inspectors: Less time kneeling near traffic at a construction site means fewer accidents.... ...Siekmeier, John
168.Recent Forensic Activities at MnROAD: Using Field and Laboratory Test Data to Determine the Cause of Pavement Failures 2008
Forensic investigations have gained greater acceptance in the pavement engineering field in recent years. Forensic engineering is a valuable tool in an overall pavement management program. It can help engineers to determine the causes of early pavement failure, develop proper rehabilitation strategies of those pavements, and improve future pavement design and construction practices (1). Several organizations have active forensic engineering teams that are deployed periodically to investigate the mechanisms that cause early pavement failures. For example, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) developed a forensic investigation procedure based on the Scientific Method, which organizes the nvestigation into problem statement, observations, hypothesis formation, hypothesis testing, data analysis, iteration, and conclusions (2). This team has been used extensively to investigate failures in the pavement surface, base, and subgrade materials (3-4). Caltrans uses forensic investigations as a final piece in their maintenance treatment experiments (5). The National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) recently conducted a forensic investigation into the cause of early fatigue cracking in a perpetual pavement test section (6).... ...Clyne, Timothy; Eller, Andrew; Palek, Leonard
169.Recommended Practices for Crack Sealing HMA Pavement2008-542008
INV 822: This report is intended to present the conclusions from LRRB 822 Tasks 1-3 in combination with several other pertinent sources including: Chapter 4 of the Best Practices Handbook on Asphalt Pavement Maintenance (2000-04), the Guidelines for Sealing and Filling Cracks in Asphalt Concrete Pavement - Best Practice by the National Guide to Sustainable Municipal Infrastructure (NRC-CNRC, 2003), and Special Provision 2331, Bituminous Pavement Crack Treatment (Mn/DOT-Revised 2/7/2008)....HMA, Crack sealing, Asphalt concrete, Pavements, Best Practices...Johnson, Eddie; McGraw, Jim
170.Recommended Practices for Crack Sealing Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) PavementLRRB 8222008
Crack sealing is used for active cracks in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements; those which open in winter and close in summer. Crack filling is only intended to treat cracks that show little movement. Sealant installation is affected by a number of factors including: humidity, rout size, crack preparation method, heating time, sealant finishing and protection, and the temperature of air, sealant, and pavement. It is appropriate to crack seal or fill during spring or fall conditions since crack width is affected by temperature. Because of this, a compromise must be reached between the timing of optimal treatment width and other application conditions, usually best during summer....Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Roads, Sealing Technology, Crack Sealing, Sealing compounds, Surface treatments...McGraw, Jim; Johnson, Eddie
171.Rehabilitation of City Streets: A Case Study 2008
Full Depth Reclamation (FDR) is a particularly useful method for rehabilitating structurally failed pavements. City streets, once beyond their design life, tend to fail due to structural problems such as moisture damage in the base layer or alligator cracking. FDR is a relatively low-cost, energy saving method that is capable of solving pavement problems associated with the deeper layers of the base. It has been adopted as the preferred recycling technique in the USA and many other parts of the world. In addition, introducing an injected emulsion to the FDR materials further improves the overall pavement strength and resistance to moisture ingress. In this sense, FDR with injected emulsion is an ideal technique for rehabilitating or reconstructing low-volume roads that do not require a thick mat of hot mix asphalt (HMA), but could use some improvement of the pavement structure to resist moisture and improve strength....Pavements, Asphalt, Bituminous, Minnesota, Full Depth Reclamation, FDR, Evaluation, Performance, Low-volume roads, Design and construction, Rural roads, Minnesota, Aggregates, Base courses Subgrades...Eller, Andrew; Olson, Roger
172.Report of Pavement Surface Characteristics Mini-Rodeo (Mn/DOT Test Data and Data Comparison)2008-452008
In June 2008, Rob Rasmussen and the Iowa State University / Transtec TPF 5-(134) team were in Minnesota to do some testing on cells in MnROAD. As Mn/DOT had only recently completed Spring On Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) and friction testing, the effort was considered as a Mini-Rodeo, few days removed. It facilitated comparison of our methods and results and particularly offered some degree of calibration. Transtec/ MnDOT equipment variability did have a pronounced effect on the parallel tests. Mann Whitney Wilcoxon data comparison statistic performed at 95% confidence level corroborated the inference that the data set was similar and in consequence each of the 2 sets of data will be accepted as representing the sections tested. Comparing spring / summer 2008 data to 2007 fall data, there is an increase in OBSI value. Further work will ascertain if this observation is a weather-related time-series issue or if the actual durability of sustained low Tire-Pavement-Interaction-Noise (TPIN) in the innovative grind needs to be examined. This sudden noise increase in cells 60 to 63 has been attributed to rocking panels and joint-slap....On Board Sound Intensity, Surface Characteristics, Mann Whitney Wilcoxon, Pavement, Noise, MnROAD, Joint slap...Izevbekhai, Bernard
173.Road Rehabilitation Using Foamed Asphalt 2008
During the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973, the price of crude oil quadrupled to $12 per barrel. Subsequently the price of asphalt, the bottom of the crude oil barrel, also increased significantly during this time and the cost of highway construction and rehabilitation rose dramatically. Contractors and equipment manufacturers quickly recognized that recycling reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) could provide many benefits and opportunities. Milling machines were developed, hot mix asphalt plants were modified to allow the addition of RAP to mixes, and soil stabilization equipment was redesigned to reclaim existing pavements in-place.... ...Eller, Andrew; Olson, Roger
174.Sensor Technology for Decision Support of Spring Load Restrictions 2008
Spring load restrictions (SLR) are commonly used as a pavement preservation strategy in cold regions. Implementation of SLR has been found to bring about significant economic benefits by extending the pavement service life. Monitoring the degree of soil freeze–thaw status is crucial for making sound decisions on SLR implementation. Current tools to assist this decision are limited; they are unreliable and unable to provide timely data. As a result, the decisions on starting and ending of SLR, as well as the magnitude of load restrictions, are highly subjective. There remains room to optimize the benefits of this important transportation policy. A sensor and analysis method based on the time domain reflectometry (TDR) principle was developed that can accurately measure the degree of soil freeze–thaw status. Interesting results were obtained by using this technology to study the effects of freeze–thaw on soil mechanical behaviors. This sensor technology can assist in the implementation of SLR by (a) helping set the duration of SLR from accurately determining the degree of soil freeze–thaw status and (b) optimizing the level of road restrictions to optimize the cost and benefit between pavement preservation and freight industry. A field implementation of this technology is being conducted at Mn/Road, the world’s largest and most comprehensive outdoor roadway laboratory.... ...Yu, Xinbao; Liu, Nina; Yu, Xiong (Bill); Li, Ning
175.TH 241 Column-Supported EmbankmentCTS 08-112008
A pile-supported embankment constructed on TH 241 near St. Michael, MN was instrumented with 48 sensors, including strain gages on the piles and on the geogrid, as well as earth pressure cells and settlement systems near the base of the embankment. Pile supported embankments are relatively novel structures employed largely at bridge approaches and highway expansions where soft soils would otherwise lead to unacceptably large differential settlements. The structure typically consists of a number of capped piles, well-compacted gravel, and one or more layers of geogrid reinforcement above the piles. Analyses of the data suggest that the redistribution of the embankment load to the piles occurs within and above the so-called load transfer platform, a 1 m layer of geogridreinforced gravel. Arching seemed to take place within the embankment, such that the stress at the top of the platform was concentrated above the piles....pile-supported embankment, load transfer platform, earth pressure, soil arching, field instrumentation...Wachman, Gregory; Labuz, Joseph
176.Thermoplastic Inlay Pavement Markings: Field Performance and Effect on Hot Mix Asphalt 2008
This report documents study of the field performance of an inlay type thermoplastic pavement marking material along with the two-year-old bituminous pavement to which it was applied. Evaluation included physical performance of the product and the effect on overall durability of the pavement surface. The installation was performed in May, 2006 on a bituminous test cell at MnROAD’s Low Volume Road. 524 square feet of inlaid thermoplastic pavement marking material were installed on a surface of 4 in. Superpave hot mix asphalt, including one segment installed along 100 ft of left wheel path of a lane that received standard truck load configurations, and two crosswalks that received load configurations that varied by lane. During the period between May 16, 2006 and August 1, 2007 Cell 26 received 6,809 and 2,003 repetitions of the standard 80K and overloaded 102K truck configurations respectively. The installation was a decorative treatment, not a retrofit of longitudinal lines on the existing pavement.... ...Izevbekhai, Bernard; Olson, Roger; Johnson, Eddie
177.Thin and Ultra-thin Concrete Overlays (MnROAD Lessons Learned) 2008
Thin and ultra-thin concrete overlays (also known as whitetoppings) are a pavement rehabilitation option that has been increasing in popularity in the U.S. over the past 15 years. One area of deficiency in the use of ultra-thin and thin concrete overlays is the lack of a rational design method. While several local (1,2) and industry (3,4) design methods have been formulated, few are based on mechanistic-empirical research born out of actual field performance. Fortunately, the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) has contributed significantly to the understanding of the field performance of thin and ultra-thin concrete overlays. In 1997, three thin (TWT) and three ultra-thin (UTW) concrete overlay test sections were constructed on the interstate portion of the MnROAD facility. The objective in locating these thin concrete surface layers on the interstate was to accelerate traffic related distresses. In 2004, after enduring over 6 million concrete equivalent single axles loads (CESALs), the UTW test sections needed to be replaced due to severe surface distresses. Later that year, four new thin concrete overlay test sections were constructed in their place. Table 1 summarizes the experimental designs studied at the MnROAD facility....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Whitetopping, Pavements, Concrete, Thin Whitetopping, Ultra-thin Whitetopping, Concrete overlay...Burnham, Thomas
178.Use of Taconite Materials, MnROAD Update 2008
The goal is to assess potentially suitable, available aggregate resources that could supply an abundant, high quality, low cost aggregate for roadway use. This effort will help pave the way to use this material in the near future, especially in areas that aggregates are becoming scarce. Currently this aggregate material from the Iron Range is considered "waste product" relating to their taconite production, but it has high potential for its use in our roadways which includes the use of fine to coarse taconite aggregate materials in hot mix asphalt, concrete mixes, and other pavement applications for both its constructability and field performance over time. This would help create a greater comfort level for the use of this aggregate and help promote its use in the state and the nation...Pavements, Asphalt, Bituminous, Moisture, Testing, Aggregates (Building materials), Testing...Worel, Benjamin
179.2007 MnROAD Research Projects: Construction Experiences and Preliminary Results 2007
MnROAD was built in the early 1990s and has seen approximately 13 years of traffic and environmental loadings. As MnROAD enters Phase II of its existence several research projects were initiated that necessitated the reconstruction of pavement test sections in 2007. One research study plans to test various configurations of heavy farm equipment (manure tankers in particular) and assess the resulting damage in comparison to a typical 80,000 lb truck. A second study plans to stabilize a full-depth reclamation base material with off-spec fly ash and compare its performance to both a non-stabilized FDR and a conventional aggregate base. The third study is a field validation of previous laboratory work on polyphosphoric acid modified asphalt binders. The final study is a field validation of an innovative diamond grinding pattern for concrete pavements developed by Purdue University. These projects are the result of partnerships between the Minnesota Department of Transportation and private industry (Bloom Consultants, Innophos, MTE Services, DuPont, Paragon Technical Services, American Concrete Paving Association, International Grinding and Grooving Association, and the Professional Nutrient Applicators Association of Wisconsin), government agencies (Federal Highway Administration, Department of Energy, and the Minnesota Local Road Research Board), and other state DOTs (Texas, Wisconsin, and Iowa) through the Transportation Pooled Fund Program. This paper highlights the construction experiences on these projects as well as early results of field performance (including non-destructive testing) and instrumentation response to traffic and environmental loads. The test sections will continue to be monitored over time as the research studies progress.... ...Clyne, Timothy; Wallgren, Lange; Worel, Benjamin
180.A Field Investigation of the Influence of Texture on Ride Quality Measurements 2007
Prior to 2003 Minnesota Department of Transportation specified ride quality in the 2/10ths inch(2.5mm) blanking band. Application of this specification to many construction projects resulted in some undesirable riding conditions such as chatter that could not be penalized. To solve this problem, the department decided to change to a Zero blanking band en-route an international Roughness index (IRI) Specification. Contractors expressed concern that the zero blanking band may result in strict penalties since texture effects on ride measurement had not been quantified. This investigation created un-textured strips between astro-turf textured finished strips on a paving project on US trunk Highway 212 between Olivia and Bird Island.. A lightweight profiler and a California profilograph were used to measure ride quality, on each strip before and after joint-establishment. Further measurements were done on the surface after diamond grinding.... ... Izevbekhai, Bernard;
181.Adaptation of the 2002 Guide for the Design of Minnesota Volume Portland Cement Concrete Pavements2007-232007
A new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), also known as the 2002 Design Guide, was recently proposed in the United States. The development of such a procedure was conducted by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) under sponsorship by the AASHTO. The Design Guide is a significant innovation in the way pavement design is performed. A comprehensive evaluation of the MEPDG performance predictions was conducted. It was found that the faulting model produced acceptable predictions, while the cracking model had to be adjusted. The cracking model was recalibrated using the design and performance data for 65 pavement sections located in Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois. A prototype of the catalog of recommended design features for Minnesota low volume PCC pavements was developed using the MEPDG version 0.910. The catalog offers a variety of feasible design alternatives (PCC and base thickness, joint spacing and PCC slab width, edge support type, and dowel diameter) for a given combination of site conditions (traffic, location, and subgrade type). It is recognized, however, that version 0.910 is not the final version of the MEPDG. Therefore, the catalog should be updated after the MEPDG software is finalized....pavement design, concrete pavements, mechanistic-empirical, design catalog, transverse cracking, joint faulting, calibration...Yut, Iliya; Husein, Shariq; Turgeon, Carly; Khazanovich, Lev
182.Appendices to Implementation of Ground Penetrating Radar2007-34a2007
The objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for use in local road applications. The effectiveness of a GPR survey is a function of site conditions, the equipment used, and experience of personnel interpreting the results. In addition, not all site conditions are appropriate for GPR applications. GPR is a nondestructive field test that can provide a continuous profile of existing road conditions. GPR utilizes high-speed data collection at speeds up to 50 mph, thus requiring less traffic control and resulting in greater safety. GPR has the potential to be used for a variety of pavement applications, including measuring the thickness of asphalt pavement, base and sub-grade; assisting in the analysis of rutting mechanisms; calculating and verifying material properties; locating subsurface objects; detecting stripping and/or layer separation; detecting subsurface moisture; and determining depth to near-surface bedrock and peat deposits. These applications are discussed in reference to 22 projects completed throughout the State of Minnesota. A brochure can be located at the following address http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/gpr1.pdf...Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Pavements, Evaluation, Testing, Ground penetrating radar, GPR, Nondestructive testing...Cao, Yuejian; Dai, Shongtao; Labuz, Joseph; Pantelis, John
183.Demonstration of Ash Utilization In Low Volume Roads2007-122007
Two field projects are described where cementitious fly ashes (10% by dry weight) and water were mixed to stabilize recycled pavement materials and road-surface gravel to form a base during reconstruction of a city street in Waseca, MN, and construction of a flexible pavement in a segment of gravel country road, CR 53 in Chisago County, MN, respectively. Addition of fly ash improves the stiffness and strength of the base materials significantly. A resilient modulus of minimum 50 MPa appears safe to assume irrespective of the base material at the end of construction due to fly ash stabilization. However, moduli of 100 MPa or more can also be achieved. There is no evidence of frost-induced degradation in the field over a single season of winter. Chemical analysis of the draining leachate from the fly ash-stabilized layers showed that the concentrations of trace elements (with the exception of Mn) were below USEPA maximum contaminant levels and Minnesota health risk levels. Longer-term monitoring is needed to fully understand the potential for leaching of trace elements and frost action during the service life. These field cases show that fly ash stabilization provides an effective and economical means of providing a base for asphalt paving using existing roadway materials....Fly ash, road surface gravel, recycled pavement material, stabilization, modulus, frost action, eachate quality...Edil, Tuncer; Benson, Craig
184.Demonstration of Ash Utilization in Low Volume Roads2007-122007
When doing construction on a road that is not expected to have a lot of traffic, it can be very expensive to haul away poor-quality soil or existing road material and replace it with new, more stable base materials. Using poor base materials, however, can result in a bumpy road with a shortened pavement life. An alternative is to stabilize the existing base materials using fly ash, a by-product of coal-fired power plants that is normally landfilled. Fly ash is self-cementing: It chemically reacts with soil (or recycled pavement material, or road surface gravel) and water to form a strong and stable base for hot-mix asphalt pavement. This can increase pavement life, permit use of a thinner HMA layer, and improve ride quality. Pavement reconstruction using fly ash to stabilize recycled materials costs considerably less than traditional total reconstruction; some estimates of this savings run as high as 66 percent. While fly ash has been used to strengthen soils for more than 20 years, its long-term effectiveness in road reconstruction has previously been largely undocumented in Minnesota. There are also environmental concerns about its use, and Mn/DOT has not yet established design guidelines for fly ash stabilization. A systematic demonstration and implementation effort is needed to achieve widespread acceptance.... ...Siekmeier, John; Rindels, Alan; Edil, Tuncer
185.Development of a Computer Program for Selecting Peak Dynamic Sensor Responses from Pavement Testing2007-492007
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) routinely collects response data from pavement sensors as part of its pavement research studies. The largest source of response data is collected at the Minnesota Road Research (MnROAD) facility. To efficiently extract peak and baseline values from dynamic sensor responses, the University of Minnesota in 2001 developed an automated process for Mn/DOT researchers using the MATLAB« program. As time went on, sensor data format and computer operating system changes resulted in antiquation of the original peak-picking program. In 2006, the University of Minnesota was again secured to update the program using a current version of MATLAB«. Significant improvements were also made toward automating the peak and baseline response selection, and accommodating flexible data input types. This report combines the task reports and program user guide from the project into one source, to serve as a reference for future changes in the program. The computer program developed in this project has significantly increased dynamic response data processing from MnROAD and other pavement research studies....Pavements, Test Sections, Minnesota, Evaluation, Data processing, Databases, data validation, Peak Dynamic Responses, Mathematical models...Burnham, Thomas; Tewfik, Ahmed; Srirangarajan, Seshan
186.Effects of Subsurface Drainage on Pavement PerformanceNCHRP Report 5832007
Subsurface drainage systems are commonly believed to be beneficial to the performance of both asphalt concrete (AC) and portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements. Over at least the past 80 years, pavement engineers have observed that excessive water in pavement structures can accelerate rutting, fatigue cracking, and roughness in AC pavements and faulting, fatigue cracking, D-cracking, reactive aggregate distress, and roughness in PCC pavements. The use of subsurface drainage systems has been widely advocated as a way to combat the detrimental effects of water in pavement structures. Such drainage systems include not just granular bases, but also open-graded granular or treated layers and longitudinal edgedrains and outlets. Guidance on the design and construction of subsurface drainage systems is readily available (1-10)....Road drainage, Subsurface drainage, Groundwater flow, Pavements, Design and construction...Hall, Kathleen; Crovetti, James
187.Evaluation of Paving Fabrics for Isolation of Bituminous Cracking2008-022007
New studies propose to upgrade thousands of County State Aid Highway (CSAH) miles from 7-ton to 9-ton to 10-ton routes. Bituminous pavements require major maintenance for both thermal and distress crack repairs. Structural or maintenance overlays often include intensive and expensive milling or reclaim operations to reduce the effects of existing cracking or crack sealants. Less expensive alternatives to isolate existing problems, retain strength and usability of existing roadways are needed. Paving fabric may: 1) Isolate overlay pavements from current cracking and moisture intrusion paths, 2) Allow retention of base and bituminous for route upgrades, and 3) Reduce the need for and impacts of future crack treatments. This report describes results to date over a three year period of testing spun glass paving fabric as a means of preserving existing bituminous pavements by isolating the effects of heavy crack sealants and reflective cracking. It describes test segments, photo documentation of pre-pave conditions, material used, installation with bituminous overlay projects, monitoring and evaluation, pre-and post-installation surface conditions for the contract report period (2+ years), results of FWD strength comparisons and cost comparisons with mill and replace, and two years' electronic file photo documentation of cracking with/without pavement fabric between new/old bituminous....Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Overlays, Paving Fabrics, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Cracking, Pavements, Overlays...Kleven, Courtney "Corky"
188.Field Validation of Intelligent Compaction2007-10TS2007
For a road to perform well over the long term, its subgrade and base layers need to be compacted to provide a stable, uniform foundation for the upper pavement. Intelligent compaction is a promising technology for improving the uniformity and quality of soil compaction: IC allows for real-time measurements of the subgrade and the automatic adjustment of the force of compaction to soil conditions.Because IC is still a new technology without a long history of use in the United States, several challenges remain before it can be successfully implemented in earthwork construction projects. IC rollers use a proprietary measurement system that has not been fully correlated with in situ devices currently used to measure soil properties in the field, including the nuclear gauge, dynamic cone penetrometer and light weight deflectometer. Also, because IC rollers make continuous measurements, they produce very large amounts of data that can be difficult to manage.... ...Siekmeier, John; Moe, Clark; White, David
189.Field Validation of Intelligent Compaction Monitoring Technology for Unbound Materials2007-102007
The successful implementation of intelligent compaction technology into earthwork construction practice requires knowledge of the roller-integrated compaction measurements and their relationships with the engineering and index properties of soil that may be used for pavement design (e.g. California bearing ratio, elastic modulus, resilient modulus). These relationships were studied at three earthwork construction projects in Minnesota. In these field studies, intelligent compaction and in-situ test data were collected to demonstrate use of the various technologies, characterize the variation associated with each measurement system, and ultimately aid performance of regression analyses. For the pilot study at TH 64, a GIS database was created with roller data and parallel quality assurance data to demonstrate one method for managing large quantities of data. Spatial statistics were also determined using variogram modeling and discussed with regards to their potential for characterizing uniformity. A laboratory compaction study using different compaction methods (e.g. static, impact, gyratory, and vibratory) was conducted to show different moisture-density-compaction energy relationships for granular and cohesive soils. Resilient modulus test results showed that vibratory and impact compaction methods produce higher-modulus samples than static compaction. The findings from field studies of intelligent compaction systems provide the basis for developing QC/QA guidelines regarding effective and appropriate use of the technology. These recommendations, along with a brief summary of European specifications for continuous compaction control, are provided in the report....earthwork quality, in-situ testing, resilient modulus, laboratory compaction testing, geostatistics, intelligent compaction...White, David; Thompson, Mark; Vennapusa, Pavana
190.Flexible Slurry System 2007
The flexible slurry system is a mixture of emulsified asphalt, high quality crushed aggregate, and water. Depending upon the design, flexible slurry can be used in place of a blade leveling course prior to bituminous overlay or as a wear course. Flexible slurry is constructed using a micro surfacing machine, but is less brittle than a usual micro surface mixture. Historically Minnesota has used one type of emulsified asphalt (PG 64-22); but recent experimentation with binder grades shows that enhanced rutting and cracking performance is possible. Low speed traffic can aid in the curing and consolidation of flexible slurries....Pavements, Bituminous, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Minnesota, Surface Treatements, Flexible Slurry, Design and Construction...Johnson, Eddie; Olson, Roger; Wood, Thomas
191.Flexible Slurry–Microsurfacing System for Overlay Preparation1989 Vol. 22007
Microsurfacing mixtures are made of high-quality aggregate and asphalt emulsion components. They are produced at the project site by a mobile microsurfacing machine that mixes and places the product. Normal microsurface designs contain approximately 13.5% emulsion and include a performance grade (PG) 64-22 asphalt cement (AC). This study investigates the field performance of softer-AC flexible slurry surfacing mixtures used for preparation and surface courses. A PG 48-34 AC was chosen for flexible slurry–microsurfacing mixtures constructed on four test cells at the Minnesota Road Research Project low-volume road facility near Albertville, Minnesota, in September 2005. This AC was used to produce mixtures for both surface preparation and wear courses. The mixtures used a reduced emulsion percentage for rut filling and an increased emulsion percentage for normal leveling courses. A single surface course mixture with the increased emulsion level was placed over the entire project. Pre- and postconstruction evaluations of cracking, rutting, and smoothness were performed. These evaluations were repeated at 6 months, following one winter of service. At 6 months an overall 71% of transverse cracking had reflected through the microsurface. Reflected distress from longitudinal cracks and patched areas was negligible. The rutting condition at 7 months was found to be similar to that at postconstruction, in which an overall 20% decrease was attributed to microsurfacing. Smoothness was favorably affected by microsurfacing construction. International roughness index values were correlated to the amount of material placed in the surface preparation course.... ...Johnson, Ed; Wood, Thomas; Olson, Roger
192.Implementation of Ground Penetrating Radar2007-342007
The objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for use in local road applications. The effectiveness of a GPR survey is a function of site conditions, the equipment used, and experience of personnel interpreting the results. In addition, not all site conditions are appropriate for GPR applications. GPR is a nondestructive field test that can provide a continuous profile of existing road conditions. GPR utilizes high-speed data collection at speeds up to 50 mph, thus requiring less traffic control and resulting in greater safety. GPR has the potential to be used for a variety of pavement applications, including measuring the thickness of asphalt pavement, base and sub-grade; assisting in the analysis of rutting mechanisms; calculating and verifying material properties; locating subsurface objects; detecting stripping and/or layer separation; detecting subsurface moisture; and determining depth to near-surface bedrock and peat deposits. These applications are discussed in reference to 22 projects completed throughout the State of Minnesota. A brochure can be located at the following address http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/gpr1.pdf...Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Pavements, Evaluation, Testing, Ground penetrating radar, GPR, Nondestructive testing...Cao, Yuejian; Dai, Shongtao; Labuz, Joseph; Pantelis, John
193.Implementation of Ground Penetrating Radar - Technical Summary Report 2007
Technical Summary - The objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for use in local roadway applications. The effectiveness of a GPR survey is a function of site conditions, the equipment used, and experience of personnel interpreting the results. In addition, not all site conditions are appropriate for GPR applications. This summary report will give the local engineer a brief overview of GPR. A review of GPR applications for use on local roads is also available. The Final Report describes the results of GPR surveys performed throughout the State of Minnesota....Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Pavements, Evaluation, Testing, Ground penetrating radar, GPR, Nondestructive testing...Dai, Shongtao; Labuz, Joseph; Pantelis, John; Guzina, Bojan; Skok, Eugene
194.Implementation of an International Roughness Index for Mn/DOT Pavement Construction and Rehabilitation2007-092007
This report documents the development and preparation for implementation of a specification for using International Roughness Index, using an inertial profiler, as a smoothness measure for new portland cement concrete pavements in Minnesota. This new specification represents a departure from the use of the Profile Index, using a California Profilometer, for concrete pavement smoothness. In addition to providing recommendations to the Minnesota Department of Transportation regarding the implementation of the specification, the report contains additional information and analyses. These include a summary of the specifications in use by other states for measurement and incentive/disincentive payment for concrete pavement smoothness, an analysis of the effects of pavement surface characteristics on the International Roughness Index and the Profile Index, and a comparison of IRI-based concrete pavement smoothness specifications in use by other states. The report concludes with several recommendations for the new specification and for its administration and enforcement by the Minnesota Department of Transportation....Surface roughness, Measurement, Roads, Riding qualities, Pavements, Minnesota, maintenance and repair, International Roughness Index...Wilde, James
195.Interground Limestone Cement: Construction and 2-yr Performance of a Concrete Test Section 2007
Several countries around the world have used interground limestone cement (ILC) for several years in concrete construction. The results from various research projects do not all agree on the influence interground limestone has on the plastic and hardened properties of concrete, but most agree that the variability can be controlled if the limestone content remains at or below 5%. To better understand the performance of ILC, a test section of concrete flatwork was poured in a median in Baxter, Minnesota in October 2004. This test section was constructed with concrete made with and without interground limestone in the cement. The physical and chemical properties of both cements were very similar. Tests of the fresh and hardened properties of both concretes placed in the field suggest very similar properties with slightly higher strengths for the interground limestone cement. The reason for the increased strength of the interground limestone is uncertain but may have been related to a reduced w/cm ratio. The test section is performing well after more than 2 years. Based on this small test section it appears that mechanical properties similar to normal concrete can be achieved using <5% interground limestone in the cement....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Design and construction, limestone, cement, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Testing, Performance...Whiting, Nancy
196.Investigation of Low Temperature Cracking in Asphalt Pavements2007-43, National Pooled Fund Study 7762007
Good fracture properties are an essential requirement for asphalt pavements built in the northern part of the US and in Canada for which the predominant failure mode is cracking due to high thermal stresses that develop at low temperatures. Currently, there is no agreement with respect to what experimental methods and analyses approaches to use to investigate the fracture resistance of asphalt materials and the fracture performance of asphalt pavements. This report presents a comprehensive research effort in which both traditional and new experimental protocols and analyses were applied to a statistically designed set of laboratory prepared specimens and to field samples from pavements with well documented performance to determine the best combination of experimental work and analyses to improve the low temperature fracture resistance of asphalt pavements. The two sets of materials were evaluated using current testing protocols, such as creep and strength for asphalt binders and mixtures as well as newly developed testing protocols, such as the disk compact tension test, single edge notched beam test, and semi circular bend test. Dilatometric measurements were performed on both asphalt binders and mixtures to determine the coefficient of thermal contraction. Discrete fracture and damage tools were utilized to model crack initiation and propagation in pavement systems using the finite element method and TCMODEL was used with the experimental data from the field samples to predict performance and compare it to the field performance data....Pavements, Asphalt, Effect of low temperatures on, Pavements, Asphalt, Cracking, Minnesota, Testing, Low temperature tests, Fracture properties...Marasteanu, Mihai; Zofka, Adam; Turos, Mugur; Li, Xinjun; Velasquez, Raul; Li, Xue; Buttlar, William; Paulino, Glaucio; Braham, Andrew; Dave, Eshan; Ojo, Joshua; Bahia, Hussain; Williams, Christopher; Bausano, Jason; Gallistel, Allen; McGraw, Jim
197.Investigation of Low Temperature Cracking in Asphalt Pavements - Summary 2007
See Also 2007-43, National Pooled Fund Study 776: Good fracture properties are an essential requirement for asphalt pavements built in the northern part of the US and in Canada for which the predominant failure mode is cracking due to high thermal stresses that develop at low temperatures. Currently, there is no agreement with respect to what experimental methods and analyses approaches to use to investigate the fracture resistance of asphalt materials and the fracture performance of asphalt pavements. This report presents a comprehensive research effort in which both traditional and new experimental protocols and analyses were applied to a statistically designed set of laboratory prepared specimens and to field samples from pavements with well documented performance to determine the best combination of experimental work and analyses to improve the low temperature fracture resistance of asphalt pavements. The two sets of materials were evaluated using current testing protocols, such as creep and strength for asphalt binders and mixtures as well as newly developed testing protocols, such as the disk compact tension test, single edge notched beam test, and semi circular bend test. Dilatometric measurements were performed on both asphalt binders and mixtures to determine the coefficient of thermal contraction. Discrete fracture and damage tools were utilized to model crack initiation and propagation in pavement systems using the finite element method and TCMODEL was used with the experimental data from the field samples to predict performance and compare it to the field performance data....Pavements, Asphalt, Effect of low temperatures on, Pavements, Asphalt, Cracking, Minnesota, Testing, Low temperature tests, Fracture properties...Marasteanu, Mihai; Zofka, Adam; Turos, Mugur; Li, Xinjun; Velasquez, Raul; Li, Xue; Buttlar, William; Paulino, Glaucio; Braham, Andrew; Dave, Eshan; Ojo, Joshua; Bahia, Hussain; Williams, Christopher; Bausano, Jason; Gallistel, Allen; McGraw, Jim
198.Longitudinal Construction Joints Repair on I-494 2007
The longitudinal construction joints on this segment of roadway, Interstate 494 from Mile Post 2.143 to Mile Post 7.461 in both directions a three to four lane divided urban freeway, had deteriorated to the point that they were a possible safety issue, especially for motorcyclist. The Metro District maintenance forces had tried different methods of patching the longitudinal joint failure. The methods tried are either very expensive or leave poor driving surface. The decision was made to try using the Micro Surfacing technology to see if this would fill the joints and leave a smooth durable driving surface. The intent of the project was to repair the right fog line and the two skip lines that where exhibiting failures....Pavements, Bituminous, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Minnesota, Surface Treatements, Microsurfacing and Construction...Wood, Thomas
199.MnROAD Cell 64 Pervious Concrete, First Year Performance Report2007-172007
This report evaluates the first year performance of the Pervious Concrete test cell #64 located in the parking lot on the south side of the MnROAD pole barn. Performance measures utilized for this report include examination of stress-strain response through loading from the 80 kip MnROAD truck and Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). The FWD deflection basins were compared to those obtained for normal concrete of similar thickness design. The second performance measure was the vibrating wire strain gauge sensor response. Elastic modulus values were computed from the sensor data. In addition, petrographic analyses of cores taken from the test pad and pavements were performed to determine the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of pervious concrete pavement after the first year. Furthermore, a surface rating of the pavement was performed to corroborate petrographic and freeze-thaw data in order to ascertain the cause of any structural anomalies within the pervious concrete structure....Pavements, asphalt concrete, pervious concrete, Effect of temperature on, Pavement, Road drainage, surface drainage, voids, Pavements, Design and construction...Eller, Andrew; Izevbekhai, Bernard
200.MnROAD Lessons Learned2007-062007
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) began construction on the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) in 1991 and opened the full-scale pavement research facility to live traffic in 1994. Since the time of its construction, MnROAD, the first major test track since the AASHO Road Test of the 1950s and 1960s, has learned a number of lessons on behalf of the greater pavement community. As part of completing the first phase of MnROAD (its first ten years of operation), researchers at the University of Minnesota reviewed the many products of MnROAD's first phase. The Lessons Learned project involved over fifty interviews, three hundred published and unpublished reports, papers, and briefs, and an online survey of pavement professionals. This report presents an overview of MnROAD products of interest at the local, state, and national levels. Furthermore, the report provides extensive references for these products in hopes of increasing awareness of MnROAD's under-publicized contributions to pavement engineering....Minnesota Road Research Project, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Live loads, Research,Minnesota, Design and Construction, Asphalt, Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing...Tompkins, Derek; Khazanovich, Lev
201.Pavement Design Using Unsaturated Soil Technology2007-11TS2007
Pavements are constructed on compacted soils and aggregate materials that are typically unsaturated; this means that some of the pores between particles are filled with air instead of water. Keeping these materials unsaturated helps maintain subgrade stiffness and strength. However, soil suction changes as water content changes, and this has a significant effect on the shear strength of a pavement foundation. Design and maintenance measures that maintain a pavement foundation’s unsaturated condition have been largely based on empirical tests and previous experience. These empirical data do not directly account for the variations in soil suction that affect subgrade strength. Without data based on principles of unsaturated soil mechanics that consider the effects of soil suction, pavement designers cannot easily quantify when favorable engineering properties—for example, high shear strength—have been achieved; unnecessary measures may be taken that result in costly overengineering. Establishing soil suction resistance factors that predict the mechanical properties of unsaturated soils will help Mn/DOT design cost-effective pavement foundations that more closely approximate actual field conditions during construction and throughout the road’s service life.... ...Siekmeier, John; Warzala, Dan; Gupta, Satish
202.Pavement Design Using Unsaturated Soil Technology2007-112007
Pavements are constructed on compacted soils that are typically unsaturated. The negative pore-water pressure (soil suction) due to the ingress of water in between soil particles has a significant effect on pavement foundation stiffness and strength. The study characterized the effects of soil suction on shear strength and resilient modulus of four soils representing different regions of Minnesota. The deviator stress in shear strength measurements followed a power function relationship with soil suction. Resilient modulus also followed the power function relationship with suction but these relationships fell within a narrow range. We present models for incorporating suction effects in shear strength and resilient modulus measurements of highly compacted subgrade soils. We also briefly outline a framework for incorporating these models in the resistance factors of MnPAVE. Since soil water content and the resulting soil suction under the pavement varies with season, adjustments are needed to account for increased strength and stiffness of the material as a result of unsaturated soil conditions. These adjustments will not only reflect the more realistic field conditions but will result in more reliable performance predictions than the current pavement design method....resilient modulus, water retention, shear strength, soil density, shear stress, unsaturated soil mechanics...Gupta, Satish; Ranaivoson, Andry; Edil, Tuncer; Benson, Craig; Sawangsuriya, Auckpath
203.Pavement Rehabilitation Selection2008-062007
The objective of the project was to outline best practices for the selection of asphalt pavement recycling techniques from the many choices that are available. The report specifically examines cold-in-place recycling (CIR), plain full depth reclamation (FDR), and mill & overlay (M&O). Interviews, surveys, and site visits were conducted at both Mn/DOT districts and counties, where relevant rehabilitation information was supplied on over 120 projects. A database was constructed to organize the details of these projects, and the parameters in the database included (1) cracking, (2) ride, (3) rutting, (4) age, and (5) traffic volume. From studying the existing rehabilitation projects in the State, Ride Quality Index (RQI) and Surface Rating (SR) were selected as the descriptors of pavement surface condition. A decision procedure based on the analysis of all available projects was developed. The decision procedure included (1) consideration of road geometrics; (2) pavement condition survey; and (3) structural adequacy evaluation. Furthermore, a step-by-step checklist was developed to provide local engineers with a simple and useful tool to follow the decision procedures. The procedure includes selection of rehabilitation method, pavement thickness design, materials mixture design, and construction....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Testing, Pavements, Evaluation, Maintenance and repair...Skok, Eugene; Dai, Shongtao; Westover, Thomas; Lukanen, Erland; Labuz, Joseph
204.Performance of Ultra-Thin Bounded Wearing Course (UTBWC) Surface Treatment on US-169 Princeton, Minnesota2007-182007
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the performance of 1999 and 2000 ultra-thin bounded wearing course (UTBWC) surface treatment on US-169 in Princeton, Minnesota. The UTBWC consisted of gap graded course aggregate hot mix asphalt over a heavy asphalt emulsion layer and it was placed at an average thickness of 3/8". For comparison purposes, a control section was established to assess the performance of the overlay. This section continues to be maintained using standard sealing and patching techniques. The surface roughness and condition of these sections have been monitored on yearly basis. The overall performance of the UTBWC sections has been very good, while the control section is currently in need of major rehabilitation. The UTBWC appears to provide an economical choice for pavements in need of minor rehabilitation. In addition, UTBWC may prove beneficial as a preventive maintenance option. It should be considered for all sections with minor cracking and roughness distresses that do not stem from subgrade problems. Nationwide research has shown that UTBWC reduces deterioration caused by weathering, oxidation, traffic and provides good skid resistance, reduced rolling noise, reduction of hydroplaning, and back spray from roadway. UTBWC does not increase the structural capacity of the pavement, however, the use of UTBWC on new pavements as a wearing course could be considered....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Overlays, Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, Maintenance and repair, Ultra-Thin Bounded Wearing Course (UTBWC)...Ruranika, Malaki Musa; Geib, Jerry
205.Polymer Modified Asphalt Durability in PavementsFHWA/TX-07/0-4688-12007
This project was designed to develop 1) a better quantitative understanding of the relation between laboratory accelerated binder aging and field aging, 2) a test procedure to measure properties of an aged binder that relate to failure on the road, and 3) a proposed specification for estimating the relative durability of binders in the presence of oxidative aging. Tests were conducted on original base and polymer modified binders, laboratory compacted mixtures, and pavement-aged binders. The project necessarily evolved to a more comprehensive approach to improving pavement service life....Polymers, Polymer-impregnated Pavements, Asphalt, Bituminous, Concrete, Additives...Jun Woo, Won; Ofori-Abebresse, Edward; Chowdhury, Arif; Hilbrich, Jacob; Kraus, Zachary; Martin, Amy Epps; Glover, Charles
206.Populating Minnesota's Transportation Research Site Database2007-392007
In December 2003 the LRBB and Mn/DOT's Office of Materials allocated resources for a five-year project to identify, locate, describe, and track research test sections and other unique sites of interest on Minnesota (state and local) roadways. This became Investigation 809, Research Tracking for Local Roads. As the first step, Mn/DOT staff developed a database with a Web based user interface for entering and retrieving site data. The database was completed in 2004 and some individuals began to enter data into the database. With LRRB funds, a consultant was hired in November 2006 to facilitate and accelerate the collection, validation, and entry of data and also to make recommendations for database improvements. This report summarizes the efforts of that consultant. A number of recommendations are made in this report for improving the database and its user interface and for insuring that the database is robust. Each test section (site) in the database represents a significant investment of resources to design and construct something unique. Each site in the database may be of interest to other jurisdictions. Once constructed it could take years before the ultimate performance of a site can be determined. Meanwhile, champions change jobs and priorities change. This report raises a key question: How can we ensure a return on the investments made in site design and construction?...Pavements, Test Sections, Minnesota, Evaluation, Data processing, Databases, data validation...Johnson, David
207.Precast Concrete Pavement Panels On Minnesota Trunk Highway 62 - First Year Performance Report2007-192007
In June 2005, precast concrete pavement panels were installed during a trunk highway pavement rehabilitation project in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The panels were installed to evaluate the use of precast panels toward reducing construction time. Since it was the first precast concrete pavement panel project to be installed in Minnesota, it was deemed important to monitor the early and long-term performance of the system. This report describes the general condition of the precast pavement system after 1.5 years of service. The report also presents results from non-destructive testing conducted both immediately following construction and after one year of service. Finally, the report describes the condition of typical concrete pavement rehabilitation repairs conducted adjacent to the installed panels. A visual distress survey after 1.5 years of service revealed virtually no distress for both the precast panel sections and nearby conventional concrete pavement rehabilitation repairs. The ride quality of both the precast and conventional repair sections at 10 months of service was very smooth, with an International Roughness Index (IRI) value of approximately 50 inches per mile. The load transfer efficiencies of the precast panel joints were found to be over 90 percent after 1 year of service....Precast concrete construction, Prestressed concrete, Design and construction, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Testing, Concrete, pavements, design methods...Burnham, Thomas
208.Resilient Modulus And Strength Of Base Course With Recycled Bituminous Material2007-052007
The objective of the research was to determine the strength and deformation characteristics of base material produced from recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and aggregate. Various samples with different ratios of RAP and aggregate base were mixed (% RAP/aggregate): 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25. Laboratory compaction testing and field monitoring indicated that gyratory compacted specimens were closer to the densities measured in the field. Resilient modulus (MR) tests were generally conducted following the National Cooperative Highway Research Program 1-28A test protocol. MR increased with increase of confining pressure, but MR showed little change with deviator stress. The specimens with 65% optimum moisture contents were stiffer than the specimens with 100% optimum moisture contents at all confining pressures. Cyclic triaxial tests were conducted at two deviator stresses, 35% and 50% of the estimated peak stress, to evaluate recoverable and permanent deformation behavior from initial loading to 5000 cycles. The specimens with RAP exhibited at least two times greater permanent deformation than the 100% aggregate material. As %RAP increased, more permanent deformation occurred. In summary, the base material produced with various %RAP content performed at a similar level to 100% aggregate in terms of MR and strength when properly compacted....Pavements, Subgrades, Testing, Soil mechanics, Pavements, Bituminous,Recycling, RAP, Waste products as road materials, Testing, Minnesota, Resilient Modulus, Mathematical models...Kim, Woosung; Labuz, Joseph
209.Resilient Modulus Development of Aggregate Base and Subbase Containing Recycled Bituminous and Concrete for 2002 Design Guide and Mn/Pave Pavement Design2007-252007
The primary objective of this study was to quantify stiffness (resilient modulus) of aggregate base containing recycled asphalt and concrete pavements. After a survey of other state’s specifications and implementation guidelines, Minnesota recycling projects were selected based on the availability of laboratory resilient modulus (MR) tests and field measurements from FWD. The projects were County State Aid Highway 3, Trunk Highway 23 and Trunk Highway 200. Based on the results of a parametric study, it was found that traditional peak-based analysis of FWD data can lead to significant errors in elastostatic backcalculation. A procedure for extracting the static response of the pavement was formulated and implemented in a software package called GopherCalc. Laboratory resilient modulus measurements were compared with moduli backcalculated from the FWD data. The FWD data was analyzed using conventional (peak-based) and modified (FRF-based) elastostatic backcalculation (Evercalc) as well as a simplified mechanistic empirical model called Yonapave. Laboratory values from sequences in the MR protocol that produced a similar state-of-stress were used. Additionally, a seasonal analysis of FWD test data revealed a significant increase in stiffness when the pavement is in the frozen state....Resilient modulus, Falling weight deflectometer, Recycled asphalt pavement, Full depth reclamation...Westover, Thomas; Labuz, Joseph; Guzina, Bojan
210.Use of Ground Penetrating Radar to Evaluate Minnesota Roads2007-012007
The Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) funded a project to evaluate the usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in evaluating Minnesota roads. A literature search was first performed to review the applications of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to highway applications. These applications include calculating layer thickness, estimating asphalt density, determining aggregate base moisture content, identifying stripping within asphalt layers, detecting air voids and vertical cracks, identifying subsurface anomalies, and analyzing rutting mechanisms. The relative accuracy of using GPR as opposed to traditional field tests was assessed. A simple laboratory calibration was performed to estimate the thickness of a concrete slab to within 10%. Finally, a sensitivity study was performed to determine the dependence of various output parameters (minimum layer thickness, maximum depth of penetration, horizontal resolution, reflection coefficients, layer thickness, and air void thickness) on input parameters (antenna frequency and dielectric constant). GPR was successful in identifying total asphalt thickness on CSAH 61 in Pine County, and moderately successful in determining base thickness and identifying the underlying, original concrete roadway in select locations. The surveys were not successful in differentiating asphalt course thicknesses. The surveys also identified potential regions of stripping. GPR was not successful in locating near-surface bedrock or peat deposits on CSAH 48 in St. Louis County, because of the presence of a geo-textile membrane....Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Pavements, Evaluation, Testing, Ground penetrating radar, GPR, Nondestructive testing...Loken, Marc
211.2005 MnROAD - Pervious Concrete Project, Cell-64 Driveway Construction Report 2006
MnDOT and Aggregate Ready Mix Industries of Minnesota constructed a 6" thick 60 ft X16 ft pervious concrete pavement on a 12" thick, Coarse Aggregate CA-50 Base at MnROAD in September 2005. Prior to this a pervious granular layer, and pavement instrumentation were placed. This driveway was made up of sections representing 3 different mix designs placed 6 inches thick with one joint grooved into the pervious concrete while it was still in a plastic condition and a second joint that was constructed as a temporary header during the placement operation. To facilitate sampling without compromising the pervious matrix, replicate test pads of two mix designs were constructed on the east side of the Driveway. For destructive testing, cores will be taken from these pads periodically. This project will help answer the following questions: What is the Permeability change over a winter? Does sanding and salting affect the permeability? Does the surface ever get ice when the other surrounding surfaces do not? Bituminous and concrete pads are next to the Pervious Driveway. Can the Pervious Concrete withstand the environmental effects of a winter under sanding and salting conditions? What is the number of freeze thaw cycles monitored in the Pervious Concrete? This study is expected to produce valuable research results after the first 2 winters. The report also discusses yield, and workability as well as hydraulic modeling issues germane to pervious concrete....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Concrete, Pervious, Minnesota, Testing, Concrete, pavements...Izevbekhai, Bernard; Burnham, Thomas; Worel, Benjamin; MacDonald, Kevin; Burke, Brad; Frentress, Daniel
212.2006 Cell 1 Construction Report 2006
The purpose of this report is to provide details on the 2006 reconstruction of Cell 1 on the MnROAD Mainline. The condition of Cell 1 was deteriorating rapidly, primarily in the driving (right) lane. Top down cracking, transverse cracking, rutting, and ride quality have reached or are approaching levels that require extensive repair. A dense array of instrumentation was placed in the right wheel path in the vicinity of station 1105 + 50 during initial construction in 1993. The pavement was significantly weakened around these sensors and was becoming badly damaged by traffic. The driving lane required rehabilitation in the form of a 1.5-inch mill and overlay, which was performed as part of State Project No. 8680-152, in which two test sections on the MnROAD Low Volume Road were reconstructed. The asphalt mixture type was selected to complement a Local Road Research Board (LRRB) study entitled "Performance of PG 52-34 Oil on Local Roads." The objective of this study was to determine at which traffic level PG 52-34 could be used as an effective binder grade without being susceptible to rutting. The use of this binder on the Mainline under interstate traffic will provide an accelerated test and be a benefit for the LRRB study. This report documents the previous pavement condition, HMA mix design, and field construction activities....Pavements, Bituminous, Roads, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, retrofit sensors...Clyne, Timothy
213.2006 Cell 26 Installation Report: Thermoplastic Inlay on an Asphalt Pavement Surface 2006
The purpose of this report is to document the installation process of a thermoplastic pavement marking material on a 2 year old asphalt pavement and to provide an overview of historical information relating to the condition of Cell 26 up to the time of installation. Cell 26 extends from Station 170+75 to Station 174+65 on MnROAD's Low Volume Road. Mulvaney's (2004) construction report documented the history of Cell 26. In 2004 the cell was reconstructed using 4 in. of Superpave HMA over a 12-in. Class 6-Special aggregate base. The structural design is based on 20-year ESAL's of 110,000, according to the MnPAVE design software. The mixture design is identified by Mn/DOT designation SPWEB240B-R. On May 16, 2006 a total 524 square feet of inlaid thermoplastic pavement marking material was installed on Cell 26. This area included two crosswalks placed across both traffic lanes and a 2 x 100-ft segment installed in the left wheel path of the 80K load lane. The project was part of a partnership agreement between Mn/DOT and Decorative Pavement Marking, LLC of Plymouth, Mn. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the physical properties of the product, including friction resistance and the evaluation of the overall durability of the pavement surface. Integrated Paving Concepts Inc. of Vancouver, B.C., the manufacturer of DuraThermÖ, supported the project and assisted DPM in the installation process....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Additives, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair...Johnson, Eddie; Holt, Dave
214.2006 Cells 27 & 28 Construction Report 2006
The purpose of this report is to provide details on the 2006 reconstruction of Cells 27 and 28 on MnROAD's Low Volume Road. There were three significant aspects of research behind the test cell reconstruction: field validation of a Geocomposite Capillary Barrier Drain (GCBD) for limiting moisture changes in pavements, Intelligent Compaction (IC) research performed on the unbound base and subgrade layers, and accelerated testing of PG 52-34 binder to support a Local Road Research Board (LRRB) project. This report documents the previous pavement condition, pavement structural and mix designs, instrumentation plan, field construction activities, material sampling, and laboratory test results. Significant effort in communication and coordination between research and construction personnel led to a successful construction project....Pavements, Minnesota, Road drainage, Subsurface drainage, Groundwater flow, Pavements, Design and construction, Geocomposite Capillary Barrier Drain, GCBD...Clyne, Timothy; Roberson, Ruth; Siekmeier, John
215.2006 MnROAD Pervious Concrete Project, Pervious Concrete Sidewalk Project 2006
In a partnership agreement with Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) the Aggregate Ready Mix Association of Minnesota (ARM) constructed a Pervious Concrete sidewalk at the MnRoad facility. In this cooperation, Mn/DOT provided the location, equipment and expertise to instrument and monitors the performance of the sidewalk. ARM provided the materials needed to construct approximately 1200 square feet of sidewalk. Construction of the pervious concrete sidewalk took place on September 13 & 18, 2006. This sidewalk was constructed with three different types of pervious concretes, a colored pervious concrete (gray) mix with 3/8" minus granite aggregate (mix #1), a pervious concrete mix with 3/8" minus gravel aggregate and 5% sand (mix #2) and a pervious concrete mix with Kraemer limestone aggregate, polypropylene fibers and 5% sand (Mix #3). This last mix has been placed successfully in Iowa with mix design specifications supplied by Iowa State University....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Concrete, Pervious, Minnesota, Testing, Concrete, pavements...Worel, Benjamin; Frentress, Daniel; Clendenen, Joe
216.Climate Research at MnROAD 2006
From the beginning, MnROAD was imagined by its planners as a cold-regions research facility for pavements. In its first decade of operation, MnROAD was the site of numerous experiments whose main aim was to observe the effects of a Minnesota winter (or more than one winter) on the pavement system, from the materials in the surface course to the soils in subgrade. In holding to its goals as a cold-regions research facility, MnROAD engineers developed an extensive knowledge of pavement construction, design, and maintenance in cold-regions climates. In many areas, MnROAD engineers were pioneers in their particular cold-regions study: for instance, MnROAD engineers were some of the first in the United States to closely observe low-temperature cracking in pavements. Furthermore, MnROAD has gathered a significant amount of environmental data and data related to cold-regions phenomena such as low-temperature cracking. This brief details some of the MnROAD products dealing with MnROAD’s experience in cold-regions pavements.... ...Worel, Ben
217.Comparison of Profile Index and International Roughness Index for Pavement Smoothness Incentive Specifications 2006
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) is currently evaluating a change from the Profile Index (PI) to the International Roughness Index (IRI) for smoothness specifications for portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements. This change has already occurred for bituminous pavements in Minnesota. The Mn/DOT Office of Materials, as well as paving contractors in Minnesota, is naturally concerned with the effects that this change will have on the quality of pavement surfaces and on the incentives paid for new pavement smoothness. The Office of Materials has funded an “implementation” project to compare the two smoothness statistics and to provide recommendations for implementing the new specification. This paper contains several analyses and comparisons of the relative effects of pavement features in design and construction with regard to the results of pavement surface smoothness and incentive computations. It also contains an analysis of segment length for incentive/disincentive calculations on PCC pavement projects. The information presented in this paper can be useful to those considering changing pavement smoothness specifications from profile index to international roughness index.... ...Wilde, James; Izevbekhai, Bernard; Krause, Michael
218.Construction Report for MnROAD Thin Whitetopping Test Cells 60-632006-182006
After seven years of heavy traffic and weathering, three ultra-thin whitetopping test cells on the interstate portion of the Minnesota Road Research project (MnROAD) had reached terminal serviceability. Those three test cells were replaced by four new thin-whitetopping test cells in October 2004. This report describes the physical characteristics of the new whitetopping test cells 60-63. The report also summarizes the results from the material tests and curl and warp measurements taken during, and immediately following, construction of the test cells....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Concrete Joints, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Whitetopping...Burnham, Thomas
219.Drainage and Pavement Performance 2006
One of the more difficult aspects of a pavement system for the engineer to study is the system’s response to moisture. Along with the dynamic (load response) sensors installed during the construction of MnROAD, engineers at MnROAD also installed a variety of sensors to monitor the environmental effects that the pavement systems experience. Furthermore, MnROAD engineers conduct a variety of environmental measurements to monitor the test pavements. After ten years of operation, MnROAD engineers have collected a long history of data for analysis. Furthermore, thanks to the reconstruction of some test cells, MnROAD engineers have been able to develop full-scale experiments to test various hypotheses about pavement drainage. This brief will detail some analysis and experiments using MnROAD data and/or the MnROAD facility.... ...Olson, Roger
220.Duration of Spring-Thaw Recovery for Aggregate-Surfaced Roads2006-122006
Low-volume roads constructed in regions susceptible to freezing and thawing periods are often at risk of load-related damage during the spring-thaw period. The reduced support capacity during the thawing period is a result of excess melt water that becomes trapped above the underlying frozen layers. Many agencies place spring load restrictions (SLR) during the thaw period to reduce unnecessary damage to the roadways. The period of SLR set forth by the Minnesota Department of Transportation is effective for all flexible pavements; however, experience suggests that many aggregate-surfaced roads require additional time relative to flexible pavements to recover strength sufficient to carry unrestricted loads. An investigation was performed to improve local agencies' ability to evaluate the duration of SLR on aggregate-surfaced roadways. This was accomplished through seasonal measurements of in-situ shear strengths, measured using the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP), on various Minnesota county routes. In-situ strength tests were conducted on selected county gravel roads over the course of three years. Strength levels recorded during the spring-thaw weakened period were compared to fully recovered periods that typically occur in late spring/summer. The results indicate that aggregate-surfaced roads generally require 1 to 3 additional weeks, over that of flexible pavements, to reach recovered bearing capacity. Additionally, a strong correlation was found between duration required to attain given strength recovery values and climatic and grading inputs....Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Rural roads, Aggregates surface, Live loads, Roads, Frost damage, spring load restrictions...Embacher, Rebecca
221.Educational Benefits of MnROAD 2006
Since opening for operations in 1994, MnROAD has served the pavement community in many capacities. One frequently overlooked intangible benefit of MnROAD’s first ten years of operations is the involvement of MnROAD in educating pavement engineers. The educational contributions of MnROAD are most noticeable in the close relationship between MnROAD and the University of Minnesota (UM). The UM/MnROAD partnership has assisted a large number of under- and post-graduate students in their classwork or research, and this partnership is directly responsible for the creation of two dedicated pavement professors in the Department of Civil Engineering at UM. Furthermore, MnROAD has been used throughout its lifespan as a staging facility for a variety of demonstrations and verification testing of a number issues for all members of the pavement community. The number of MnROAD engineers who have moved on to other positions in pavement engineering and used their MnROAD experience to great success also suggests both the educational benefits and far-reaching influence of MnROAD in pavement engineering. Finally, MnROAD’s extensive database and long history of well-documented research ensures that MnROAD will continue to educate pavement engineers far into the future. 2... ...Worel, Ben
222.Field Performance Evaluation of Thermoplastic Inlay on an Asphalt Pavement Surface 2006
The purpose of this report is to document the field evaluation of a thermoplastic pavement marking material on a 2 year old asphalt pavement located on Cell 26 of MnROAD's Low Volume Road. HMA pavement reconstruction occurred on the test cell in 2004, using 4 in. of Superpave HMA over a 12-in. Class 6-Special aggregate base. The structural design is based on 20-year ESAL's of 110,000, according to the MnPAVE design software. The mixture design is identified by Mn/DOT designation SPWEB240B-R. On May 16, 2006 a total 524 square feet of inlaid thermoplastic pavement marking material was installed on Cell 26. This area included two crosswalks placed across both traffic lanes and a 2 x 100-ft segment installed in the left wheel path of the 80K load lane. The project was part of a partnership agreement between Mn/DOT and Decorative Pavement Marking, LLC of Plymouth, Mn. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the physical properties of the product, including friction resistance and the evaluation of the overall durability of the pavement surface. Integrated Paving Concepts Inc. of Vancouver, B.C., supported the project and assisted DPM in the installation process. During the period between May 16, 2006 and August 1, 2007 Cell 26 received 6,809 and 2,003 repetitions of the 80K and 102K truck configurations respectively....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Additives, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair...Johnson, Eddie; Holt, Dave
223.Improvement and Validation of Mn/DOT DCP Specifications for Aggregate Base Materials and Select Granular2005-322006
The major purpose of this project was to verify and improve the trial Mn/DOT Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) specification developed in 2002 through additional field tests and implementation on several pilot construction projects. Eleven construction projects from around the state were selected for testing during the summer of 2003. At each construction project, several locations were randomly selected for testing. At each location, various devices were used to obtain in-situ stiffness, strength, density and moisture data. In addition, samples were also taken for gradation and Proctor tests from the majority of the test locations. The materials included Select Granular, CL3, CL5, CL6, CL7 and full-depth reclamation. The proposed DCP specification from 2002 testing was validated and modified using the 2003 data....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, DCP, Road drainage, Minnesota, Testing , Compacting, base compaction...Dai, Shongtao; Kremer, Charlie
224.Intelligent Compaction and In-Situ Testing at Mn/DOT TH532006-132006
This report describes an intelligent compaction demonstration project on Mn/DOT TH 53 in Duluth, MN, and the associated field and laboratory testing. The project was conducted during September 2005, using a Caterpillar Model CS-563E vibratory soil compactor, equipped with Intelligent Compaction (both Compaction Meter Value (CMV) and energy or power) and global positioning system (GPS) technology. A Prima light-weight deflectometer (LWD), dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and Humboldt GeoGauge were used to collect in situ companion test data at 42 locations. Mn/DOT conducted gradation, moisture content and Procter tests. Location and Compaction Meter Value (CMV) were downloaded for comparison with the in situ testing. CMV data was compared to the in situ data on a point-by-point basis and on the basis of the overall distribution. In general, poor correlations were obtained on a point-by-point basis, likely due to the depth and stress dependency of soil modulus, and the heterogeneity of the soils. Good correlations were obtained between CMV values and DCP measurements for depths between 8-inches and 16-inches deep....continuous compaction control, intelligent compaction, grading and base, quality assurance...Petersen, Lee; Peterson, Ryan
225.Investigation Of The Design Of Asphalt Paving Mixtures Using Minnesota Taconite Rock 2006
Expansion and maintenance of roadway infrastructure creates a demand for high quality paving aggregates. Taconite industry rock and tailings are a potential source of virgin paving aggregates. Currently there is limited information available for implementing these products in construction design specifications. Preliminary information of product performance within current design constraints is valuable to both state design engineers and to future pooled-fund studies. This information can identify the potential for using these products in surface courses or possibly for use in rich-bottom leveling layers. This study examined the viability of utilizing these products in the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) Superpave bituminous mixture design specifications. As part of the study 40 laboratory specimens were produced from 11 asphalt mixtures and then evaluated for asphalt content, air voids, and aggregate gradation. This report summarizes the results of the laboratory mixture evaluation....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Design and construction, Aggregates (Building materials), Low-volume roads, Taconite, Superpave, Asphalt mixtures...Olson, Roger; Garrity, John; Zanko, Lawrence; Martin, Dennis; Worel, Benjamin; Betts, Ray; Linell, Dave; Cochran, Chris; Johnson, Eddie
226.Investigation of the Low-Temperature Fracture Properties of Three MnROAD Asphalt Mixtures2006-152006
In this research effort, field cores were taken from cells 33, 34 and 35 at the MnROAD facility to determine the fracture properties of the field mixtures, to compare them with the laboratory-prepared mixtures analyzed in a previous study, and to evaluate the effect of aging at different depths in the asphalt layer. In addition, the properties of the recovered binders from the field cores as well as the properties of the original binders aged in laboratory conditions were investigated....Pavements, Asphalt, Effect of low temperatures on, Pavements, Asphalt, Additives, Minnesota, Testing, Binders (Materials), Minnesota, Testing, Low temperature tests, Asphalt mixtures, Fracture properties...Li, Xinjun; Zofka, Adam; Li, Xue; Marasteanu, Mihai; Clyne, Timothy
227.Low Temperature Cracking Performance at MnROAD 2006
In 1999 three cells were reconstructed on the Low Volume Road as a study specifically examining low temperature cracking. These sections were designed using the exact same Superpave mix design except for the asphalt binder type, which differed at the low temperature performance grade. The performance grades for Cells 33, 34, and 35 were PG 58-28, 58-34, and 58-40 respectively. After several years in service these sections have begun to show marked differences in performance. Cell 35 has shown the most cracking, even though it has the softest grade at -40. The cracks on Cell 35 do not look like typical thermal cracks, while Cell 33 exhibits the expected typical thermal cracks. Cell 34 had virtually no distress after six years....Pavements, Asphalt, Effect of low temperatures on, Pavements, Asphalt, Cracking, Minnesota, Testing, Low temperature tests, Fracture properties...Clyne, Timothy; Worel, Benjamin; Marasteanu, Mihai
228.Manitoba and Minnesota SPS-5 Projects: 15-Year Ranking of TreatmentsSPS-52006
Under the auspices of the Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program eight SPS-5 overlay sections were constructed in Manitoba in 1989 and Minnesota in 1990. In addition to a control section the variables included mix design (virgin or recycled materials), overlay thickness (50 or 125 mm), and type of surface preparation (minimum or extensive). Over the past 15 years these sites have been monitored to evaluate and compare the pavement performance. This paper concludes that the SPS-5 study has demonstrated that given pavements in the original condition of these two test sites, the use of the more expensive options of milling, thicker overlays, and virgin bituminous material have not resulted in significant pavement performance gains. Thus the lowest cost design alternatives (minimal surface preparation, thin overlay, and RAP in HMA mixture) would be chosen as the most cost-effective overlay design options....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Overlays, Testing, Reflective Cracking, Pavements, Concrete, Thin Concrete overlay, Pavements, Asphalt, Recycling, RAP...Clyne, Timothy; Worel, Benjamin; Gilbertson, Graig; Olson, Kristi; Watson, Dennis
229.Mechanistic-Empirical Design and MnROAD 2006
In its first ten years of operation, MnROAD’s data and road research contributed to many issues in pavement engineering. In particular, MnROAD made its greatest contribution in the field of mechanistic-empirical (ME) design. MnROAD’s data has used to calibrate and verify a number of pavement design guides, including MnPave, an ME design program created by MnROAD engineers and adopted by MnDOT. Furthermore, the use of this data as inputs into existing design methods has exposed some of the inadequacies of commonly used design methods. This brief details MnROAD’s involvement in ME design and describes the capacity of MnROAD as a lasting influence on mechanisticpavement design for years to come.... ...Shongtao, Dai
230.Minne-Alf-2: An Accelerated Load Test Facility for Pavements 2006
In 1993, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) commissioned the University of Minnesota Department of Civil Engineering to develop, construct and evaluate a laboratory-based test facility for rapidly applying repeated heavy vehicle loads (simulated) to pavement test structures. The purpose of this facility was to efficiently and accurately evaluate the long-term performance potential of new and experimental highway pavement designs and materials. This facility was dubbed "Minnesota Accelerated Loading Facility" or "Minne-ALF."...Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Evaluation, loading, Pavements, Minnesota, Performance, MinneALF-2, Concrete pavements, joints, dowels...Khazanovich, Lev; Burnham, Thomas
231.Minnesota Seal Coat Handbook 20062006-342006
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has concluded a research study on the proper techniques involved in seal coating. A key part of the research project involved performing seal coat designs using the procedure developed by Norman McLeod. In addition, research personnel were present on many seal coat construction projects assisting the inspector and contractor. The primpary purpose of this handbook, updated in 2006, is to provide a solid background in seal coat materials, equipment, design and construction for the field inspector. Divided into two main sections, this updated handbook provides direction for designers and field personnel....Pavements Cracking Prevention, Roads Maintenance and repair, Sealing Technology, Sealing compounds...Janisch, David; Wood, Thomas
232.MnROAD Database Guide 2006
Description of the MnROAD Database: MnROAD, located near Albertville, Minnesota (40 miles northwest of Minneapolis-St. Paul) is one of the most sophisticated, independently operated pavement test facilities of its type in the world. MnROAD's Phase-I was completed in 1991-1993, which consists of two unique road segments located parallel to Interstate 94: A 3.5-mile mainline interstate roadway carrying "live" traffic averaging 28,500 vehicles per day with 12.4 % trucks. A 2.5-mile closed-loop low-volume roadway carrying a controlled 5-axle tractor-semi-trailer to simulate conditions of rural roads. MnROAD data is collected in a number of different methods and processes, which impacts the methods that are used to store the data (both calculated and raw). The purpose of this document is to describe what data has been collected and where it is stored for research use. MnROAD Database consists of the following data sources, which will be covered in this report. MnROAD Database consists of: MnROAD Oracle Database, MnROAD Offline Data, MnROAD Project Reports, MnROAD Individual Researcher Files, Geographical Information System (GIS) Database MnROAD Web Site: http://www.mrr.dot.state.mn.us/research/mnresearch.asp Access to the Data: MnROAD is a state run public funded facility, so all of its data and reports are available to anyone at no cost. Some data and information can be found from the web site, but access to the MnROAD database is limited to the key researchers at MnROAD. This allows the MnROAD research experts to work with each data requestor to match the data that has been collected with the data needed for their study. This also allows MnROAD researchers to explain both the methods and any quality issues that might impact the potential use of the data requested. We do request that researchers who use MnROAD data send us their research work plan and any resulting reports....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Evaluation, Performance, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Evaluation, Performance...Worel, Benjamin
233.MnROAD Environmental Factors that Affect Ride 2006
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) built the Minnesota Road Research Project MnROAD between 1990-1993. The 2.5-mile low volume road and the 3.5-mile mainline consists of a 2-lane roadway that originally contained gravel, hot mix asphalt, and concrete test cells designed for both low volume roads and interstate traffic. The mainline interstate cells are trafficked by public interstate traffic and the low volume road has a Mn/DOT 5-axle tractor-semi-trailer to simulated conditions of rural roads in two load configurations, resulting in the same equivalent axle loads or ESALS. MnROAD is located in a wet freeze zone that has affected both its base and subgrade materials with seasonal frost movements. This movement has slowly deteriorated each test cells ride over time. MnROAD has monitored the frost movements using frost pins and has measured the ride (international ride index - IRI) using high-speed profilers over for the life of the project. This paper investigates the loss of ride from both environmental and traffic loadings and how they have combined to cause the deterioration of ride over the last 10 years at MnROAD. The findings suggest that our current process to develop a mechanistic empirical design is currently missing the fact that seasonal differental frost movements play an important role in pavement performance in northern climates and need to be taken into account....Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, Surface performance, Environmental aspects, Environmental effects...Lukanen, Erland; Worel, Benjamin; Clyne, Timothy
234.MnROAD Mainline IRI Data and Lane Ride Quality 2006
Since 1994, MnROAD engineers have regularly conducted ride quality assessments on both the low-volume road (LVR) and mainline test cells and collected the data from these assessments in the MnROAD database. While other facilities and DOTs have observed the ride quality of their roads, none have done so to the extent of the information in the MnROAD database. The data history includes several measurements for each of the 11 years, multiple measurements for particular days, and assessments of the left and right lanes (as opposed to an average assessment across both lanes). One simple analysis that can be accomplished using an extensive history of International Roughness Index (IRI) data is a comparison of the ride quality of the driving and passing lanes in a given pavement. Though even more analysis could be done (seasonal changes in IRI, for example), the lane ride comparison was recently addressed by two graduate researchers at the University of Minnesota. This brief details that analysis for the mainline IRI data and discusses the development of MnDOT's IRI specifications and the use of MnROAD test sections to calibrate IRI test equipment.... ...Tompkins, Derek; Tweet, John; Khazanovich, Lev
235.MnROAD Observations on Low Volume Roads 2006
In its first decade of operation, MnROAD used its 2.5-mile low-volume road (LVR) for extensive experiments and continuous data collection on a variety of test sections. These efforts have lead to a number of benefits to Minnesota roadways and to the larger pavement community. This brief details the low-volume road at MnROAD and the work done using the low-volume road in LVR design, aggregate road studies, and the adoption of new LVR materials. As MnROAD looks forward to its second phase of operation, this brief will provides recommendations for the low volume road and continued benefits of the low-volume road.... ...Clyne, Tim
236.MnROAD aggregate physical properties measured with the aggregate imaging system (AIMS) 2006
The physical properties of aggregates have a direct correlation to the performance of a pavement in which they are used. Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) stiffness, fatigue response, shear resistance and permanent deformation are some of the distresses for which aggregate shape, form and texture have an influence. Several methodologies have been identified and used to capture these physical properties either directly or indirectly. The Superpave system which includes standardized test methods ASTM D5821, AASHTO T304, and ASTM D4791 are some of the indirect measures of aggregate angularity and form. The Superpave system does not however include a protocol for the determination of aggregate texture which is also an important physical property of aggregates. The increasing capacity and performance of microcomputers and imaging technology facilitated the evolution of several imaging techniques to directly measure aggregate physical properties. For this particular study, different aggregates from the Minnesota Road (MnROAD) Research Study were measured with Aggregate Imaging System (AIMS). These different aggregates were used in different mix designs for the pavement sections currently under study in the MnROAD research project. The aggregates and their sources are as follows: ò A partially crushed river gravel from Crow River Aggregates sourced from the Buffalo Bituminous Crow River Pit in Buffalo, Minnesota. ò A 100% crushed granite from Meridian Aggregates sourced from Meridian Incorporated in St. Cloud, Minnesota (Stroup-Gardiner et al., 1997). ò The Danner Class D and OttoPed Sand sourced from Danner Incorporated in St. Paul, Minnesota....Aggregates (Building materials), Testing, Aggregate Imaging System, AIMS, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Design and construction, Mathematical models...Ofori-Abebresse, Edward; Martin, Amy Epps
237.MnROAD and the Adoption of New Products in Pavements 2006
Throughout its decade of operation, MnROAD has become a major resource in the pavement community for test track expertise, pavement data, and pavement research. However, one overlooked benefit of MnROAD’s first phase of operation is the effort of MnROAD engineers to introduce, develop, and encourage the use of new technologies and techniques for pavement engineers. While the list of new products tested and/or developed at MnROAD is extensive, this brief will focus on three products and the influence of those products outside of MnROAD: the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, used to estimate the strength of subgrades; Ground Penetrating Radar, used in pavements to assess, among other things, layer thicknesses and subsurface conditions; and Continuous Compaction Control, which involves continuously measuring soil compaction and adjusting the needed force to compact the soil.... ...Tompkins, Derek; Khazanovich, Lev; Siekmeier, John
238.Moisture Effects on PVD and DCP Measurements2006-262006
This study deals with the experimental investigation of the effects of moisture and density on the elastic moduli and strength of four subgrade soils generally representing the range of road conditions in Minnesota. The testing approach involved i) reduced-scale simulation of field compaction, ii) field-type testing on prismatic soil volumes, and iii) element testing on cylindrical soil specimens. The field-type testing included: i) the GeoGauge, ii) the PRIMA 100 device, iii) the modified light weight deflectometer (LWD) device, iv) the portable vibratory deflectometer (PVD) and v) the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP). To compare the Young's modulus values stemming from the field-type and laboratory experiments, cylindrical specimens were extracted from the prismatic soil volumes and tested for the resilient modulus (Mr), small-strain Young's modulus using bender elements. The results reveal that both moisture and density have a measurable effect on the elastic modulus and strength of all four soils. On the element testing side, the small strain estimates from the bender element tests were in good agreement with the resilient modulus values. In the context of field testing, there was significant scatter of the estimated Young's moduli depending upon the particular testing device....Resilient Modulus, Field Devices, Laboratory tests, Small Strain Young’s Modulus, Fine-Grained Soil....Swenson, Joel; Guzina, Bojan; Labuz, Joseph; Drescher, Andrew
239.Non-pavement Research at MnROAD 2006
Since opening for operations in 1994, MnROAD has produced a considerable amount of pavement response and environmental data on its many test sections, and the research and reports resulting from this data are evidence of MnROAD’s lasting influence in pavement engineering. The MnROAD facility, however, is capable of experiments, demonstrations, and research outside of pavement engineering, and products from the first ten years of its operation support its use as a non-pavement research facility. The brief describes these non-pavement products, the ability and flexibility of MnROAD staff in adapting the facility to non-pavement research, and the potential of MnROAD to host non-pavement research.... ...Worel, Ben
240.Overview of MnROAD Reports 2006
From the start of construction on MnROAD in June 1990 to the conclusion of MnROAD’s first ten years of operation in 2004, engineers at MnROAD were busy with a number of core activities: conducting research in pavements, collecting and analyzing data, and developing and maintaining the world’s largest full-scale pavement test track. Many of these activities were recorded in a number of reports published by MnDOT. Though this brief does not account for all of the hundreds of MnDOT reports that mention MnROAD, it will review MnROAD’s objectives in research and characterize the reports dealing with MnROAD’s activities in its first ten years of operation.... ...Worel, Ben
241.Putting Research into Practice: Minnesota Seal Coat Handbook 20062006-342006
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has concluded a research study on the proper techniques involved in seal coating. A key part of the research project involved performing seal coat designs using the procedure developed by Norman McLeod. In addition, research personnel were present on many seal coat construction projects assisting the inspector and contractor. The primpary purpoe of this handbook, updated in 2006, is to provide a solid background in seal coat materials, equipment, design and construction for the field inspector. Divided into two main sections, this updated handbook provides direction for designers and field personnel....Pavements Cracking Prevention, Roads Maintenance and repair, Sealing Technology, Sealing compounds...Janisch, David; Wood, Thomas
242.STRATEGIC HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM, Highway Concrete Pavement Technology Development and Testing: Volume II - Field Evaluation of Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) C-203 Test Sites (Freeze-Thaw Resistance)FHWA-RD-02-0832006
This report documents results from 2 field sites, which include a total of 18 test sections in Minnesota and Ohio. The sites were monitored for long-term performance to verify the effectiveness of freeze-thaw resistance technology. The performance monitoring included annual distress surveys and physical testing of cores taken from the concrete slabs at both sites. Wave velocity was measured at joints at the Ohio site to evaluate some treatments for D-cracking mitigation. The field test sites were installed in 1992 as a part of Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) Contract C-203, "Resistance of Concrete to Freezing and Thawing." The purpose of both installations was to validate the current frost resistance technology for new concrete in a field environment. In addition, at the Ohio site an additional evaluation was conducted to examine the effectiveness of methods to treat existing D-cracked concrete pavements to mitigate the effect of future D-cracking. Results from the field and laboratory testing over a 6-year period after construction (1992 to 1998) showed very little visual distress at the surface or physical distress of portland cement concrete (PCC) cores taken from the interior portions of the test sections. A description of the field sites and monitoring results are provided. Conclusions reached and recommendations for further study are then presented....Concrete, Deicers, Inhibitors, Deicing chemicals, Concrete, Corrosion, Inhibitors...Janssen, Donald
243.The Evolution of High Performance Concrete Pavement Design in Minnesota 2006
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) began building high performance concrete pavements (HPCP) under the FHWA TE-30 program in 2000. Since that time, Mn/DOT has adopted HPCP as the standard design for most high volume urban highways in Minnesota. This study describes the design features incorporated into high performance concrete pavements in Minnesota, and provides a history of changes that have evolved since 2000. A list of recent high performance concrete pavement projects and their unique design features are provided. Performance monitoring results, including ride quality, joint load transfer efficiency, and surface texture, are given for recent HPCP projects. While it is too early to predict the future performance of recently constructed HPCP projects in Minnesota, potential causes for reductions in the serviceability of 60-year design HPCP projects are discussed.... ...Burnham, Thomas; Izevbekhai, Bernard; Rangaraju, Prasada Rao
244.Using Remote Sensor Data to Estimate Pavement Performance Models 2006
We propose state-space specifications of autoregressive moving average models and structural time series models as a framework to develop and estimate incremental performance/deterioration models for transportation infrastructure facilities. State-space specifications are consistent with the infrastructure management using latent performance approach, which means that they rigorously account for uncertainty in forecasting infrastructure condition when data are gathered using multiple technologies. Moreover, these specifications fit the optimization framework using time series analysis to support maintenance and rehabilitation decision-making, which means that they constitute an alternative to the use of Markovian transition probabilities. Through an empirical study, we verify that the proposed methodology can be used to generate infrastructure condition forecasts when data are gathered with multiple technologies. The models in the study are estimated using deflection and pressure measurements generated by sensors embedded in an asphalt pavement. Analysis of the results corroborates earlier findings that question the universal validity of the Markovian assumption in the context of infrastructure deterioration. The data for the study was collected by MnROAD, the road research division of the Minnesota Department of Transportation. TRB 2006 Annual Meeting CD-ROM...Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Measurement, Signal processing, Digital techniques...Chu, Chih-Yuan; Durango-Cohen, Pablo
245.Validation of DCP and LWD Moisture Specifications for Granular Materials2006-202006
Advances in technology have produced a new generation of in situ soil testing devices. Implementation of quality assurance procedures that make use of these devices would improve test precision, increase inspector efficiency and safety, and allow for the direct verification of values used in mechanistic design procedures. During this study, the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and light weight deflectometer (LWD) were used on laboratory prepared specimens. It was found that the Mn/DOT DCP specification accurately assessed compaction quality, although there were some suggestions for improvement. This study reached the following conclusions and recommendations. The DCP penetration should continue until the cone passes through the subbase lift of interest. The DCP seating requirement serves little purpose for a subbase lift that will be covered by subsequent lifts. The acceptable range of moisture contents during DCP testing of granular subbase should be capped at 10%. A sufficient amount of data exists to create an LWD trial specification for granular subbase. A mass of 10 kg, drop height of 50 cm, and plate diameter of 20 cm are recommended. It is also recommended that the LWD specification include three seating drops followed by three data drops at each new height....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, DCP, Aggregates surface, Base courses Subgrades, Aggregates (Building materials)...Siekmeier, John; Roberson, Ruth; Davich, Peter
246.2004 MnROAD Forensics HMA Cracking Observations (August 2005) 2005
Top-down cracking is becoming more prevalent at MnROAD. Longitudinal cracks have developed in the wheelpaths of several cells. In the year 2000 a total of 20 cores were taken from four mainline cells. It was determined at that time that the cracking initiated at the pavement surface and that the cracks stopped at the first layer interface. In August 2005 13 more cores were taken from four mainline cells. The main goal was to further investigate the top-down cracking and its progression over time. A few cores were taken along transverse cracks to observe the deterioration present. This paper summarizes the results of this cracking investigation....Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction...
247.2004 MnROAD Mesabi Select Hot Mix Asphalt Report (March 2005) 2005
In a partnership formed with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the Local Road Research Board (LRRB) investigation 819, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT), and other partners, MnROAD test cell 31 was reconstructed with a hot mix asphalt (HMA) that contained 80% (by volume) Mesabi Select Hard Rock aggregate. It marked the first asphalt mix of its kind that utilized Mesabi Select Hard Rock aggregate as both the coarse and fine aggregates of the asphalt mix in the twin cities area. The purpose of this test cell is to demonstrate to the industry that Mesabi Select Hard Rock can be used to produce a HMA mixture meeting Mn/DOT specifications. It also demonstrates that the mixture can be placed like other HMA mixtures, and through instrumentation installed at the MnROAD site, its performance can be documented and quantified. Construction took place on August 19, 2004. Test cell 31 measures 500-ft long by 24-ft wide. Being located within the Low Volume Road (LVR) of MnROAD, the design 20-year ESAL's were 110,000, which resulted in a 4" mat thickness in accordance to MnPAVE software. Commercial Asphalt Company, Maple Grove, MN performed the mix design for a Mn/DOT designation SPWEB240F. The General Contractor for the project was Frattalone Paving, Inc, St. Paul, MN. Mn/DOT provided construction management and inspection for the construction. The unique characteristic of the Mesabi Select Hard Rock HMA was its unit weight, which was approximately 160 pounds per cubic foot (pcf), which is about 10% heavier than the typical HMA mix in Minnesota. Because of its increased density and angularity, heavy rollers were specified for its compaction in the field. In order to meet Mn/DOT specifications for a traffic level 2 design, the amount of asphalt binder was 6.4%. A polymer modified PG 64-34 binder was specified to provide rutting resistance and thermal cracking resistance, and to see how this mixture laid down with a modified asphalt binder. The thought is that the Mesabi Select Hard Rock aggregate would be appropriate for higher traffic levels where modified binders are more common....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, Aggregates (Building materials)...
248.Concrete Pavement Performance and Research at the Minnesota Road Research Project - The First Ten Years 2005
The Minnesota Road Research (MnROAD) facility was constructed in the early 1990's to include fourteen plain jointed concrete pavement test sections. Nine of the test sections are interstate highway designs with design lives of 5 or 10 years. The other five test sections are low-volume road designs. With traffic loading beginning in 1994, the test sections have now experienced over 10 years of load and environmental effects. During that time, a tremendous amount of data collection and research analysis has taken place. The condition and ride performance of the concrete pavement test sections is characterized. Significant findings from selected studies are presented. The performance of the 5-year and 10-year design test cells shows that Mn/DOT's current concrete pavement design method needs significant improvement. The lessons learned from the operation of the MnROAD project can be used to improve the next generation of concrete pavement design methods and test facilities. Additionally, the research results obtained during the first 10 years of operation of the MnROAD project will be used to improve the next generation of concrete pavement design methods in Minnesota. Current and future pavement test facilities can also benefit from the lessons learned at MnROAD....Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Testing, Design and Construction, Pavements, Live loads, Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Testing...Burnham, Thomas
249.Continuous Compaction Control MnROAD Demonstration2005-072005
In September 2004, engineers conducted a Continuous Compaction Control (CCC) demonstration at MnROAD, an outdoor pavement test facility. Continuous Compaction Control (CCC), also called Intelligent Compaction (IC), is a new technique in the United States construction market that uses an instrumented compactor to measure soil or asphalt compaction in real time and adjusts compactive effort accordingly to control the level of compaction. This demonstration used the BOMAG Compactor and focused on Young's soil modulus as the soil parameter of interest. CCC may potentially provide substantial benefits, including improved quality due to more uniform compaction, reduced compaction costs because effort is applied only where necessary, reduced life-cycle cost due to longer pavement life, and a stronger relationship between design and construction. State departments of transportation have expressed interest in exploring this method as a way of meeting quality-assurance requirements within a tight budget environment. In general, this study found CCC to be an effective quality-control mechanism for soil compaction. However, further questions arose as a result of the study and certain variables affected the results and measurements, including moisture content and the use of different measurement tools. Further research is needed to determine the level of uniformity in using CCC and the extent of reliability in achieving target values when using this method....Soil compaction, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades...Petersen, Lee
250.Current State of the Art and Practice of Using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for Minnesota Roadway Applications 2005
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a noninvasive, continuous, high-speed tool that has been used to map subsurface conditions in a wide variety of applications. Many of these applications are well suited for evaluation of highway systems. GPR is basically a subsurface "anomaly" detector, as such it will map changes in the underground profile due to contrasts in the electromagnetic conductivity across material interfaces. This report will give the local engineer a brief overview of GPR equipment, use and applications. It will help the engineer understand the potential GPR applications for use on local roads, assist in determining what situations or site conditions that GPR is appropriate, and where it is not....Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Pavements, Subgrades, Testing, Ground penetrating radar, GPR, Nondestructive testing...Loken, Marc
251.Determination Of Optimum Time For Application Of Surface Treatments To Asphalt Concrete PavementsLRRB 8032005
An extensive literature review has been performed on the surface treatment methods. Research studies that are focused on the timing of the application of treatments to asphalt concrete pavements have shown that current maintenance practice is based on the...Concrete, Maintenance and repair, Concrete coatings, Evaluation, surface treatments, ...Zofka, Adam; Marasteanu, Mihai; Clyne, Timothy
252.Determining the Angle and Axis of Rotation of a Resilient Modulus Specimen 2005
Determining the Angle and Axis of Rotation of a Resilient Modulus Specimen. The angle of rotation is defined as the angle between he normal vector of the plane defined by the 3 LVDT deflections and a vertical vector....Pavements, Minnesota, Resilient Modulus, Mathematical models...Chadbourn, Bruce
253.Economics of Upgrading an Aggregate Road2005-092005
...Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Rural roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Aggregates surface, Pavements, Asphalt...Smith, Duane; Johnson, Greg; Jahren, Charles
254.Forensic Investigation Report For MnROAD Ultrathin Whitetopping Test Cells 93, 94 and 952005-452005
Three instrumented ultra-thin whitetopping (UTW) pavement test sections were constructed in 1997 at the Minnesota Road Research facility (MnROAD). The sections were installed on the interstate highway portion of MnROAD to accelerate the traffic loadings compared to typical applications of UTW. By spring 2004, significant deterioration of the sections had occurred. Prior to replacement of the three test sections in fall 2004, a forensic investigation of the distresses was carried out. The focus of this report was to describe the forensic investigation procedures carried out, and to summarize findings from the investigation. The investigation revealed that the performance of ultra-thin whitetopping test cells at the MnROAD project was related to traffic volume, wheel placement, and layer bonding. Distresses were more frequent and severe in the higher-volume driving lane. Panel sizes that place wheelpaths near the edges of UTW slabs resulted in accelerated distress and poor performance. Bonding of UTW to the underlying asphalt layer was essential for long-term performance. Reflective cracking occurs in bonded concrete overlays for thicknesses less than 5 inches (over 6 inch minimum asphalt layer). Large polyolefin fibers did provide some benefit to crack containment in UTW, but added significant cost to the concrete mix....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Whitetopping...Burnham, Thomas
255.GPS based real-time tire-road friction coefficient identification2005-042005
This project concentrates on the development of real- time tire-road friction coefficient estimation systems for snowplows that can reliably estimate different road surface friction levels and quickly detect abrupt changes in friction coefficient. Two types of systems are developed - a vehicle-based system and a wheel-based system. The vehiclebased friction measurement system utilizes vehicle motion measurements from differential GPS and other on-board vehicle sensors. The wheel-based friction measurement system utilizes a redundant wheel that is mounted at a small angle to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle....Tires, Traction, Mathematical models, Friction, Measurement, Mathematical models, Motor vehicles, Skidding, Global Positioning System...Wang, Junmin; Alexander, Lee; Rajamani, Rajesh
256.Impacts of Increasing Roadway Construction Standards on the Life-Cycle Costs of Local Residential Streets2005-432005
With increasing traffic being carried by residential streets, combined with the negative effects of climate on pavement material durability and strength and damage due to frequent cutting and patching of the roadway pavement to allow for the placement of utilities, residential streets are requiring more frequent, extensive, and costly maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R). Also, the pavement design life is significantly reduced. The increased cost of M&R and eventual reconstruction is an added burden on already limited city budgets. To rectify this situation, city managers and engineers are analyzing the difference in cost over a 30 year life-cycle for 9- to 10-ton design standard compared to a 5- to 7-ton design standard. Adopting a more significant pavement structure does, however, have significant cost implications, as the initial cost of the pavement is expected to rise significantly. This increase in cost is expected to be offset by a significant decrease in M&R costs and an increase in pavement life that will delay eventual reconstruction. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT), on behalf of the Local Road Research Board (LRRB), initiated this study to evaluate the impact of enhancing roadway construction standards to accommodate greater axle loads on local residential streets in Minnesota cities on life-cycle costs. The primary focus of this study was to compare the current residential roadway construction and maintenance life-cycle costs (5- to 7-ton based on construction standards) to the life-cycle costs of residential roadways constructed with 9- to 10-ton standards....Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, residential construction, Economic aspects...Hein, Dave; Titus-Glover, Leslie
257.Implementation of the Hydraulic Fracture Test at MnDOT 2005
“D”-cracking and other forms of aggregate-related freeze-thaw damage have often been associated with concrete pavements in Minnesota. The best approach for preventing these types of distress is to avoid using aggregate sources that are known to be susceptible to freeze-thaw damage in concrete applications. The most widely accepted methods of evaluating aggregate freeze-thaw durability involve the preparation and freeze-thaw testing of concrete beams that contain the aggregate in question. These tests are generally time-consuming, sometimes requiring months to complete, and often require the use of expensive equipment and/or highly skilled operators. Furthermore, the variable nature of many aggregate sources necessitates frequent testing to ensure the adequate freeze-thaw resistance of material being produced at any given point in time. A more rapid test of aggregate freeze-thaw durability was developed under the Strategic Highway Research Program in 1994. This test, called the Washington Hydraulic Fracture test (WHFT), was relatively inexpensive and allowed a single laboratory technician to assess the freeze-thaw durability of several samples of aggregate in as few as seven working days. Broader evaluations of the WHFT revealed several deficiencies, however.... ...Snyder, Mark
258.Investigation of Deterioration of Stainless Steel Dowel Tubes Under Repeated Loading2006-012005
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has selected a 316L stainless steel schedule 40 pipe as a new dowel bar to be used as a bid alternative for its high performance Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pavements. Although this dowel bar should provide sufficient shear transfer capacity and low concrete bearing stresses, there was a concern that lack of a solid core may not provide sufficient resistance of the cross-section to distortion under a heavy axle loading. In this study, long-term performance of the 316L stainless steel schedule 40 pipe was investigated by subjecting a doweled joint to accelerated repeated loads through the use of the Minnesota Accelerated Loading Facility (Minne-ALF-2). Assessment of the new dowel bar performance was performed based on comparison with the standard 1.5 inch diameter epoxy - coated round steel dowel. The following tasks were accomplished: redesign, assembly and calibration of new version of Minne-ALF, development of experimental design matrix, conduct of accelerated full-scale testing, and post-testing evaluation. The results from the MinneALF-2 tests illustrated that while the LTE for the stainless steel dowel tubes was lower than the LTE for the epoxy-coated dowels, the stainless steel tubes are capable of providing over 70% LTE in the long-term when installed in concrete pavement joints. The ability to withstand deformation and corrosion while providing sufficient long-term performance suggests that the stainless steel tube dowel is an attractive alternative to the solid epoxy-coated dowel for use in long-life pavements....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Evaluation, loading, Pavements, Minnesota, Performance, MinneALF-2, Concrete pavements, joints, dowels, stainless steel dowel tubes...Yut, Iliya; Tompkins, Derek; Khazanovich, Lev; Schultz, Arturo
259.MnROAD Cell 54 Culvert Report (2005) 2005
poor tech doc scan...Road drainage, Minnesota, Testing...Wolhowe, Erik
260.MnROAD Film Thickness Research Summary 2005
Achieving durability in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements is very important. Factors that affect HMA durability include air voids, permeability, PG binder grade, and asphalt binder content. This last item, binder content, can be characterized as either voids in mineral aggregate (VMA) or asphalt film thickness (AFT). An inadequate amount of film thickness can lead to stripping or raveling in the field. ... ...Clyne, Timothy
261.Moisture Retention Characteristics of Base and Sub-base Materials2005-062005
Soil water retention refers to the relationship between the amount of soil water and the energy with which it is held. This relationship is important for characterizing water movement through granular materials. In this project, we generated soil moisture retention data of 18 non-recycled and 7 recycled materials used in pavement construction. The results showed that water retention of non-recycled materials was nearly similar. The major differences among the curves were in the inflection points (air entry values) and in the water contents either near saturation or at 15,300 cm of suction. Using this database, we also developed Pedo-transfer functions that can predict (1) water retention or (2) the parameters of functions that describe water retention from easily measurable properties of the pavement materials. Water retention of concrete with and without shingles was only slightly different. This is partially because shingle chips imbedded in the concrete were large. Traditionally, the influence of matric suction has not been directly considered in pavement design. The water retention data in this report will be helpful in developing resistance factors for Minnesota Flexible Pavement Design Program either through physical modeling or through statistical relationships between design criteria and the water contents....Soil moisture, Measurement, Pavements, Subgrades, Road, Subsurface, drainage, Groundwater flow...Gupta, Satish; Singh, Amanjot; Ranaivoson, Andry
262.Occurrence of Bumps in Overlays2005-282005
The development of small bumps in the surface of hot-mix asphalt overlays has been a problem for state and local highway agencies for many years. Sometimes these bumps are small and are not large enough to be felt by drivers. Under many conditions, however, they can be large enough to cause ride-related problems at normal operating speeds. Under this project, a survey was conducted of local and state engineers in Minnesota responsible for highway construction and maintenance to compile corrective actions that they have used avoid these bumps and to mitigate their effects if they occur. Instrumentation sites were incorporated into this project to determine the magnitudes and profiles of temperature in the existing asphalt layer when a new layer of hot asphalt is placed on top of it. The instrumentation sites were also used to gain further information on the common practices of highway construction personnel in reducing the probability of bumps, and mitigation efforts if bumps occur. This report describes the survey, site visits, construction instrumentation, laboratory studies, and evaluation conducted by the project team. It also presents a draft booklet compiling the common practices for avoiding and mitigating bumps gathered throughout the project....Bituminous overlays, Bumps, Construction practices, Crack sealant, Field instrumentation...Wilde, James; Zerfas, William
263.Performance of Thermoplastic Pipe Under Highway Vehicle Loading, MnRoad Research Facility, Monticello, MN2005-222005
The report presents the literature relating to design of thermoplastic pipe, describes the development and implementation of field tests conducted for this project, extends the findings of the field tests through calibration of two- and three-dimensional computer models and parametric studies, and makes recommendations for design and installation of thermoplastic pipe under shallow cover and highway live loads....Underground plastic pipe, Minnesota, Testing, Culverts, Minnesota, Drainage pipes, Minnesota, Thermoplastics, Polyethylene...Wolhowe, Erik; McGrath, Timothy
264.Preliminary Laboratory Investigation of Enzyme Solutions as a Soil Stabilizer2005-252005
This research studied the effect of two enzymes as soil stabilizers on two soil types to determine how and under what conditions they function. Researchers evaluated the chemical composition, mode of action, resilient modulus, and shear strength to determine the effects of the enzymes A and B on the soils I and II. The enzymes produced a high concentration of protein and observations suggest the enzymes behave like a surfactant, which effects its stabilization performance. The specimens were subjected to testing of varying lengths of time to determine their performance. Researchers observed an increase in the resilient modulus as the curing time increased but that an increase in application rate, as suggested by manufacturers, did not improve the performance of the enzymes. The study also suggests noticeable differences between the two enzymes and their effects on the soils in terms of resilient modulus and the stiffness of the soil....Pavements, Subgrades, Testing, Soil mechanics, Pavements, Minnesota, Resilient Modulus, Mathematical models...Marasteanu, Mihai; Clyne, Timothy; Hozalski, Raymond
265.Results of Mineralogical Analysis of Taconite Aggregate, Staff Memo 2005
Mineralogical analyses were performed on the Mesabi Select aggregate taken from a stockpile (-1 inch size) at MnROAD comprised of crushed material obtained from the top 25 feet of the 'Lower Cherty' member, or LC-8 bed (LC-6 bed in NRRI study), of the United Taconite mine near Eveleth. The material was utilized in asphalt (cell 32) and concrete pavement (cell 54) constructed at MnROAD's low volume loop....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Additives, Aggregates (Building materials), Low-volume roads, Taconite...Richter, Jason; Embacher, Rebecca
266.State Aid Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation (CPR) Best Practices Manual2005-332005
This manual has been designed to be used as specifications for concrete repair of local city streets and county concrete pavements. It is intended to be used as supplemental specifications for constructing this work throughout the state of Minnesota. All standard plates have been designated as SA, which is an abbreviation for State Aid. This is intended to allow the State Aid office to track bid prices with a consistent title throughout the state. This manual was developed from existing concrete repair standards that have been developed and used by the Minnesota Department of Transportation since 1981. This manual also incorporates successful modifications to the Mn/DOT standards by the City of Owatonna and the City of Austin, Mn. This manual keeps the Mn/DOT system of labeling repairs in the A,B,C nomenclature developed in 1981 as follows; SA-A repairs are joint or crack repairs. SA-B repairs are partial depth repairs. SA-C repairs are full depth concrete repairs. For the first time this manual incorporates standards for sidewalk and curb and gutter repairs into a specification format. These sidewalk and curb and gutter standards have been successfully performed by the cities of Austin and Owatonna, Minnesota....Pavements, Cracking Prevention, Roads Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair...Frentress, Daniel
267.The Aurora Consortium, Laboratory and Field Studies of Pavement Temperature Sensors 2005
This report presents the methods, results and conclusions of the Laboratory and Field Studies of Pavement Temperature Sensors evaluation sponsored by the Aurora Consortium. The objective of this project was to conduct both laboratory and field studies to evaluate the pavement surface temperature reporting performance of various models of in-pavement (contact) and mobile (noncontact) pavement temperature sensors in varying environmental conditions.... ...Minge, Erik
268.2003 Superpave Report 2004
More Minnesota projects across the state are using Superpave pavements for their roadways. Now into its seventh year of Superpave, Minnesota is seeing a decrease in the cost per ton of Superpave mixes and in the construction problems seen with earlier Superpave projects....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, Superpave...
269.Development of Simple Asphalt Test for Determination of RAP Blending Charts2004-442004
There are two main reasons why the use of RAP (reclaimed asphalt pavement) as a construction material is profitable. First, the use of RAP is economical and can reduce material and disposal problems. Second, using RAP conserves natural resources. According to Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) nearly 30 million tons of RAP are recycled into Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavements every year and thus RAP is the most recycled material in the United States. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of developing a simple test that could be used to obtain asphalt binder properties that are required in developing blending charts to select the appropriate percentage of RAP. Based on the laboratory testing and data analysis it was found that Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) tests performed on thin beams of asphalt mixture can be successfully applied into derivation of the creep compliance (and stiffness) of asphalt mixtures. It was shown that recently proposed Hirsch model can be then used to back-calculate the binder stiffness. The detailed procedure that leads to constructing blending charts and obtaining the critical temperatures was proposed. It was concluded that additional research is needed to further investigate Hirsch model and refine it to obtain reasonable stiffness values and binder m-values. It is recommended to employ the proposed procedure only in low temperature grading since the addition of RAP affects mostly the low temperature PG limit....Pavements, Asphalt, Recycling, RAP, Waste products as road materials, Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, Additives, Testing, Binders (Materials), Testing, Rheometers...Zofka, Adam; Marasteanu, Mihai; Clyne, Timothy; Hoffmann, Oliver
270.Inventory of properties of Minnesota certified asphalt binders2004-352004
The objective of this study was to create an inventory of the rheological properties of certified asphalt binders used in Minnesota. A literature search was performed to identify existing databases as well as more complex test methods for asphalt binder characterization that have been proposed recently. Nine different asphalt binders were studied. The binders were aged according to standard aging procedures and subject to a number of tests. The Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) and Direct Tension Tester (DTT) were used together to determine the critical cracking temperature of the binders at low temperatures. The Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) was used to test frequency sweeps (to generate master curves and to calculate zero shear viscosity), strain sweeps (to verify linear viscoelasticity), repeated creep (to measure the permanent strain accumulated after 100 cycles), and fatigue tests (to test for fatigue cracking at intermediate temperatures). A database was created in Microsoft Access , which is easy to use and readily available to most users. Test results, along with some model parameters, were stored in tables inside the database. As more test results become available, the can easily be imported to the database....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Evaluation, Data processing, Binders (Materials), Testing, Binders (Materials), Minnesota, Databases...Clyne, Timothy; Marasteanu, Mihai
271.Investigation of the Impact of Increased Winter Load Limits2004-252004
Many northern states allow an increase in the gross vehicle weight (GVW) for certain vehicles during the winter to more efficiently use the increased load carrying capacity of frozen pavement structures. The increased load limits and dates are usually set according to legislation, which may not account for seasonal differences in the depth of frost.This report documents the effects of increasing the winter load limits for a pilot study in Minnesota and suggests a possible method for placing and removing increased winter load limits. A pilot study was conducted in which the northern sugar beet haulers were allowed to increase the winter weight of the 6-axle tractor-trailer combination vehicles from 391 kN (88,000 lbs.) to 416 kN (93,500 lbs.). This load limit was chosen to match North Dakota since this was the final destination. The sugar beet haulers were allowed to increase the GVW when the frost level reached 150 mm (6 in.) into the subgrade layer and end when 150 mm of the base layer thawed. Frost and thaw depths in the pavement structures were monitored with Watermark (WM) and thermocouple (TC) sensors. It was found that there was a significant increase in the structural carrying capacity of the frozen pavement as measured by decreased deflections during FWD testing. A similar trend was seen in the strain data from the MnROAD site. The condition surveys conducted showed no visible signs of increased surface distress due to the increased loads, however the results from this study are limited because the transporter was only able to participate in the study for three weeks. Several recommendations related to improving seasonal load limit implementation are suggested and subsequent activities during the 2000-2003 period are described....Roads, Economic aspects, Minnesota, Roads, Frost damage, Minnesota, Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Motor vehicles, Minnesota, Weight, Load limits...Siekmeier, John; Ovik, Jill
272.Load Proximity Correlation of Dynamic Strain Measurements in Concrete Pavement 2004
The magnitude of a measured strain in a pavement is related to the proximity of the tire load.Tire load wander is therefore a necessary component of load testing. Full-scale truck and trailer load testing was performed on instrumented concrete test slabs at the Minnesota Road Research (MnROAD) project. From this testing, best-fit curves and equations were developed for correlating dynamic strain data to tire load proximity. Polynomial curves were found to achieve very good fit with the data. For dual tire tandem axles, the compressive dynamic strain responses increased as the time of day, and the corresponding slab temperature gradient, increased. The maximum dynamic strain response at a sensor location occurred when the tire reference point was located some distance toward the roadway centerline. For sensors in different panels, but similar locations, strong repeatability in the measurement of the dynamic strain response was found for slab temperature gradients greater than zero. The dynamic strain response to similarly loaded tandem axles on a slab was, in one case, more sensitive to the magnitude of the applied load, than the proximity of a neighboring tandem axle. The dynamic strain curves from this study, developed from field measurements, can be used in the calibration of the finite element models used in new mechanistic-empirical concrete pavement design methods.... ...Burnham, Thomas
273.Low Temperature Cracking of Asphalt Concrete Pavements2004-232004
This report investigates the low temperature behavior of asphalt pavements based on experimental results obtained for three mixtures used in the construction of cells 33, 34, and 35 at MnROAD facility as well as field information acquired over the years at MnROAD. As a result of this research, a new test method was developed to determine the low temperature fracture properties of asphalt mixtures based on tests performed on semi-circular specimens tested in bending. This method can be used to select materials with better fracture resistance and therefore better performance in the field. Two models were developed to predict the low temperature cracking performance of asphalt pavements. The first model predicts the crack spacing in asphalt pavements exposed to low temperatures based on continuum mechanics and the frictional restraint provided by the aggregate base. The second model predicts the accumulation of damage and the propagation of the crack through the asphalt layer as temperature drops based on cohesive zone model....Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Cold weather conditions, Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Effect of temperature on, Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Cracking, Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Minnesota, Testing...Marasteanu, Mihai; Li, Xue; Clyne, Timothy; Voller, Vaughan; Timm, David; Newcomb, David
274.MnROAD Cell 26, Reconstruction Project Low Volume Road 2004 2004
The purpose of this report is to document the reconstruction process and to provide background information about the historical performance and subsequent deterioration of Cell 26 that lead up to the reconstruction. Cell 26 extends from Station 170 + 75 to Station 174 + 65 on the LVR. The cell, one of eleven LVR HMA test cells, was originally designed to be a 6? full depth hot mix asphalt cell. The HMA had a Marshall Hammer design of 50 blows and uses an AC 120/150 penetration grade asphalt binder. Laboratory testing has shown that the 120/150 asphalt binder used at MnROAD has a Performance Grade (PG) of 58-28....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, DCP...Mulvaney, Ronald; Worel, Benjamin; Zerfas, William
275.MnROAD TDR Evaluation and Data Analysis2004-152004
This project was to develop a new composition-based calibration between water content and apparent dielectric constant of the pavement materials for improving the time domain reflectometry (TDR). Water content measurement using time domain reflectometry (TDR) is an important integral component of the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) program. However, erroneous and inaccurate water content values are frequently generated using current data collection and interpretation procedures. Whereas the erroneous and obviously unreasonable values are caused by limitations of the current waveguide/cable systems, inaccurate water content values are most likely caused by the inadequacy of the empirical calibration equations. Base, Subbase, and Subgrade materials are different from agricultural soils in composition, water retention characteristics, and more importantly in their dielectric properties in relation to water content and temperature regimes in the road pavement. This project was to develop a new composition-based calibration between water content and apparent dielectric constant of the pavement materials. Temperature effect on the dielectric constants of water and pavement components was also integrated in the new calibration. Results indicated that the new calibration was more theoretically sound and relatively simple to use. Additional tests and developments may be needed to further validate the reliability of the new approach....Soil moisture, Measurement, Time-domain reflectometry, Evaluation, Aggregates surface, Base courses Subgrades Soils identification, Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Measurement, Mathematical models...Baker, John; Wang, Dong
276.Optimal Timing of Pavement Preventive Maintenance Treatment ApplicationsNCHRP REPORT 5232004
This report describes a methodology for determining the optimal timing for the application of preventive maintenance treatments to flexible and rigid pavements. The methodology is also presented in the form of a macro-driven Microsoft« Excel Visual Basic Application-- designated OPTime -- available to users by accessing the NCHRP website (http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=4306). The methodology is based on the analysis of performance and cost data and applies to any of the treatments and application methods that are used by highway agencies. A plan for constructing and monitoring experimental test sections is also provided to assist highway agencies in collecting the necessary data if such data are not readily available. The report is a useful resource for state and local highway agency personnel and others involved in pavement maintenance and preservation....Pavements, Maintenance and repair, Design and construction, Mathematical models, Pavements, Effect of temperature on...
277.Properties and aggregate potential of coarse taconite tailings from five Minnesota taconite operations2004-062004
This report evaluates the technical and economic viability of using coarse taconite tailings for construction aggregate purposes by analyzing the results of tests run on their physical, geological, mineralogical, and chemical properties as well as doing a market analysis....Waste products as road materials, Taconite plant tailings, Taconite industry, Minnesota, By-products, Aggregates (Building materials), Testing...Zanko, Lawrence; Oreskovich, Julie; Niles, Harlan
278.Repair of Rubberized Crack and Joint Filler Progress ReportLRRB 7702004
The goal of LRRB 770 is to develop a list of acceptable sealant types and methods of resealing previously sealed cracks or joints. Local road authorities have used crack sealing as a method to reduce water infiltration in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements for many years. The original rubberized crack and joint sealants work well for 3 to 7 years, then they begin to fail. There is no accepted method of how to reseal these cracks and joints after they begin to fail. Working with the assumption that reducing water infiltration in HMA pavements extend the life of these pavements, it is imperative that an acceptable method of resealing these cracks and joints be determined....Concrete pavements, joints, Rubberized Crack filler, Road materials, Minnesota, Testing, Sealing compounds, Testing, Evaluation, Pavements, Concrete, Joints, Testing, Evaluation...Zerfas, William
279.Repair of Rubberized Crack and Joint Filler, Steele County Update October 2004LRRB 7702004
The goal of LRRB 770 is to develop a list of acceptable sealant types and methods of resealing previously sealed cracks or joints. Local road authorities have used crack sealing as a method to reduce water infiltration in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements for many years. The original rubberized crack and joint sealants work well for 3 to 7 years, then they begin to fail. There is no accepted method of how to reseal these cracks and joints after they begin to fail. Working with the assumption that reducing water infiltration in HMA pavements extend the life of these pavements, it is imperative that an acceptable method of resealing these cracks and joints be determined....Concrete pavements, joints, Rubberized Crack filler, Road materials, Minnesota, Testing, Sealing compounds, Testing, Evaluation, Pavements, Concrete, Joints, Testing, Evaluation...Zerfas, William
280.Small Strain and Resilient Modulus Testing of Granular Soils2004-392004
Resilient modulus, shear strength, dielectric permittivity, and shear and compressional wave speed values were determined for 36 soil specimens created from the six soil samples. These values show that the soils had larger stiffnesses at low moisture contents. It was also noted during testing that some non-uniformity was present within the axial displacement measurements; larger levels of non-uniformity were associated with low moisture contents, possibly due to more heterogeneous moisture distributions within these specimens. Lastly, the data collected during this study was used to recommend a relationship between granular materials' small strain modulus and their resilient modulus. This relationship was given in the form of a hyperbolic model that accurately represents the strain-dependent modulus reduction of the base and subgrade materials. This model will enable field instruments that test at small strains to estimate the resilient modulus of soil layers placed during construction....Soils, Minnesota, Testing, Road materials, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Modulus of resilience...Drescher, Andrew; Labuz, Joseph; Guzina, Bojan
281.Superpave Gyratory Mixture Design Guidelines for Local Agencies in Minnesota 2004
The purpose of this course is to provide training and guidelines for the use of Superpave/Gyratory mix designs by local agencies in Minnesota. Local agencies need to understand what Superpave is and is not; what it is designed to do; how it works, particularly for low volume roads; what impacts it will have on pavement and mixture design, construction, maintenance, performance and cost; and how to implement Superpave/Gyratory mixtures under Mn/DOT's specifications. This course will provide focused, state-specific information on traffic, materials, design, construction, quality management, performance and specification issues. When the term ""agency"" is used in these guidelines, it should be understood to refer to either a local agency or a consultant performing design work on behalf of that agency. These guidelines frequently refer to the 2004 Mn/DOT 2360 Combined specification. Specifications continually evolve and improve. The reader should be certain to use the appropriate year's specifications for a given contract, preferably the most recent.... ...McDaniel, Rebecca;
282.System Performance and Human Factors Evaluation of the Driving Assistive System (DAS) - Special Vehicle Field Operational Test - IVI2004-092004
This study aimed to determine the usefulness of the Driver Assistive System (DAS) in the context of plowing roads during low-visibility conditions. Driving performance, driver workload, and system performance were to be compared in a field operational test (FOT). Geographical location of the driver's route proved to play a large part in the desirability and perceived reliability of the system, as rural drivers preferred the system due to the lack of lighting and visual guidance while driving in low-visibility conditions. Most drivers did not have problems remembering how to use the DAS, and that the system made them feel safer and more in control while driving. The haptic seat was praised for giving warnings while letting them keep their eyes on the road or performing other in-cab tasks and their ideal configuration would be to use the haptic seat and/or the HUD. Due to an uncharacteristically mild winter weather conditions, it was decided that the FOT would not provide enough experience using the DAS during low-visibility conditions to make reasonable conclusions on driving performance. Therefore, it was necessary to use an additional experimental design with a track test, which is discussed in a supplemental document (Rakauskas et al., 2003)....Motor vehicles, Collision avoidance systems, Global Positioning System, Snowplows, Safety appliances, Driver support systems...Shankwitz, Craig; Donath, Max; Ward, Nicholas; Rakauskas, Mick
283.System Performance and Human Factors Evaluation of the Driving Assistive System (DAS): Supplemental Track Test Evaluation - IVI2004-122004
This track test supplements an attempted field operational test (Rakauskas et al., 2003) which did not provide enough experience using the Driver Assistive System (DAS) during low-visibility conditions to make reasonable conclusions on driving performance. This study aimed to determine the usefulness of the DAS in the context of simulated low-visibility conditions. Drivers drove in clear, low-visibility, and DAS-assisted low-visibility conditions. Driving performance measures were taken while driving and drivers were asked workload, trust, and subjective response questions after each condition and post-experiment. The DAS enabled drivers to maintain consistent lane position and to make fewer steering corrections than while driving the low-visibility condition. Using the DAS during low-visibility conditions did not change speed performance and aided the driver by providing additional information about the road. More mental effort was reported while assisted by the DAS than while driving unassisted in the low-visibility condition. This was expected since drivers were presented with and were expected to mentally process more information while assisted. Many of the trends found were consistent with our previous thoughts on how the DAS would perform. However, due to the small number of drivers tested in the FOT and track testing studies there was low power for our statistical analyses. We encourage further research with the DAS on larger numbers of drivers or in a more powerful study design. Some changes are also recommended for future versions, such as providing a warning prior to loss of GPS fix. Project study to assess the usefulness of the Driver Assistive System (DAS) in the context of driving snowplows in low-visibility conditions on a test track. The system was found to be useful; several design improvements to the system are suggested to maximize its effectiveness....Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, Minnesota, Testing, Motor vehicles, Collision avoidance systems, Global Positioning System, Snowplows, Safety appliances, Driver support systems...Shankwitz, Craig; Donath, Max; Ward, Nicholas; Rakauskas, Mick
284.The Construction and Performance of Ultra-Thin Whitetopping Intersections on US-1692004-192004
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) constructed an ultra-thin whitetopping project at three intersections on US-169 at Elk River to gain more experience in both the design and performance of ultra-thin whitetopping (UTW). All concrete mixes contained either polypropylene or polyolefin fibers. The compressive strength, flexural strength, Poisson's ratio and elastic modulus were measured for these mixes and the results are provided. Distinct cracking patterns developed within each test section. The strain measurements emphasize the importance of the support provided by the hot mix asphalt (HMA) layer. A reduction in this support occurs when the temperature of the HMA is increased or when the HMA begins to ravel. Cores should be pulled from the pavement when evaluating whether UTW is a viable rehabilitation alternative to determine if the asphalt is stripping and if the asphalt layer has adequate thickness. UTW can be successfully placed on as little as 76 mm (3 in) of asphalt, if the quality of the asphalt is good. The cores should also reveal the asphalt layer is of uniform thickness and stripping/raveling has not occurred. If these conditions exist, UTW is a good option for rehabilitating asphalt pavements....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Whitetopping...Vandenbossche, Julie
285.The Effect of Novel Soil Amendments on Roadside Establishment of Cover Crop and Native Prairie Plant Species2004-412004
This report examined the concept that application of amendments to the soil or over the soil might have the capacity to increase fertility, increase soil moisture, or moderate the harsh microclimate of the inslope. The re-establishment of native plant species has been a principle objective of managers of roadside vegetation for many years. However, the establishment of native species, especially on the near inslope of roadsides has always been problematic. Soils of inslopes are generally nutrient poor, lack organic matter, and experience extreme microclimates of heat and nearly continuous drought. This report examined the concept that application of amendments to the soil or over the soil might have the capacity to increase fertility, increase soil moisture, or moderate the harsh microclimate of the inslope. In this study three different soil amendments/treatments were used to modify inslope soils including application of erosion control materials (ECMs) and enhancing soils with organic material. The two ECMs were products capable of changing soil temperatures, inhibiting soil moisture loss and/or enhancing the moisture aspect of the soil surface microclimate. The addition of organic matter is known to increase both soil water holding capacity and fertility. Although these products and treatments performed as expected, the overall conclusion of this study was that establishment of native species within two meters of the roadside was not enhanced by these treatments. Invasion by competitive weeds and weather (e.g., severe droughty conditions) appear to control the establishment of native species in the soils very near to the shoulder of roadsides....Soil amendments, Minnesota, Roadside plants, Minnesota...Gale, Samuel; Biesboer, David
286.Validation of Superpave Fine Aggregate Angularity Values2004-302004
This report presents the results of laboratory testing to validate the use of Fine Aggregate Angularity (FAA) measurements with the Superpave method of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) design. A search of literature and Minnesota FAA data was conducted in preparation for FAA testing of aggregates and HMA design. Laboratory tests of aggregates included sieve analysis, specific gravity and FAA. Additional work was also performed by acquiring digital imaging data for the aggregates. Testing of asphalt mixtures included dynamic modulus tests and asphalt pavement analyzer tests. Testing was performed on four asphalt mixtures representing a range of Minnesota FAA values. Dynamic modulus testing was performed at three temperatures and five frequencies. Data from the dynamic modulus tests were processed using nonlinear regression. The resulting master curves of dynamic modulus vs. frequency were referenced to test temperature 54C. Asphalt pavement analyzer data at 54C was analyzed with respect to rutting curve. Laboratory test results for aggregates and mixtures were analyzed together using statistical methods to develop correlation coefficients and linear trends. It was found that dynamic modulus and rut resistance values are strongly related to aggregate blend FAA. Some additional parameters from digital imaging also predicted modulus and rut resistance very well and should be included in future reference....Aggregates (Building materials), Pavements, Asphalt, Additives, Hot mix paving mixtures, Superpave...Johnson, Eddie; Marasteanu, Mihai; Clyne, Timothy
287.2002 Superpave Report 2003
More Minnesota projects across the state are using Superpave pavements for their roadways. Now into its seventh year of Superpave, Minnesota is seeing a decrease in the cost per ton of Superpave mixes and in the construction problems seen with earlier Superpave projects....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, Superpave...
288.A GPS Based Heads Up Display System for Driving Under Low Visibility Conditions2003-032003
This research describes the design, development, and evaluation of a Heads Up Display (HUD) system for drivers of ground-based vehicles. A Conceptually ideal driver assistance device for low visibility conditions, the HUD projects visual information into the drivers' forward-looking visual field. Most researchers concur that the dirvers' forward-looking visual field of view is the most essential input for carrying out the two primary driving tasks: lane keeping and obstacle avoidance. Researchers developed the conformal augmented HUD as an intuitive adjunct that provides a high fidelity reconstructed image of essential aspects of the visual field superimposed on the actual field of view. The HUD was programmed to draw appropriate perspective projections of the road boundaries as seen from the driver's viewpoint and as calculated from dynamic position measurements provided by Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS). The research measured and analyzed mismatch error between the projected and the real road boundaries, and performed experiments using five Hz DGPS. Results showed that the current system can draw the superimposed images with errors less than 0.5 degrees of visual sight angle while the vehicle moves at various speeds along the test track. Keywords-heads up display, GPS, field of view, visibility....Head-up displays, Global Positioning System, GPS, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, Automobile driving at night, Safety measures, Automobile driving in bad weather, Safety measures, Automobile driving in winter, Safety measures, Roads, Visibility, Night visibility...Donath, Max; Shankwitz, Craig; Lim, Heon-Min
289.A Laboratory Technique for Estimating the Resilient Modulus Variation of Unsaturated Soil Specimens from CBR and Unconfined Compression Tests 2003
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree: The shear strength of a sub-grade soil under a pavement is indirectly estimated by the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test and used in the design of pavements. The degrees of saturation (and therefore the soil suction) vary considerably under a pavement due to the ingress of water and have a significant effect on the strength of the soil sub-grade. Several design and maintenance measures are usually undertaken to maintain unsaturated conditions of the sub-grade to achieve favorable engineering properties of soil (i.e., low coefficient of permeability and high shear strength). However, the conventional procedures for the pavement design are often based on empirical procedures that are based on the principles of saturated soil mechanics. Limited numbers of studies are available in the literature for the design of pavements where degrees of saturation are less then 100%.... ...Vogrig, Mike; MacDonald, Adam
290.A Laboratory Technique for Estimating the Resilient Modulus of Unsaturated Soil Specimens from CBR and Unconfined Compression Tests 2003
56TH CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL CONFERENCE, 4TH JOINT IAH-CNC/CGS CONFERENCE, 2003 NAGS CONFERENCE: In the research study presented in this paper, a modified test procedure is proposed to interpret the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test results taking into account the influence of unsaturated conditions in terms of degree of saturation. Specimens compacted in the CBR mold at nearly saturated conditions were allowed to dry for varying time periods in order to achieve different values of degree of saturation (i.e., unsaturated conditions). Unconfined compression strengths (UCS) were also determined on specimens that were prepared in a similar manner as the CBR test specimens. The unconfined compression tests were chosen in this study because it is a quicker and simpler test to perform in comparison to the CBR tests. The focus of the present study was to understand the influence of degree of saturation on the CBR values and the unconfined compressive strength behaviour and propose a simple laboratory testing technique to estimate the resilient modulus (Mr) from these tests.... ...Vogrig, Mike; MacDonald, Adam; Vanapalli, Sai; Siekmeier, John; Roberson, Ruth; Garven, Elizabeth
291.A New Approach to Assessing Road User Charges: Evaluation of Core Technologies2003-382003
A new system of road user charges is proposed, as new vehicle propulsion technologies may jeopardize financing transportation projects through motor fuel taxes. A system based on vehicle miles of travel (VMT) is proposed that would credit states or sub-state jurisdictions for the miles traveled within their boundaries. GPS and digital maps that may be used in such a system are evaluated to develop requirements for those components. Results show that by combining differential GPS and high accuracy digital maps, a system can be developed with high geographical resolution....Roads, Finance, Technological innovations, United States, User charges, United States, Geographic information systems, Global Positioning System...Donath, Max; Shekhar, Shashi
292.Accelerated Laboratory Rutting Tests: Evaluation of the Asphalt Pavement AnalyzerNCHRP Report 5082003
This report presents the findings of a research project to determine the suitability of the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer, which is a loaded-wheel tester, (1) as a general method of predicting rutting potential and (2) for use in field quality control and quality acceptance operations. The report will be of particular interest to materials engineers in state highway agencies, as well as to materials suppliers and paving contractor personnel who are responsible for the design and evaluation of hot mix asphalt.... ...Kandhal, Prithvi; Cooley, Allen
293.Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA) Evaluation2003-022003
This report evaluates the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA) as a tool for assessing the rutting susceptibility of Minnesota Hot Mix Asphalt. Based on a survey of the APA Users' Group and a literature review, its authors recommend that Mn/DOT purchase an APA....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Testing, Asphalt Pavement Analyzer, Rutting...Skok, Eugene; Johnson, Eddie; Turk, Amir
294.Driver Assistive Systems for Snowplows2003-132003
A comprehensive driver assistive system which utilizes dual frequency, carrier phase real time kinematic (RTK) differential global positioning system (DGPS), high accuracy digital geospatial databases, advanced automotive radar, and a driver interface with visual, haptic, and audible components has been used to assist specialty vehicle operators perform their tasks under these low visibility conditions. The system is able to provide a driver with high fidelity representations of the local geospatial landscape through a custom designed Head Up Display (HUD). Lane boundaries, turn lanes, intersections, mailboxes, and other elements of the geospatial landscape, including those sensed by automotive radar, are projected onto the HUD in the proper perspective. This allows a driver to safely guide his or her vehicle in low to zero visibility conditions in a desired lane while avoiding collisions. Four areas of research, are described herein: driver assistive displays, the integration of a geospatial database for improved radar processing, snowplow dynamics for slippery conditions, and a virtual bumper based collision avoidance/gang plowing system. (Gang plowing is the flying in formation of snowplows as a means to rapidly clear multilane roads.) Results from this research have vastly improved the performance and reliability of the driver assistive system. Research on the use of a specialized driver assistance system to assist specialty vehicle operators in low visibility conditions, including the design of a custom Head Up Display (HUD) projecting elements of the landscape in proper perspective. Driver assistive displays, the integration of a geospatial database for improved radar processing, snowplow dynamics for slippery conditions, and a virtual bumper based on collision avoidance/gang plowing system are discussed....Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, Motor vehicles, Collision avoidance systems, Motor vehicles, Electronic equipment, Roads, Snow and ice control, Safety measures, Snowplows, Safety appliances, Automobile driving in winter, Global Positioning System, Radar, Head-up displays, snowplows...Gorjestani, Alec; Alexander, Lee; Newstrom, Bryan; Cheng, Pi-Ming; Sergi, Mike; Shankwitz, Craig; Donath, Max
295.Dynamic and Resilient Modulus of Mn/DOT Asphalt Mixtures2003-092003
This report presents the results of laboratory testing to determine the complex modulus and phase angle of asphalt mixtures. Laboratory tests were performed on four different asphalt mixtures from the MnROAD site. Testing was performed at six temperatures and five frequencies. Data from the tests were processed through a nonlinear regression curve fit to generate master curves of dynamic modulus and phase angle vs. frequency. These master curves were compared to results obtained from Witczak?s predictive equations. It was found, as expected, that the dynamic modulus increased with an increase in frequency and a decrease in temperature. The model used to fit dynamic modulus master curves provided a good fit for the experimental data. The modulus values calculated using the 2000 predictive equation fit the test data reasonably well for Cell 21 and 35 mixtures, but the differences for Cells 33 and 34 were more significant. Smooth master curves for phase angle could not be obtained. An exploratory study to use a vibration exciter to measure dynamic modulus proved unsuccessful. This study was done under the framework of NCHRP Projects 1-37A, 9-19, and 9-29 that recommends dynamic modulus both as a design parameter and a simple performance test....Asphalt emulsion mixtures, Testing, Asphalt, Testing...Clyne, Timothy; Li, Marasteanu; Skok, Eugene
296.Edge-Joint Sealing as a Preventive Maintenance Practice2003-262003
Preventive maintenance treatments such as joint sealing are part of ongoing research at the Minnesota Road Research test facility. Pavement sections at the test facility are instrumented extensively, thus providing automated measurements of changes in pavement moisture and drainage due to varying climate conditions. Joint sealing studies involve measuring changes in edge drain outflow and base moisture content in response to precipitation events. Concrete test sections and longitudinal edge drains were constructed. Data was collected before and after edge joints were sealed on concrete sections. There was no significant difference in the volume drained between the control and the test section prior to sealing the joint on the test section. After sealing the edge joint, there was a significant reduction in the volume drained from the test section. Sealing the edge joint on concrete pavements with bituminous shoulders is shown to reduce the total volume of water entering the pavement system by as much as 85% for a given rain event. Sealing the longitudinal edge joint on concrete pavements should be considered as a pavement preventive maintenance treatment....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Joints, Maintenance and repair, Sealing compounds...Olson, Roger; Roberson, Ruth
297.Effects of Increasing Truck Weight on Steel and Prestressed Bridges2003-162003
Any increase in legal truck weight would shorten the time for repair or replacement of many bridges. Five steel girder bridges and three prestressed concrete I-girder bridges were instrumented, load tested, and modeled. The results were used to assess the effects of a 10 or 20% increase in truck weight on bridges on a few key routes through the state. Essentially all prestressed girders, modern steel girders, and most bridge decks could tolerate a 20% increase in truck weight with no reduction in life. Unfortunately, most Minnesota steel girder bridges were designed before fatigue-design specifications were improved in the 1970's and 1980's. Typically, an increase in truck weight of 20% would lead to a reduction in the remaining life in these older steel bridges of up to 42% (a 10% increase would lead to a 25% reduction in fatigue life). Bridge decks are affected by axle weights rather than overall truck weights. Transverse cracks in bridge decks are primarily caused by shrinkage soon after construction and are not affected by increasing axle weight. However, decks with thickness less than 9 inches or with girder spacing greater than 10 ft may be susceptible to longitudinal flexural cracking which could decrease life....Bridges, Minnesota, Live loads, Testing, Bridges, Design and construction, Trucks, Weight...French, Catherine; Dexter, Robert; Altay, Altan
298.Evaluation of Asphalt Binders Used for Emulsions2003-242003
This project was an effort to better characterize asphalt emulsions that are typically used in cold in-place recycling (CIR) applications. A simple approach was presented that treated the cured residue as asphalt binder and applied the standard Superpave specifications to the material. A literature review examined methods that have historically been used to produce, characterize, and apply asphalt emulsions. Four emulsions were tested in this project: CRS-2P, CSS-1, EE, and HFMS-2P. The emulsions were cured two ways, the first being allowed to sit overnight in a pan at room temperature, and the second being a modified RTFOT approach. Air cured samples were also aged in the PAV. These residues were then tested with the BBR and DT at low temperatures and with the DSR at high and intermediate temperatures. AASHTO MP1 specifications were applied in order to characterize the emulsions by PG grade. Following this, AASHTO MP1a specifications were followed in order to find the critical cracking temperature of the emulsions. Master curves were constructed from the DSR tests of complex shear modulus vs. frequency. Finally, a sample mix design was presented using these emulsions and an empirical equation to predict the dynamic modulus of the mixture....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, RAP, Additives, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Recycled Asphalt, base materials, Asphalt emulsion mixtures, Binders (Materials), Testing...Clyne, Timothy; Marasteanu, Mihai; Basu, Arindam
299.Improving The Design Of Roadside Ditches To Decrease Transportation Related Surface Water Pollution2004-112003
Performed by the University of Minnesota, Department of Water Resources and Department of Plant Biology, and sponsored by Minnesota Local Road Research Board and Minnesota Dept of Transportation under contract no 74708 work order 198. A field-monitoring program began in the spring of 2000 to test the ability of a grassy roadside swale to remove pollutants in stormwater. A check dam was designed and installed into the vegetative swale. The check dam system incorporated some unique design features, including a peat filter to trap nutrients and metals and a low rock pool to trap water for the settling of suspended solids and for biological processing. The check dam was cost effective and simple to install. The system was quantified and evaluated hydrologically and qualitatively before and after the check dam installation. Pollutants monitored included total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ortho-phosphorus. The average pollutant removal rates for the three storms following the installation of the check dam were 54 percent total phosphorus, 47 percent ortho-phosphorus, and 52 percent total suspended solids. Metals were also analyzed for two storm events, one before and one after installation of the check dam. Peat soil samples were analyzed for nutrients, organic content, water capacity, metals, and pH both before and after check dam installation. The results suggest that properly designed short vegetative strips and swales can reduce pollutant levels from the stormwater that drains off roadways....Ditches, Minnesota, Design and construction, Road drainage, Environmental aspects, Runoff, Environmental aspects, Water, Pollution...Elfering, Biesboer
300.Investigation of Factors Related to Surface-Initiated Cracks in Flexible Pavements2003-072003
This report works to identify potential mechanisms for the occurrence of top-down cracking, as well as to investigate stress patterns and concentrations due to surface load and preexisting transverse (thermal) cracks. It attempts to provide information on surface stresses that derives from both theory and experiments. In particular, contact mechanics solutions are analyzed to gain information on loads that are subsequently used in performing numerical evaluation of surface stresses. Examples of three-dimensional computations using the finite element code ABAQUS illustrate the analysis, and comparisons of stresses for uncracked and cracked pavements are made. The report concludes that the presence of a transverse crack in the AC layer significantly increases the vertical stresses in the base. It also has a noticeable effect on the horizontal stresses in the AC layer. Keywords-longitudianal cracks, transverse cracks, flexible pavements, ABAQUS finite element analysis...Pavements, Cracking, Research, Minnesota, Pavements, Flexible, Minnesota, Live loads, Testing, Longitudinal cracking, Transverse cracking...Drescher, Andrew; Stolarski, Henryk
301.Minnesota's Experience with Thin Bituminous Treatments for Low-Volume Roads 2003
Three surface treatments placed on aggregate-surfaced roads (doublechip seal, Otta seal, and oil gravel) were investigated through field trials for performance. A double-chip seal used a single-size aggregate applied to a layer of hot asphalt binder. After 6 years of service, the performance of the road has required only routine preventive maintenance. The surface has a few thermal cracks and no rutting. An Otta seal, which uses a thick layer of soft asphalt to which a dense graded aggregate is added, has proven successful. The use of a chip spreader is recommended for precise aggregate application during construction. A large top-size aggregate, 1 in. (25 mm) minus, gave a rough texture to the surface, but the performance has not been adversely affected. Because of the fines included in an Otta seal, usually a locally available aggregate can be used. In design and construction, the oil gravel surface is similar to hot-mix asphalt. All the projects had some problems with segregation, but most can be corrected during construction with proper handling techniques. One benefit of this treatment is that additional material stockpiled during construction can be used in subsequent maintenance activities on the road. All three of the surface treatments require a strong stable base to work properly. The treatments add no structural component to the road. Therefore, the condition of the road needs to be carefully evaluated before construction. The roads that performed the best had the best base stability....Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Rural roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Overlay...Johnson, Greg
302.MnROAD Automated Laser Profile System (ALPS) 2003
This paper is a review of development of the Automated Laser Profile System (ALPS) designed for use at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD). The initial development was designed to replace the six-foot straight edge rutting measurements conducted on the hot mix asphalt test cells for both the mainline and low volume road (LVR). This paper discusses not only the development of the equipment but also covers other possible uses of this equipment along with an initial comparison of the ALPS data compared to the six foot straight edge measurements at MnROAD....Surface roughness, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing...Worel, Benjamin; Chadbourn, Bruce; Strommen, Robert
303.MnROAD Mainline 2003 Maintenance Activities for Hot Mix Asphalt Test Cells 2003
MnROAD is a pavement technology test facility constructed by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) in 1994. MnROAD consists of a Mainline and a Low Volume Road test facility. The study was conducted on the Mainline test facility, which consists of 3-miles (4.8-km) of two-lane, westbound I-94. The Mainline includes fourteen, 500-ft (150-m) hot mix asphalt (HMA) test cells, designed as either a 5-year or 10-year pavement following Mn/DOT standards. After nine years of service, the test cells are experiencing distress in the form of cracking and rutting. Because of the distress, the ride quality, measured by International Roughness Index (IRI), has dropped to levels that would trigger maintenance activities following Mn/DOT procedures. The primary cause in the decrease of ride quality comes from the deterioration of the low temperature, transverse (thermal) cracks. These cracks have increased in severity level over the past few years, and have cupped more recently as well. Rutting of the pavement in the wheelpaths is a form of distress that needed to be addressed. Some of the HMA test cells have rutting in the driving lane over 1/2-in. (12.5 mm), which may be potentially hazardous. Top-down, or surface initiated, cracking has also occurred within the cells. More than one-half of the cells have top-down cracked in over 50% of their wheelpaths, while three of them have 100% of their wheelpaths with top-down cracking.In 2003, MnROAD decided to perform select maintenance activities to the Mainline HMA test cells for the purpose of improving the ride quality. The MnROAD Maintenance Plan provided the opportunity to study the effectiveness of the various materials used under controlled conditions. This will allow Mn/DOT to study how to apply the right treatment to the right road at the right time....ements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Roads, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Surface treatments, Mastic Applications, Crack Treatments, Longitudinal cracking, Transverse cracking...Zerfas, William; Mulvaney, Ronald; Worel, Benjamin
304.Otta Seal Surfacing of Aggregate Roads 2003
An Otta seal is an asphalt surface treatment constructed by placing a graded aggregate on top of a thick application of relatively soft bituminous binding agent. Minnesota has used emulsified asphalt exclusively (HFMS-2s); it could be constructed with cutback asphalt if desired. The binder works its way into the aggregate with rolling and traffic. In comparison to other surface treatments, material and construction specifications are not as strict. Local aggregates that would not meet the requirements for high quality paving aggregate are often used in Otta seals....Low Volume Roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Rural roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Aggregates surface...Johnson, Greg; Pantelis, John
305.PCC Joint Faulting Measurements at the MnROAD Project 2003
This document outlines the history of transverse joint fault measurements taken on the PCC cells at the MnROAD project. It will describe both the current testing scheme and the history of changes....Pavements, Concrete, Joints, Testing, Evaluation, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Joints, Faulting...Burnham, Thomas
306.Performance Testing of Experimental Dowel Bar Retrofit Designs Part 2 - Repeatability and Modified Designs2004-17b2003
Effective load transfer across Portland cement concrete pavement joints significantly decreases pavement deterioration. Takes a look at the benefits, as well as the areas of concern regarding the use of dowel bars for effective load transfer across a joint or crack. Relates to 2004-17A, Part 1 - Initial Testing. Three innovated designs are presented and evaluated in regards to transferring pavement loads across joints and cracks. Relates to 2004-17B, Part 2 - Repeatability and Modified Designs....Pavements, Concrete, Joints, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Dowels, Testing...Popehn, Nicholas; Schultz, Arturo; Snyder, Mark
307.Performance testing of experimental dowel bar retrofit designs. Part 1, Initial testing2004-17a2003
Effective load transfer across Portland cement concrete pavement joints significantly decreases pavement deterioration. Takes a look at the benefits, as well as the areas of concern regarding the use of dowel bars for effective load transfer across a joint or crack. Relates to 2004-17B, Part 2...Pavements, Concrete, Joints, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Dowels, Testing...Snyder, Mark; Schultz, Arturo
308.Resilient Modulus of Minnesota Road Research Project Subgrade Soil 2003
Subgrade soil stiffness is an important factor in pavement design. In recent years, mechanisti-empirical design approaches have attracted the attention of pavement engineers and researchers....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Subgrades, Resilient Modulus...Dai, Shongtao; Zollars, John
309.Seasonal Load Response Behavior of a Thin PCC Pavement 2003
The mechanistic-empirical pavement design methods currently under development have demonstrated a need for seasonal material and load response behavior characterization. This study examined the seasonal dynamic load strain response of a thin (5 inch [127 mm]), low-cost, portland cement concrete pavement at the Minnesota Road Research (MnROAD) Project. Environmental and load related factors to be considered in this type of study were described. For the truck speeds used in this study, analysis found there were minimal effects on measured dynamic strain. Nonlinear temperature profiles in the slabs prompted the use of the temperaturemoment concept in the analysis. For the approach side of the joint in the slabs, during periods with unfrozen base and subgrade layers, there is only a small increase in the dynamic strain response with decreasing temperature-moment. Average dynamic strain responses range from 50-80 microstrain, with little difference in magnitude between the 80,000 lb (355 kN) and 102,000 lb (453 kN) loadings. For the leave side of the joints in the slabs, there is a larger increase in dynamic strain response with decreasing temperature-moment. In addition, the 102,000 lb load response is nearly 60 percent larger than the 80,000 lb load response for large negative temperature-moments. Recommendations on improving dynamic load testing of pavements are given....Pavements, Minnesota, Mechanical Empirical Asphalt Pavement Design, Mathematical models, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Motor vehicles, Minnesota, Weight, Pavements, Concrete, Joints, Testing, Evaluation...Burnham, Thomas
310.2002 MnROAD Hot Mix Asphalt Mainline Test Cell Condition Report 2002
The purpose of this document is to report on the performance and various distresses on the MnROAD Mainline HMA sections. Other than simple observations and conclusions, this report will not delve into the causations of the distresses. It is expected that future reports will do so. One observation though is clear; unlike some other test tracks and accelerated test facilities, MnROAD, now eight years old, in a harsh environment, shows that performance is governed as much by the interaction of environment, traffic and material properties as by the interaction of traffic and structural design. It is clear that any proper pavement design must integrate not only structural design but also material properties appropriate to the environment, for all elements of the pavement are under attack, not only by traffic but also the environment, and the environment coupled with traffic....Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, condition, Pavements, Asphalt, Materials...
311.Assistance in the Validation of the MnROAD database 2002
The primary objective of this project was to provide Mn/DOT with assistance in validating the MnROAD database. This work was funded by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. Their support is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to the staff of Minnesota Road Research and Physical Research sections of the Minnesota Department of Transportation. The work presented in this report represents only a small portion of the total effort and without the participation of Mn/DOT personnel this work would not have been possible. The authors would like to express gratitude and sincere appreciation to Dr. Mark Snyder for his guidance, invaluable assistance and lending his expertise to this project. The authors would also like to express appreciation to research assistants Richard S. Russell and Michelle Boltjes at the University of Minnesota for their assistance in the data collection and analysis. Several tests were developed and performed to update the functional status of MnROAD dynamic sensors (i.e., linear variable differential transformers, pressure cells and strain gage sensors) to ensure the accuracy of future data collection. These tests included functional tests, which correlate sensor data to pavement behavior and material properties, analysis of pavement response due to a passage of a heavy vehicle, and sensor tests (e.g., resistance and leakage test for the strain gage sensors). The sensors that have failed should be disconnected and excess hardware should be removed to reduce maintenance activities and technical support for the data acquisition systems....Pavement instrumentation, data acquisition, Pavements, Minnesota, Mechanical Empirical Asphalt Pavement Design, Mathematical models, MnPAVE...Koubaa, Amir; Stolarski, Henryk
312.Best practices for the design and construction of low volume roads2002-17REV2002
This report presents information about the use of the mechanistic-empirical procedure (MnPAVE) in designing hot-mix asphalt pavements in Minnesota. Researchers developed the MnPAVE software program using information from the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) test facility and from 40-year-old test sections around Minnesota. MnPAVE procedures use Equivalent Standard Axle Loads (ESALs) to evaluate traffic loading, and the report includes methods to estimate these values for design purposes over a 20-year design life, as well as a procedure to measure vehicle type distributions. In addition, the report presents an evaluation of subgrade soils for each thickness design procedure, summarizes Minnesota Department of Transportation specifications that relate to embankment soil construction and to construction of the pavement section materials, and recommends specific density or quality compaction using a control strip. It also includes best practices on setting up projects most effectively to follow specifications....Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Design and construction, Mathematical models MnPAVE...Skok, Eugene; Timm, David; Brown, Marcus; Clyne, Timothy; Johnson, Eddie
313.Bituminous paving mixturesTRB 17892002
...Pavements, Bituminous, Congresses ...Marasteanu, Mihai; Dai, Shongtao; Jabuz, Joseph; Li, Xue
314.Development of Automated Procedures for Dynamic MegaDAC Calibration Data Recovery 2002
This study involved the development of calibration procedures for the MEGADAC equipment at the MnROAD site. It also developed a peak-pick procedure for dynamic data processing....MEGADAC equipment, data, electronic calibration...Lau, Wing; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
315.Dynamic Megadac Calibration Procedure and Development Manual 2002
This study involved the development of calibration procedures for the MEGADAC equipment at the MnROAD site....Pavements, Minnesota, Resilient Modulus, Mathematical models, MEGADAC equipment, data, electronic calibration...Lau, Wing; Strommen, Robert
316.Evaluation of Water Flow Through Pavement Systems2002-302002
Most research on the effects of moisture in pavement has been based on conditions of total saturation with loss of pavement strength calculated using saturated flow assumptions. Yet roadbeds are rarely fully saturated. Unsaturated flow (the flow of water through unsaturated soil) is primarily a function of matric suction and gravity. Matric suction varies with saturation and changes over the course of a rainfall event. The authors propose a more comprehensive approach for predicting drainage and the effects of moisture on pavement. The authors used SEEP/W and DRIP software to analyze data collected at the Minnesota Road Research project (MnROAD Cell 33, Cell 34, and Cell 35). The SEEP/W software modeled unsaturated flow under transient conditions through layered systems under complex boundary conditions and material characterizations. Results establish that SEEP/W is a valuable tool for modeling unsaturated flow that can predict results comparable to field studies. The time to drain calculated based on unsaturated flow theory will generally be longer than that evaluated under saturated flow assumptions. The study also looked at the edge drains and under drains and found that under drains alone did not significantly improve drainage, but collector pipes or edge drains used in combination with under drains are very effective in reducing the amount of moisture in the soil....Road drainage, Subsurface drainage, Groundwater flow, Pavements, Design and construction...Ariza, Paola; Birgisson, Bjorn
317.Investigation of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Mixtures2002-152002
This report presents the results of a study on recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) mixtures. The report includes a literature review on RAP and a summary of past research. The research focuses on the use of resilient modulus and complex modulus testing to compare mixtures compacted with only virgin materials to those compacted with varying amounts of RAP. The additional of RAP makes the mixture stiffer, as evidenced by an increase in resilient modulus and complex modulus measurements, according to the research. The addition of RAP also decreases the mixture phase angle, which corresponds to an increase in the elastic properties and a decrease in the viscous mixture properties. The report includes recommendations regarding the proper temperatures and loading frequencies for use in the complex modulus test. It also gives the percentage of RAP and the respective asphalt binder grade necessary to yield the stiffness similar to a virgin mixture....Pavements, Asphalt, Recycling, Minnesota, Pavements, Asphalt, RAP, Minnesota, Additives...Drescher, Andrew; Chadbourn, Bruce
318.Load Testing of Instrumented Pavement Sections: Improved Techniques for Applying the Finite Element Method to Strain Prediction in PCC Pavement StructuresN/A2002
...Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Pavements, Performance Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, design methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, calibration...
319.MnROAD Cell 26, Forensic Investigation 2002
In the spring of 2000 cell 26, a 6" full depth hot mix asphalt (HMA) over clay loam subgrade, at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) began to debond at the centerline cold joint. Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) testing on the subgrade was found to be consistent throughout the section and not any weaker then would be expected. A change in traffic pattern from the MnROAD semi tractor/trailer over the centerline cold joint and incomplete compaction of the asphalt surface layers contributed to the failure. The continued deterioration of the asphalt lead to the reconstruction. The 6" HMA was reclaimed and compacted in place. A 2" oil gravel was placed as the surface in August 2000. The oil gravel began to show sign of shoving immediately after 38 laps of the MnROAD truck. By the spring of 2001 the pavement had deteriorated to such a degree that it had to be regarded to provide a drivable surface. Two trenches were subsequently excavated in which unbound samples were collected for laboratory testing. Results of the testing indicate that the stresses induced in the reclaimed base by the MnROAD truck exceeded the shear strength of the material. The purpose of this report is to document the forensic investigation and to record observations and conclusions as to the historical performance and subsequent deterioration of cell 26....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, DCP...Mulvaney, Ronald; Worel, Benjamin
320.MnROAD Mainline Rutting Forensic Investigation 2002
This paper is a review of the forensic investigations completed on the original14 hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mainline test cells at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) during the summers of 1998 and 2001. These forensics were generated to take an in-depth look at the rutting that has taken place to the mainline test cells. Rutting is one of the primary distresses seen at MnROAD and describing how rutting is affecting the pavement structure will help validate models being developed to design better pavements and predict pavement performance. The forensic investigations themselves have consisted of full forensic trenches of all the pavement layers with complete laboratory testing....Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Asphalt, Fatigue, Testing Rutting...Mulvaney, Ronald; Worel, Benjamin
321.Performance, Analysis and Repair of Ultra-Thin and Thin Whitetopping at MnROAD 2002
The thin and ultra-thin whitetopping test sections at MnROAD have shown that whitetopping is a viable rehabilitation alternative for asphalt pavements. The importance of choosing an optimum panel size was exhibited. It has also been shown that, when necessary, it is easy to repair ultra-thin whitetopping sections. Various techniques for repairing each type of distress have been summarized....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Whitetopping...Vandenbossche, Julie; Fagerness, Aaron
322.The Construction and Performance of Ultra-thin Whitetopping Intersections on US-169, Final Report State Project Report 7106-60MNRD02012002
Mn/DOT constructed an ultra-thin whitetopping project at three intersections on US-169 at Elk River to gain more experience in both the design and performance of ultra-thin whitetopping. A brief description of the Mn/DOT's history in the area of whitetopping is presented, followed by a detailed description of the construction of the instrumented whitetopping test sections on US-169....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Concrete, overlay, Whitetopping...Vandenbossche, Julie
323.Whitetopping and Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlay Treatments for Flexible Pavement: A Minnesota Case History 2002
In 1993, two hot-mix asphalt and four whitetopping overlay test sections were constructed on low volume TH 30 in southern Minnesota. A study was undertaken to examine the performance and costs associated with the test sections after nine years of service. The field testing and evaluation are described, and the costs incurred through 2001 are tabulated. The hot-mix asphalt overlay test sections are performing up to their design expectations. Both hot-mix asphalt test sections have had routine preventative maintenance applied to them, adding to their long-term cost of operation and ownership. The whitetopping test sections are performing very well at the midpoint of their design life of 20 years. Most distresses to date are related to poor construction and materials, rather than inherent design features. Some random longitudinal cracking has occurred in areas of the whitetopping control section. The doweled test section has numerous distressed transverse joints caused by dowels near the surface of the slabs. There is virtually no faulting of the transverse joints, and the ride quality has stabilized. No maintenance has been performed on the whitetopping sections through 2001. As of 2002, the most economical overlay design in this study is a 6 inch thick bonded whitetopping. Based on recent observations, it appears whitetopping is a good performing and economical rehabilitation option for low volume roads in Minnesota....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Concrete, overlay, Whitetopping...Burnham, Thomas; Rettner, David
324.1999 Statewide Micro Surfacing Project2001-112001
This project introduced the use of micro surfacing as a pavement preventive maintenance surface treatment and tested different methods of using micro surfacing to correct or prevent defects in existing pavements. Micro surfacing mixtures include polymer-modified emulsified asphalt cement, a well-graded 100 percent crushed mineral aggregate, and mineral filler, such as Portland cement or hydrated lime, with water and control additives added to control the speed of breaking and workability. Micro surfacing remains semi-liquid during mixing and placing phases and then cures chemically for a very durable asphalt surface treatment. Application and testing revealed that the fast-moving micro surfacing process minimizes the amount of down time for traffic; does an excellent job of reestablishing cross sections; fills ruts; improves ride quality; increases friction numbers; and provides an excellent background for pavement markings. It does not seal reflective cracks, has generated some concerns about increased traffic noise, and does not work favorably for smoothing humps in pavement. Overall, project selection played a key factor in the overall success of micro surfacing. A very thin surface treatment, micro surfacing cannot be expected to fix structural problems in existing pavements. Avoid using micro surfacing on roadways that are still rutting and repair potholes before placement of micro surfacing....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Additives, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Asphalt emulsion mixtures...Wood, Thomas; Geib, Jerry
325.2000 Spring Load Restrictions Legislative Task Force ReportN/A2001
Spring is a critical period for Minnesota's roads because the roadbed soils and aggregate base materials are in a weakened state during and after the thawing process. Spring load restrictions (SLR) are used as a preservation strategy to reduce damage, thereby protecting Minnesota's investment in the infrastructure. However, the imposition of spring load restrictions impacts industry, both in their operations, and financially. While it is clear that spring load restrictions benefit the infrastructure, there are two issues of which little is known: (1) the economic impacts that result when access to the transportation system is restricted and (2) extent of enforcement efforts. The development of the Spring Load Restrictions Task Force was in response to 1999 legislation requiring the Commissioner of Transportation to establish a task force to study spring load restrictions and report to the legislature its findings and any recommendations for legislative action by February 1, 2000. The legislation also calls for task force members that represent many interests including aggregate and readymix producers, agriculture, waste haulers, construction, and logging. Other members representing local agencies, associations, and enforcement have also been included....Roads, Economic aspects, Minnesota, Roads, Frost damage, Minnesota, Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Motor vehicles, Minnesota, Weight, Motor vehicles, Law and legislation, Minnesota load limits, spring load restrictions...
326.A New Approach To Estimate The In-Situ Thermal Coefficient and Drying Shrinkage for Jointed Concrete Pavement 2001
Utilizing the first 7 years of in-situ strain and temperature data from the MnROAD project, a new approach has been developed for determining the in-situ coefficient of thermal expansion and drying shrinkage of jointed concrete pavements....Pavements, Concrete, Joints, Testing, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Concrete, pavement, thermal coefficient...Burnham, Thomas; Koubaa, Amir
327.Applications of Geotextiles, Geogrids, and Geocells in Northern Minnesota 2001
This paper describes four different applications of geosynthetics in the reconstruction of roads in northern Minnesota. Installations are on paved and unpaved low volume county roads, medium volume paved county roads, and a state trunk highway. County road projects use geotextiles for separation and strengthening of weak, lake deposited, subgrade soils; including a unique project at the Northwest Angle (the chimney of Minnesota) where geotextiles were used to provide a passable road during spring breakup. The state trunk highway project consists of geocell, geogrid, and geotextile sections constructed in sequence to determine which is the most cost effective. Most installations will have been in place in excess of 5 years by 2001. Maintenance benefits to date include reduced longitudinal and transverse cracking of pavements, reduced or eliminated frost heave, and reduced blading and regraveling of aggregate surfaced roads. Design benefits include reduced base course thickness requirements and improved constructability of roadbed over soft subgrades. Construction techniques used allowed for ease of placement and efficient contractor operations. Rules of thumb have been developed through practical experience to determine when and where to use geotextiles...Road materials, Minnesota, Geotextiles, Geogrids, Roads, Minnesota, Design and construction...Leu, Walter; Tasa, Luane
328.Asphalt Pavement Maintenance Field Handbook2001-052001
This field manual provides guidelines for preventive asphalt pavement maintenence techniques for a variety of distresses and conditions. This field manual is condensed form the Best Practices Handhook on Asphalt Pavement Maintenence, manual number 2000-04, available fmm Mn/DOT's Office of Research Services at 612-282-2274....Pavements, Asphalt, Maintenance and repair, Handbooks, manuals,...Johnson, Ann; Snopl, Pamela
329.Best Practices For Maintaining And Upgrading Aggregate Roads in Australia And New ZealandP2002-012001
This report documents the best practices of Australia and New Zealand in maintaining and upgrading aggregate roads. Compared to the United States, Australia and New Zealand have fewer resources to invest in road construction and maintenance. As a result, both countries have developed systems for economically constructing and maintaining roads. Although differences exist in climate, traffic, and road user expectations, studying the best practices of Australia and New Zealand offers opportunities to apply relevant practices....Low-volume roads, Australia, Maintenance and repair, Low-volume roads, New Zealand, Maintenance and repair, Roads, Gravel, Australia, Maintenance and repair, Roads, Gravel, New Zealand, Maintenance and repair...Jahren, Charles
330.Construction Report for MnROAD PCC Test Cells 32 52 and 532002-042001
Three new instrumented jointed plain concrete test cells were constructed in June 2000 to replace an existing aggregate surfaced test cell and a nearby bituminous surfaced transition area. This report describes the physical characteristics of new PCC test cells 32, 52, and 53. The report also summarizes the results for various material tests performed during and immediately following construction of the test cells....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Design and construction, Concrete pavement, instrumentation, dowel bars...Burnham, Thomas
331.Construction Report on the Installation of Retrofit Dowel Bar Test Sections on TH 232001-092001
A section of Trunk Highway 23 near Mora, Minnesota, underwent concrete rehabilitation in 1998, which included the installation of retrofit dowel bars over a portion of the project. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) established several different test sections to evaluate the performance of different dowel bar configurations, group materials, and dowel bar lengths. During dowel bar installation, researchers monitored and evaluated construction procedures. They also conducted pavement testing before and after installation of the retrofit dowel bars to determine any immediate improvements to the joint performance. As expected, early age testing has shown improvements in joint load transfer efficiency after installation of the retrofit dowels. Testing also revealed that the rapid-setting mortar performed better than Mn/DOT's standard 3U18 patching mix. After only two years, there has been no noticeable differences in ride quality or faulting at the joints between retrofit and nonretrofit joints. Testing of pavements and joint performance will continue on a yearly basis to determine the long-term performance of the retrofit dowels....Pavements, Concrete, Joints, Testing, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Dowels, Testing...Embacher, Eric
332.Development of a Quick Reliability Method for Mechanistic-Empirical Asphalt Pavement Design 2001
In Mechanistic-empirical (M-E) pavement design, the Monte Carlo method has proven to be an effective means of determining reliability. One drawback is the amount of computing time required to carry out a simulation. Performing a Monte Carlo simulation on a complex load spectrum can require hours on a typical desktop computer. The Minnesota Department of Transportation is developing a shortcut method for estimating reliability in its J90 MnPAVE flexible pavement design program. In this program, variability in the layer thicknesses and moduli are expressed as coefficients of variation (CV). Development of the shortcut method involves running a large number of pavement design simulations to generate damage factors (using Miner's Hypothesis) and reliability values (using the Monte Carlo method). For a given set of CV values, there is a strong correlation between the damage factor and reliability. For the two asphalt fatigue models tested, this correlation exists regardless of the number and thickness of pavement layers, layer moduli, number of seasons, and number of axle configurations. For the rutting model the addition of more seasons and loading configurations increases scatter in the data. A family of curves can be generated to include the range of expected CV combinations, and the resulting equations can be used to estimate the reliability of a pavement design based on a single damage calculation....Pavements, Minnesota, Mechanical Empirical Asphalt Pavement Design, Mathematical models, MnPAVE...Chadbourn, Bruce
333.Evaluation of a Field Permeameter to Measure Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Base / Subgrade Materials2001-192001
This report presents the results of a cooperative study on the field use of a permeameter, built by researchers at the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) and the University of Minnesota, to estimate the saturated hydraulic conductivity of pavement base materials. Field measurements using the permeameter were taken on various highway construction projects, and researchers measured the saturated hydraulic conductivity of samples in the laboratory. Researchers also reviewed theories for converting a field-measured flow rate into a saturated hydraulic conductivity estimate. By numerical simulation and analysis of the field data, researchers determined an appropriate method for converting the Mn/DOT permeameter flow measurements into estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Variations between the field estimated and laboratory measured hydraulic conductivity are within one order of magnitude. Variations between the field estimate and numerical simulation, however, are much closer. The study found the Mn/DOT permeameter can be used to obtain a reliable estimate of the base hydraulic conductivity provided that the base layer is at least 15 cm (six inches) deep. When the base is to thin, permeameter readings are restricted to early infiltration times...Soil permeability, Minnesota, Testing, Permeameter, Roads, Minnesota, Base courses, Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades...Clyne, Timothy; Voller, Vaughan; Birgisson, Bjorn
334.Fault Diagnostics For Intelligent Vehicle Applications2001-202001
This project involved the development of a fault diagnostic system for Safetruck, an intelligent vehicle prototype. The fault diagnostic system continuously monitors the health of vehicle sensors, detects a failure when it happens, and identifies the source of the failure. The fault diagnostic system monitors several key components: the Global Positioning System, lateral accelerometer, and yaw-rate gyroscope, which constitute the set of lateral dynamic sensors, as well as the forward-looking radar that measures distance, relative velocity, and azimuth angle to other vehicles and objects on the highway. To design the project's lateral fault diagnostic system, researchers exploited the model-based dynamic relationships that exist between the three lateral sensors. They verified the system's performance through extensive experiments on the Safetruck. This project also explored a number of new approaches to creating a reliable fault detection system for radar. Monitoring the radar's health poses a special challenge because the radar measures the distance to another independent vehicle on the highway. In the absence of inter-vehicle communications, the fault diagnostic system has no way of knowing the other vehicle's motion, which means that model-based approaches cannot be used. Experimental results indicate that an inexpensive redundant sensor combined with a specially designed nonlinear filter would provide the most reliable method for radar health monitoring....Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, Research, Minnesota, Intelligent transportation systems...Rajamani, Rajesh
335.Field installation of an Earth Pressure CellTRB 17722001
An earth pressure cell (EPC) is a device design to provide an estimate of normal stress in soil. The practice of designing and manufacturing stress-management devices revolves around the study of interaction between the measure device and the hose material. However, distribution of normal stress is not necessarily uniform across a given surface. Consequently, output from an EPC may be different under soil-loading conditions than under fluid pressure. In addition, depending on the design, as the cell deflects, and arching-type phenomenon may develop. A study conducted to devise a scheme for calibration of EPCs and to recommend a procedure for field installation. A new testing device was designed to permit the application of uniaxial soil pressure to the EPC by using various types of soil and load configurations. Sensitivities computed from soil calibrations varied from those determined from fluid calibrations by as much as 30 percent. A field installation procedure was developed from model tests. In the laboratory, a thin-walled steel cylinder with a geotextile bottom was filled with uniform silica sand in a medium-dense state, and the EPC was placed within the sand. The entire apparatus (EPC, cylinder, and sand) was carried into the filed and installed in the desired locations. The steel cylinder was then removed, leaving the cell, sand and geotextile behind. Preliminary field data indicate that the soil calibration and placement procedure provide reasonably accurate measurements of change in vertical stress....Pavements, Subgrades, Testing, Soil mechanics, Pavements, Minnesota, sensors, Mathematical models Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Performance, design methods, calibration...Theroux, Brent; Labuz, Joseph; Dai, Shongtao
336.Fine Particle (Nanoparticle) Emissions on Minnesota Highways2001-122001
This study examined the physical characteristics of combustion aerosols found on Minnesota highways. It emphasized the characterization of nanoparticles (less than 50 nm) with the goal of providing real-world data for the development of engine laboratory test methods. On-road particulate matter emissions ranged between 104 to 106 particles/cm3 with the majority of the particles by number being less than 50 nm in diameter. High-speed traffic produced high nanoparticle number concentrations and diesel traffic further increased number concentrations. At high vehicular speeds, particulate matter emissions increase because of higher engine load and fuel consumption. Measurements made at speeds less than 20 mph showed lower number but higher volume concentrations and larger particles. Measurements made 10-30 m from the highway in residential areas approached on-road concentrations with similar size distributions and high concentrations of nanoparticles. Lower concentrations and larger particles were observed in residential areas 500 to 700 m from the highway. Fuel specific and particle/mi emission rates were estimated from data collected on two different days. The particle/mi emissions were about an order of magnitude greater than published figures but mass emission rates compared well with published values. However, colder temperatures, different dilution and sampling conditions and different instrumentation could explain our increased estimates....Motor vehicles, Minnesota, Motors, Exhaust gas, Measurement, Aerosols, Measurement, Air, Pollution, Measurement...Kittelson, David; Watts, Winthrop; Johnson, Jason
337.Investigation of Construction-Related Asphalt Concrete Pavement Temperature Differentials 2001
Executive Summary In 1999 the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) joined the California, Texas, and Washington State Departments of Transportation in forming a research partnership. The partnership was named the State Pavement Technology Consortium (SPTC). The consortium was formed to share information on pavement practices including design, rehabilitation, decision-making, and research. Specific to research the consortium is concerned with how pavement orientated studies are identified, conducted, funded, and implemented. The main objective of this paper was to gather infrared temperature and density data on a number of Minnesota Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) paving projects in the 2000 construction season to investigate the effects, if any, temperature segregation has on the paving process and the resulting pavement compaction. The second objective was to collect specific information related to the construction such as the type of mix, the equipment used in the construction process, and environmental conditions and the effects they may have on the paving process and the resulting pavement compaction. One of the main problems facing the asphalt paving industry is hot mix asphalt segregation. Segregation is generally put into two categories, one is aggregate segregation and the other is temperature segregation. In aggregate segregation there is a concentration of either coarse or fine material in some areas of the paved mat. These areas are often characterized by different surface textures from the surrounding material and can usually be seen by the naked eye. Temperature segregation is the isolated pockets of different temperatures created in the paving process. These areas may or may not produce irregularities in the mat that can be seen. Stroup-Gardiner and Brown (1) have come up with a more thorough definition of segregation: "Segregation is the lack of homogeneity in the hot mix asphalt constituents of the in-place mat of such a magnitude that there is a reasonable expectation of accelerated pavement distress(es)." Previous research from the Washington Department of Transportation (WSDOT), NCAT and others has suggested that there is a correlation between material segregation and temperature differentials created in the paving process. Temperature differentials greater than 25‘F can cause areas of cooler material not to be compacted to the same densities as the surrounding warmer material. These areas can exhibit poor structural and textural characteristics, poor performance and durability, and can have shorter life expectancy and higher maintenance costs. The identification of these temperature differentials is captured with the use of a thermal imaging infrared camera. All objects no matter their temperature emit radiation. Measuring this radiation emitted allows you to determine the temperature of any and all points in the viewing spectrum of the camera. The temperature segregation will show up as different colors representing areas of different temperature. After a maximum predetermined temperature differential has been exceeded additional testing and inspection can be preformed to determine the level of distress that may or may not be present....Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Materials, Effect of temperature on, Minnesota...Adams, Jerome; Mulvaney, Ronald; Reprovich, Beverly; Worel, Benjamin
338.MNRD0202: Torsional Fatigue and High Temperature Stiffness Modulus of Cells 3, 4, 17 & 18 of MnROAD's 1992/1993 Paving Work 2001
The requested work called for the determination of fatigue properties of these mixes using torsional fatigue procedures. This test procedure has been described in detail in a previous report to MN DOT and the interested reader Is referred to that reports. The initial work request was to determine the fatigue properties of the mix as near the surface as ipossible. During testing we were asked to also determine and compare the fatigue properties of the binder lift of each core as well. Although that work 'Jvas not part of the original cont:ract, MTE felt the information was of sufficient value in understanding the rate of fatigue development that we agreed to perform these tests at no charge to the departrnent....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Testing, Fatigue tests, Torsion tests, Stiffness tests...Reinke, Gerald
339.Mn/Road Offline Data Peak-picking Program 2001
This manual is intended for users who will be using the Mn/Road offline data peakpicking program. There is no specific requirement for the application. All the users should go through this manual before starting the program. The manual acts like a tutorial, which will help users to be familiar with the operations and functions of the program. This is the first draft of the manual, any suggestions and comments are welcomed, please direct them to my email account: wlau@ece.umn.edu. If you are interested in modifying or enhancing the program, please refer to the "Development Manual" instead of this end-users' manual....Pavement instrumentation, data acquisition, Pavements, Minnesota, Mathematical models...Lau, Wing
340.Pavement Temperature Effects 2001
Minnesota’s temperature changes over a wide range on a daily and a seasonal basis. Our roads are expected to perform without major distress over this range of temperature extremes. The effects of temperature cause thermal stress, warping and curling and joint design for Portland Cement Concrete (PCC), and freezing/thawing of moisture sensitive materials. Temperature is one of the most basic pieces of information needed to design a pavement. Temperature is used to specify Performance Grades (PG) for asphalt binders, timing of spring load limits, base thickness for frost free design and modeling parameters for pavement performance and design. This report provides a summary of the various temperature phenomena seen in select the pavement systems. All data is from the Minnesota Road Research Project (Mn/ROAD), located in south central Minnesota. All available data was not analyzed for this report, but rather a few selected cells were analyzed. Therefore, the temperature extremes may not be the exact maximum or minimum for all the cells that were monitored, but should be within a few degrees.... ...Johnson, Greg
341.Reclaimed glass : information kit 2001
Sibley County demonstrated that reclaimed glass can be competitive in price when compared with that of conventional aggregates. Under the right conditions, crushing and blending virgin aggregate with 10 percent reclaimed glass may help upgrade substandard gravel so that the final product then can meet Mn/DOT specifications. In the six years since the Sibley County project, the successful use of reclaimed glass in aggregate mix began to grow in counties throughout the state. In 1998, the Research Implementation Committee (RIC) of the Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) decided to fund an outreach project that supports the application of reclaimed glass material in aggregate mix. The LRRB and project co-sponsors, Mn/DOT and the Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance (OEA), recently undertook two important initiatives -- completing the writing of a new specification that includes reclaimed glass as an option for Class 7 aggregate as base course, and developing information & outreach materials on the use of reclaimed glass in aggregate mix....Glass waste, reclaimed glass, Recycling, Minnesota, Waste products as road materials, Aggregates (Building materials), Roads, Base courses, Design and construction...
342.Reliability, Damage, and Seasonal Considerations in MnPAVE 2001
Mn/DOT is in the process of upgrading its Mechanistic-Empirical asphalt pavement design software (MnPAVE). In the process of evaluating the existing software, some problems with the reliability method (allowed repetitions method) were encountered. This paper presents a description of these problems and proposes the implementation of a new reliability method (damage factor method). In order to compare the reliability methods, eight pavement designs corresponding to a previous study were analyzed. In this study, two low-volume and two highvolume pavements designed using FLEXPAVE were evaluated with the existing program. Simulations were conducted to determine the damage factors and reliabilities of the FLEXPAVE designs. A memo to the M/E Design Implementation Group at Mn/DOT describes the original study (see Appendix A)....Pavements, Minnesota, Mechanical Empirical Asphalt Pavement Design, Mathematical models, MnPAVE, FLEXPAVE, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction...Chadbourn, Bruce
343.Scoping Study: Impact of Agricultural Equipment on Minnesota's Low Volume Roads 2001
Farming is a large industry in the United States, especially in the Midwest. Over the past few decades, the industry has seen the number of operating fams decease but an incease in average farm size. With larger farms and continuously improving farming techniques, the demand to increase equipment carrying capacily has completely changed the Industry. Consequently, larger and heavier agricultural equipment operates on our public highways and local roads....Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Rural roads, Minnesota, Farm equipment, Minnesota...Oman, Matt; VanDeusen, David; Olson, Roger
344.Superpave Level One Mix Design at the Local Government Level2002-192001
This report presents the results of an investigation into the use of the Superpave asphalt mix design methodology at the local government level in Minnesota. In the project, researchers combined low-cost natural sand with locally available aggregates from four sources: limestone, quartzite, and partially crushed river gravel, and granite. They evaluated coarse and fine aggregate gradations, along with the use of two asphalt grades. It was difficult to achieve the Superpave volumetric requirements of voids in mineral aggregate (VMA) and voids filled with asphalt (VFA) at 4 percent air voids, regardless of the gradation. A target air void content of 3 percent satisfied the VFA requirement, even though the VMA requirement could not be fulfilled. The fine aggregate gradations produced densities indicating that the mixtures might be tender during construction, but not necessarily be susceptible to rutting. The coarse-graded mixtures did not show the tenderness problem, but did show that they might be susceptible to rutting. Resilient modulus testing showed little or no difference in the mixtures, regardless of aggregate source or gradation. The difference in resilient modulus due to asphalt grade was apparent only at the intermediate temperatures, and not at the highest or lowest test temperatures. Moisture sensitivity testing showed that all the mixtures studied had adequate durability. Indirect tensile creep and APA rut testing indicated that resistance to low temperature cracking and rutting may be improved by decreasing the lower PG binder grade and increasing the upper PG binder grade, respectively....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Additives, Aggregates (Building materials), Low-volume roads, Superpave, Asphalt mixtures...Clyne, Timothy
345.The Measured Response of Ultra-Thin and Thin Whitetopping to Environmental Loads 2001
"7th International Conference on Concrete Pavements, Orlando, Florida, USA, September 9-13, 2001." The technique of whitetopping asphalt concrete pavements with a thin (102-mm to 152-mm thick) or ultra-thin (51-mm to 102-mm thick) concrete overlay is becoming more common. The increase in use of thin whitetopping (TW) and ultra-thin whitetopping (UTW) has amplified the need for a comprehensive design procedure. The purpose of this research project is to develop a better understanding of the behavior of thin and ultra-thin whitetopping by measuring the responses of the pavements to various environmental loadings....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair...Vandenbossche, Julie
346.The Use of Geosynthetics to Reinforce Low Volume Roads2001-152001
This report presents the results of a study that investigated the reinforcement function of geosynthetics for typical Minnesota low-volume roadways. Researchers conducted a series of numerical simulations using the finite difference program FLAC. The numerical tests consisted of a static, circular nine kip loading over a variety of typical surfaced and unsurfaced road cross sections that were reinforced with geotextiles and geogrids. Researchers used elastic and elasto-lastic models with frictional interfaces to simulate the layered roadway system. The results of the study indicate that the addition of a geosynthetic does provide reinforcement to the roadway as long as the geosynthetic is stiffer than the subgrade material. However, for most of the cases studied, the benefit in terms of deflection reduction, was very small. Only for the poorest quality subgrades was the reinforcement benefit substantial....Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Roads, Base courses, Road materials, Evaluation, Geogrids, Geosynthetics...Erickson, Hans; Drescher, Andrew
347.Using silica fume concrete with full-depth bridge deck construction in Minnesota2001-182001
Determine constructability, performance and cost effectiveness of using full depth concrete decks incorp. Silica fume. This report presents the results of a research project to evaluate the performance of six full-depth silica fume bridge decks, constructed between 1997 and 1999. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) constructed these decks to compare their performance and constructability in Minnesota, which involves the use of a seven-inch structural slab followed by a two-inch low slump overlay. Researchers conducted air content and slump field testing, visual inspections, and laboratory testing on chloride permeability, compressive strength, and hardened air system properties. In addition, they compared initial costs between the current deck system and the full-depth silica fume decks. The overall performance of the silica fume bridge decks has been good; however, two of the bridge decks did have problems related to the development of silica fume balls. Laboratory testing has shown that silica fume concrete performs better in terms of chloride permeability and compressive strength. Field tests have shown that placement of the silica fume concrete is comparable to a conventional concrete mix. Finally, cost comparisons have shown the placement of a full-depth silica fume deck to be slightly lower than the current deck system....Bridges, Concrete, Minnesota, Floors, Materials, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Evaluation, Silica fume, Concrete, Additives...Embacher, Eric
348.1999 - 2000 Transportation research, biennial report. Realizing the benefits of knowledge.pgs 18-252000
...Minnesota, Dept of Transportation, Periodicals, Transportation, Research, Minnesota, Periodicals, Highway research, Minnesota, Periodicals...
349.Asphalt Overlay Cost-Effectiveness2000-312000
This report reviews Manitoba's and Minnesota's Specific Pavement Studies (SPS-5) projects. The studies focus on investigating the performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) overlays on HMA pavements and involve nine core test sections. The SPS-5 design variables in test sections include a control section (do nothing), amount of preparation of the existing surface (mill, no-mill), overlay thickness (50-mm, 125-mm), and the type of overlay material (virgin, recycle). Researchers plan to study the Manitoba and Minnesota SPS-5 projects, part of the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Project, until 2010, when each project reaches the approximate age of 20 years. This project update includes a field review by the authors, a review of the existing monitoring data, and an estimate of the expected performance and cost expectations for upcoming years until 2010. Currently after 10 years all sections, excluding the control section, still are performing well. As a result at this point, researchers recommended the least costly treatment, 50mm recycled asphalt overlay with no surface preparation, for pavement rehabilitation....Long-Term Pavement Performance Program (US), Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Overlays, Costs, Pavements, Asphalt, Manitoba, Overlays, Costs...Worel, Benjamin
350.Best Practices Handbook on Asphalt Pavement Maintenance2000-042000
The purpose of this handbook is to provide background information about the importance of pavement preservation and preventive maintenance, as well as present maintenance techniques for a variety of distresses and conditions. The major focus of this handbook is on preventative maintenance activities, which are performed while the roadway is still in good condition with only minimal distress, before the pavement falls into a condition where structural overlays, major milling or reclaiming, or replacement is necessary. The most common flexible pavement distresses are cracking, roughness, weathering, raveling, rutting and bleeding. If the distresses identified in a pavement are related to structural deficiencies, the pavement section is most likely not a candidate for preventive maintenance treatment, and should be scheduled for rehabilitation or reconstruction. Maintenance treatments covered in this handbook include: Crack repair wisealing, including clean and seal, saw and seal, and rout and seal; crack filling, full depth crack repair, fog seal, seal coat, double chip seal, slurry seal, microsurfacing, thin hot mix overlays, and potholes and pavement patching. Tables are outlined giving the most common flexible pavement distresses, along with the best practices for rehabilitation for each. Also given are recommended applications for crack sealers and fillers, surface treatments, and pothole patching. Specifications, technical memoranda and special provisions are included for all treatment methods recommended in the handbook...Pavements, Asphalt, Maintenance and repair, Handbooks, manuals, etc., Pavements, Asphalt, Cracking, Handbooks, manuals, etc., Sealing (Technology), Sealcoat, Pothole Prevention...Johnson, Ann; Snopl, Pamela
351.Calibration of An Earth Pressure Cell2000-342000
In this study, researchers devised a scheme for calibration of earth pressure cells to observe their response to various loading configurations and to recommend a procedure for field installation. Transducers designed to provide an estimate of normal stress within a soil, earth pressure cells have provided readings that conflict with known loading conditions. Initial calibration tests used hydraulic oil as the pressurizing medium in both hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure conditions, which mimic the manufacturers' procedure for pressure cell calibration. Researchers designed a new testing device to permit the application of uniaxial soil pressure to the earth pressure cells using various types of soil and load configurations. As a result of calibration tests, a field installation procedure was developed and recommended. In the laboratory, a thin-walled steel cylinder with a geotextile bottom was filled with uniform silica sand of a known density, and the earth pressure cell was placed within the sand. The entire apparatus was carried into the field and installed in the desired locations. Once in place, the steel cylinder was pulled up out of the ground, leaving the cell and geotextile behind. Preliminary field data indicate that soil calibration and placement procedure provide reasonably accurate measurements....Earth pressure, Measurement, Soil mechanics, Geotextiles, Testing...Labuz, Joseph
352.Calibration of Flexible Pavement Structural Model Using MnROAD Field Data 2000
poor tech doc scan...Pavements, Flexible, Minnesota, Design and construction, design methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, calibration, MnROAD...Bao, Wenjin
353.Characterizing Seasonal Variations in Pavement Material Properties for Use in a Mechanistic-Empirical Design Procedure2000-352000
Recent advances in flexible pavement design have prompted agencies to move toward the development and use of mechanistic-empirical (M-E) design procedures. This report analyzed seasonal trends in flexible pavement layer moduli to calibrate a M-E design procedure specific to Minnesota. Seasonal trends in pavement layer moduli were quantified using data from the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) and Long Term Pavement Performance Seasonal Monitoring Program (LTPP SMP) sites located in Minnesota. The relationships investigated were between climate factors, subsurface environmental conditions, and pavement material mechanical properties. The results show that pavement layer stiffness is highly respondent to changes in the average daily temperature and available moisture. Five seasons were used to characterize the seasonal variations in pavement layer moduli for design purposes. Seasonal factors were used to quantify the cyclic variations in the pavement layer stiffness for a typical year. The maximum stiffness of the pavement layers is reached when temperatures are cooler. The hot mix asphalt layer moduli is at a minimum in the summer when temperatures are high. The granular base layer moduli is at a minimum during the early spring-thaw period when excess moisture is unable to drain. Finally, the fine-grained subgrade layer moduli is at a minimum late spring and summer due to the low permeability and slow recovery of the material. The Integrated Climate Model (ICM) was used in this study to compared predicted data to actual data from MnROAD. It was found that the ICM data compared favorably, however, it was not able to predict the spring-thaw period....Pavements, Materials, Effect of temperature on, Minnesota, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, Mathematical models, Road materials, Minnesota, Testing...Ovik, Jill; Birgisson, Bjorn; Newcomb, David
354.Cold In-Place Recycling Literature Review2000-212000
This research report summarizes the results of a project to assist in the development of a mix design procedure for partial depth cold in-place recycling (CIR) mixtures. An asphalt pavement rehabilitation method, CIR involves mixing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), water, and a recycling agent in place and without heat. During the construction of partial depth cold in-place recycling, one type of CIR, milling is done at depths of 50 to 100 mm, or two to four inches, with the resulting layer frequently used as base course. In this project, researchers mixed RAP from Trunk Highways 23, 59, and 71, and County State Aid Highway 5 with emulsions CSS-1, HFMS-2s, and HRMS-2p. After preparing specimens with a gyratory compactor and Marshall hammers, researchers tested the specimens for bulk specific gravity, maximum specific gravity, and air voids. In addition, indirect tensile strength tests were used to evaluate the effects of changes in curing periods and compactive effort on CIR mixtures. Researchers concluded that the asphalt content in the RAP affects the emulsion to be added in the CIR mixture; that emulsion HFMS-2p resulted in the lowest overall voids; and that the gyratory compactor produced the best specimens for testing and evaluation....Pavements, Asphalt, Recycling, RAP, Pavements, Asphalt, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair...Salomon, Atenea; Newcomb, David
355.Differential GPS Based Control of a Heavy Vehicle2000-052000
This report describes the development of technologies that safely steer a vehicle if the vehicle's driver becomes incapacitated. A Differential Global Positioning System (GPS) senses the vehicle's position and velocity. This method seems to offer adequate precision with a low-enough infrastructure cost to make the system practical in most rural settings. Researchers used a heavy vehicle, a class 8 truck tractor, partly because of the most favorable economics associated with installation of this type of system on a commercial vehicle, and partly because of the commercial driver's higher exposure to conditions that engender drowsy driving. This research examines two potential applications of the steering, throttle, and brake controllers. The first, a virtual rumble strip, vibrates the wheel whenever the vehicle drifts out of its lane. The second, a system senses the erratic steering that presages loss of consciousness, and then takes control of the vehicle, pulling it over to a safe stop....Trucks, Automatic control, Global Positioning System, Fatigue, automatic steering control...Alexander, Lee; Donath, Max
356.Evaluation of Aggregate Sections at MnROAD2000-292000
This project focuses on the second construction phase of the Minnesota Road Research facility (MnROAD) and evaluates three typical, locally available, surfacing aggregates along with a rollover section from the initial phase for performance. The project results indicate that the absorption test did not predict the performance of the sections in this experiment. All of the aggregates were characterized as marginal in terms of moisture and frost susceptibility. The sections with the greatest percentage of fines typically performed better than sections with a low percentage of fines. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) issued a technical memorandum to change the specification from 0-15 percent to 8-15 percent passing the No.200 sieve for Class 1 surfacing aggregate. The project also compared freezing and thawing rates on the aggregate sections to nearby hot mix asphalt (HMA) sections. Soil at any particular depth froze four to five days before HMA sections. The aggregate sections also thawed at exponential slower rates as depth increased from 11 to 35 days, which meant that an aggregate surfaced road will freeze sooner and thaw slower than an HMA surfaced road. This information impacts the management of spring load restrictions and winter load limits. Keywords: MnROAD, aggregate roads, low-volume roads, gravel, performance, frost, laboratory tests...Roads, Gravel, Minnesota, Evaluation, Aggregates (Building materials), Minnesota, Evaluation, MnROAD, aggregate roads, low-volume roads, gravel, performance, frost, laboratory tests...Johnson, Greg; Baker, David
357.Improved Spring Load Restriction Guidelines Using Mechanistic Analysis2000-182000
This project used research to develop more effective criteria for placement and removal of spring load restrictions (SLR). Researchers investigated a method that uses a thawing index equation based on air temperatures to predict thawing events. Results showed that adjusting the reference temperature improved the spring-thaw prediction for Minnesota. Researchers compared historical SLR posting dates from 1986 through 1998 to the dates predicted using this new technique and to falling weight deflectometer and in situ instrumentation readings from 15 flexible pavement test sections in Minnesota. According to results, there was typically a week or more delay from the time that SLR should have been placed until actual posting of restrictions, which caused damage that could have been prevented. Based on testing performed on pavement sections across the state, the typical period required for pavement base and subgrade layers to regain sufficient strength to support heavy truck loads was eight weeks. In 1999, the Minnesota Department of Transportation adopted the improved procedure for placing and removing SLR. The policy uses actual and forecasted average daily temperature to determine timing of SLR. With the SLR duration is fixed at eight weeks, it is easier to plan for the end of the restriction period. Researchers estimate an increase of 10 percent in a typical low-volume asphalt road's life with implementation of the improved SLR procedures, resulting in a potential savings of more than $10 million annually....Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Roads, Frost damage, Minnesota, spring load restrictions...Ovik, Jill; VanDeusen, David; Siekmeier, John
358.Influence of test method variables on MnROAD Hot Mix Ashalt mixture test results.P2000-032000
As a staff paper, this publication is intended for internal use by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT). Distribution is limited. At the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnIROAD), asphalt concrete mixtures were used to evaluate both warm and cold temperature material properties with selected text methods and a wide range of testing parameters. These parameters were selected to approximate different levels of environmental conditions, traffic speeds, traffic loads, and, in certain cases, confining pressures. The underlying theories used to calculate stress and strain from various loadmg configurations also were rigorously evaluated to determine the appropriateness of comparing results ffom one testing configuration to another. MnJROAD mixtures were evaluated as the first step in hlcing laboratory measurements and test method selection to live traffic pavement responses and performance.A comparison of axial and diametral testing using harmonic loading showed that experimental results did not agree with theory. That is, the complex deviatoric modulus determined for diametral testing should have been less than the Young's modulus determined from testing axially loaded samples. This was not the case. This suggested that a further examination of the sample instrumentation, testing variability, and the possibility of anisotropic mixture behavior due to particle orientation during compaction are needed to resolve these differences. Other findings indicated that the influence of load duration is minimized as the test temperature decreases, there was little influence in rest period times in repeated loading tests on modulus, and confining pressure only had a significant influence on modulus above about room temperature....Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Minnesota...Stroup-Gardiner, Mary; Drescher, Andrew; Newcomb, David; Zhang, Wei
359.Load Equivalency Factors from the Structural Response of Flexible Pavements 2000
The objective of this thesis is the development of a mechanistic -empirical procedure for the determination of Load Equivalency Factors (LEF) for flexible pavements. A LEF represents the damage caused by a particular axle configuration relative to the damage caused by a Standard Axle (18-kip single axle in the AASHTO procedure). A mechanistic-empirical procedure consists of two main steps. The first is a structural model that relates the traffic loads to a certain structural response, usually strains. The second is a distress model that relates that structural response to damage. An extensive experimental work concerning the structural model is carried out in this thesis. A series of tests was performed at MnROAD, a full-scale pavement research facility, during spring 1999. Different types of vehicles, including different kinds of axles and a wide range of load levels as well as different tire pressures and speeds were used. Four different pavement sections were selected for this study. As a result of the studies carried out, it was concluded that the structural behavior of the four pavement cells considered in this thesis was linear viscoelastic . The structural model used in this thesis is the multilayer linear elastic model (BISAR program was used). The structural parameters were first determined from Falling Weight Deflectometer back-calculation, and a comparison of this model with the measured data was made. The deficiencies were addressed and a corrected model was proposed in which the elastic modulus of the asphalt was adjusted for each vehicle speed. The adjusted model adequately predicted the strains developed under the pass of the vehicles. The structural model previously validated was used as the first step in the mechanistic -empirical LEF determination. For the second step, the damage model, the only distress mechanism considered was asphalt fatigue cracking. Several asphalt cracking fatigue laws developed by different institutions were used, and the mechanistic -empirical LEFs obtained were compared to the values provided by the AASHTO guide. There were significant differences between the mechanistic -empirical LEFs obtained for the different fatigue laws. Additionally, there were significant differences between the AASHTO LEFs depending on the terminal serviceability level (pt). As a general conclusion, the mechanistic -empirical LEFs underestimated the AASHTO values, and the larger the load, the greater the underestimation. The range of AASHTO LEFs for the different terminal serviceability levels was above the range of mechanistic -empirical LEFs for the different fatigue laws considered....Pavements, Flexible, Minnesota, Live loads, Testing...Moreno, Angel
360.Measured Effects of Edge-Joint Sealing on Drained Concrete Pavements 2000
Preventive maintenance treatments such as joint sealing are part of ongoing research at the Minnesota Road Research test facility. Pavement sections at the test facility are instrumented extensively, thus providing automated measurements of changes in pavement moisture and drainage due to varying climate conditions. Joint sealing studies involve measuring changes in edge drain outflow and base moisture content in response to precipitation events. Concrete test sections were constructed with drainable bases and longitudinal edge drains. Data was collected before and after edge joints were sealed on concrete sections. Prior to sealing the joint on the test section, there is no significant difference in the volume drained between the control and the test section. After the edge joint was sealed there was a significant reduction in the volume drained through the edge drain on the test section. Sealing the edge joint on concrete pavements, with bituminous shoulders is shown or reduce the total volume of water entering the pavement system by as much as 85%, for a given rain event. Sealing the longitudinal edge joint on concrete pavements should be considered as a pavement preventive maintenance treatment....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Joints, Maintenance and repair, Sealing compounds...Roberson, Ruth; Olson, Roger; Millner, Chad
361.Radar Based Longitudinal Virtual Bumper Collision Avoidance System Implemented on a Truck2000-072000
This report describes results from a series of experiments using the virtual bumper collision avoidance algorithm implemented on a Navistar tractor cab. The virtual bumper combines longitudinal and lateral collision avoidance capabilities to control a vehicle in normal and emergency situations. A programmable boundary, the virtual bumper, defines a personal space around the host vehicle. Researchers used a radar and a laser range sensor to sense the location of vehicles in front of the truck. Target vehicles that enter the truck's personal space impose a virtual "force" on the host, which in turn modifies the vehicle's trajectory to avoid collisions with objects in the field of view. Researchers tested the virtual bumper longitudinal controller under different driving situations and at different speeds. The experiments included several scenarios: Adaptive Cruise Control, the truck performing a critical stop for a stationary target vehicle, and situations that simulate stop-and-go traffic. Results from the virtual bumper longitudinal experiments were favorable. The algorithm demonstrated robustness to sensor noise and the ability to maintain a safe headway for both normal and emergency driving scenarios. Researchers currently are improving the sensing technology and incorporating a road database, which contains roadside features to greatly reduce, if not eliminate, false target detection....Trucks, Collision avoidance systems, Trucks, Electronic equipment, Trucks, Automatic control, Radar, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, advanced vehicle control systems...Gorjestani, Alec; Donath, Max; Alexander, Lee
362.Report to Mn/DOT investigation into the low temperature and fatigue properties of three MnROAD Bituminous Mixtures 2000
MTE Services was contacted by MN/DOT to investigate the low temperature fracture properties and fatigue properties of three research bituminous mixes which had been constructed at the MNROAD test facility near Rogers, MN in 1999. In addition the SHRP PG test properties of the three binders used on each respective test section were to be determined. The bituminous mixes to be investigated utilized the same aggregate structure and differed only in the binder grade used for each test section. The grades were PG 58-28 (unmodified), PG 58-34 (polymer modified) and PG 58-40 (polymer modified)....Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Additives, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Evaluation, Performance...Reinke, Gerald
363.The Effect of Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA) on Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements2000-132000
This research project investigates the level of Voids in the Mineral Aggregate (VMA) in Minnesota paving projects. Researchers analyzed 10 paving projects from 1996 to determine if a VMA decrease occurred, the magnitude of the decrease, and the potential causes of the decrease. Potential causes include the generation of fines, high-production temperatures, and long storage or cure times. Three of the 10 projects had a VMA decrease of 1.9 or more. These three projects also had the highest plant temperatures and fairly long storage times, which makes increased asphalt absorption a likely cause of the VMA decrease. Five projects showed a moderate drop in VMA. Most had some increases in fines, and some had moderately high plant temperatures and storage times. The two projects with little or no change in VMA had very little change in gradation, and moderate to low plant temperatures and storage times....Pavements, Asphalt, Additives, Testing, Aggregates (Building materials), Testing, Mix Design...Chadbourn, Bruce
364.Tube Suction Test - Results of Round Robin Tests on Unbound AggregatesFinnra reports, 0788-3722 ; 19/20002000
...Roads, Finland, Base courses, Testing, Aggregates surface, Base courses Subgrades, Aggregates (Building materials)...Saarenketo, Timo
365.A Field Study of PCC Joint Misalignment Near Fergus Falls, Minnesota1999-291999
This study investigated faulting distress caused by misaligned transverse joints, in relation to dowel bar assemblies, in a concrete pavement....Joints, Faulting, Dowel Bars, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Fergus Falls, Evaluation...Burnham, Thomas
366.A Review of the Curing Compounds and Application Techniques Used by the Minnesota Department of Transportation for Concrete Pavements2001-061999
This report summarizes the results a 1998 study to evaluate the Minnesota Department of Transportation's (Mn/DOT) concrete pavement curing requirements. Researchers first performed an assessment of the effectiveness of various compounds frequently used on state-funded projects, as well as an assessment of the test methods used to evaluate these compounds. Based on the findings of the study's first phase, Mn/DOT changed its curing specifications and implemented the changes during the 1999 construction season. Researchers also reviewed methods used by the contractors to ensure the application of a uniform coat of acceptable thickness and made recommendations for improving these methods. This report summarizes the findings of this study and the resulting changes that Mn/DOT made to its concrete pavement curing specifications. Recommendations for further improvements also are provided. Mn/DOT's recent implementation of a 0.40 maximum water-to-cementitious ratio specification for concrete pavements has raised some concerns regarding the availability of bleed water at the pavement surface and the moisture retained in the concrete for strength development with current curing practices. A study was initiated in the spring of 1998 to evaluate Mn/DOT?s concrete pavement curing requirements....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Testing, Concrete, Curing, Concrete, Moisture, Concrete, pavements, curing compunds...Vandenbossche, Julie
367.Automatic Detection of Driver Fatigue Phase III1999-301999
Sleep deprivation and sleep disorder continues to cause problems on the road. Reducing the number of accidents related to driver fatigue would save the society a significant amount of money and personal suffering. Monitoring the driver's symptoms can help determine driver fatigue early enough to prevent accidents due to lack of awareness. This report describes advances towards a non-intrusive approach for real-time detection of driver fatigue. It uses a video camera that points directly toward the driver's face and monitors the driver's eye to detect micro-sleeps, or short periods of sleep of about three-to-four seconds....Driver fatigue, CCD cameras, Tracking, Micro-sleeps...Kaur, Sarbjit; Eriksson, Martin; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos
368.Concrete Embedment Strain Sensors at the MnROAD Project: As Built Orientation and Retrofit 1999
Over 430 concrete embedment (CE) strain sensors were originally installed into the test cells of the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD). Due to traffic loading and extreme climate conditions, many of these sensors have ceased to function. A program of CE sensor removal and retrofit was put forth, providing valuable information on the as-built orientation of the original sensors, as well as the feasibility of retrofitting new strain sensors....Concrete, pavements, retrofit sensors...Burnham, Thomas
369.Deformability of Shredded Tires1999-171999
This report describes three separate studies that examine the deformability of shredded tire fill material: The first study determined the response of shredded tires to cyclic loading. These tests were conducted in a load frame on both constrained and unconstrained samples and showed that the material became stiffer with increasing load. The second study focused on the long-term creep settlements of constrained and unconstrained samples. The results indicate that creep exists for a period of up to two years after loading. The third study investigated the possible anisotropic properties of the material. A larger modulus of elasticity was found in directions parallel to the layers than in the direction perpendicular to the layers. However, settlements computed using a representative anisotropic shredded tire fill material indicate that the current settlement analysis, based on isotropic shredded tire layers, predicts maximum settlements conservatively....Waste Rubber Tires, Minnesota, Waste products as road materials, Minnesota, Tires, Recycling...Drescher, Andrew; Newcomb, David; Heimdahl, Thor
370.Effects of Seeding Date Establishment of Prairie Grasses in Minnesota1999-161999
This research project investigated the effects of seeding date on native prairie grasses. Specific objectives included determining * the effects of seeding date on first-season establishment * the effects of seeding date on second-season establishment * whether dormant seedings are as successful as seedings done during the main growing season * whether increasing the percentage of cool-season grass seed in a mix improves stand establishment In 1996 and 1997, native prairie grasses were seeded in field plots at the University of Minnesota's St. Paul campus. Seeding was done 10 times during each growing season, at two- to four-week intervals. Species included Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem), Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama), Elymus canadensis (Canada wildrye), and Bromus kalmii (Kalm's brome), a 'cool-season' and a 'warm-season' mix. Mixes with a higher percentage of cool-season grass seed performed better than mixes containing more warmseason grass seed. However, the cool-season mixes produced very few warm-season grass plants....Schizachyrium scoparium, bouteloua curtipendula, Elymus canadensis, Bromus kalmii, dormant seeding...Gaynor, Virginia; Meyer, Mary
371.Evaluation of Radar for Snowplows: Initial Results1999-091999
Heavy or blowing snow often causes poor visibility for snowplows. This report presents the results of a one-year preliminary study to evaluate the performance of an off-the-shelf radar unit for improved detection of objects under snow and blizzard conditions. Researchers developed a geometrical computer model of radar range and closure rate measurement to provide a baseline for comparison with experimental results. They varied parameters such as radar orientation, location, and differential vehicle speed to determine their effect on radar performance. The radar's accuracy improves as the speed differential between vehicles increases, according to the research findings. Furthermore, slight deviations in orientation and location do not seem to greatly influence the radar's ability to detect other vehicles. The radar also was tested under falling snow conditions. The radar effectively detected target vehicles under 'light' and 'moderate' snow conditions with visibility down to less than one half mile. However, the very small number of snow events in the winter of 1997-98 limits the ability to make conclusions about the radar's performance under such conditions. Since the study began, commercially available radar technology has improved significantly, and researchers recommend testing the improved radar units in the future....Motor vehicles, Minnesota, Electronic equipment, Roads, Snow and ice control, Minnesota, Safety measures, Radar, Snowplows, Safety appliances, Minnesota...Gorjestani, Alec; Pham, Thanh; Bajikar, Sundeep; Donath, Max
372.Improved Spring Load Restriction Guidelines for Minnesota, from World Summit on Nordicity, Quebec Canada 1999
Overall, the objectives of this project are to evaluate current load restriction procedures and suggest improvements. The specific ovjectives addressed in this paper were to investigate and develop improved predictive equations for estimating thaw duration, investigate changes in pavement strength relationships during freeze-thaw events and compare the strength-recovery characteristics of MnROAD aggregate bases to assess the performance of differenct quality bases....Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Roads, Frost damage, Minnesota, spring load restrictions...Worel, Benjamin
373.Investigation Of Thermal Cracking At MnROAD Using The Superpave IDT 1999
Significant thermal cracking has developed at the facility. Due to the controlled design, construction, and monitoring of the pavements at MnROAD, the facility provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate the Superpave thermal cracking prediction system. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Superpave Indirect Tensile Test (IDT) and thermal cracking model (TCMODEL) in the northern, Midwest United States....Pavements, asphalt concrete, bituminous, Materials, Effect of temperature on, Pavements, thermal cracking, Superpave Indirect Tensile Test, IDT, thermal cracking model, TCMODEL...Waldhoff, Angela
374.Load Testing of Instrumented Pavement Sections_Literature Review 1999
...Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Pavements, Performance Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, design methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, calibration...
375.MINNE-ALF Project Overview and Retro-Fit Dewel Study Results2000-021999
A laboratory-based linear loading pavement test stand, the Minnesota Accelerated Loading Facility (Minne-ALF) simulates the passage of heavy traffic loads moving at speeds up to 65 kph (40 mph) over small, full-scale pavement test slabs. Hydraulic actuators control a rocker beam, which simulates loads. Researchers simulated the passage of 40-KN (9-kip) single-wheel loads at a rate of 172,000 per day, although wheel loads up to 100 kN (22 kips) can be simulated at varying speeds. Full-axle simulations are possible with frame modifications....Retrofit dowls, Load transfer, Accelerated pavement testing, Differential deflection...Embacher, Rebecca; Snuyder, Mark
376.Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Thickness Design: The Minnesota Method (Internal)P1999-101999
... ...Timm, David; Birgisson, Bjorn; Newcomb, David
377.Minnesota Low Volume Road Design 19981999-341999
In this project, researchers examined the current practices that local agencies use and evaluated the thickness design procedures by comparing predicted lives for the current designs with those obtained from the mechanistic-empincal design procedure ROADENT. Researchers determined current practices by sending a questionnaire to all cities and counties and visiting two counties and one city. In general, the questionnaire responses show that ities and counties use a variety of practices for the design, construction, and management of low volume in Minnesota, the report recommends converting the differences in performance predictions to thicknesses through the use of existing procedures and the mechanistic-empirical procedure; deveping a best practives manual; and implementing the design procedure and manual. Relative to the current designs, ROADENT predictions of fatigue behavior require a thicker design for medium and high-traffic roads than the Soil Factor design, and a thicker design for high-traffic roads than the R-Value procedure. The required thicknesses based on development of rut depth are not consistent with the current designs....Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Rural roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, Flexible pavement design...Skok, Eugene
378.Minnesota Road Research Project - Forensic Investigation 1997011999-331999
This report focuses on the first extensive forensic excavation of a paved test cell at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD). Data collected during this forensic excavation has contributed to the conclusion that mechanistic pavement design methods should include a maximum allowable stress criteria for aggregate base and subgrade. In addition, minimum hot-mix asphalt pavement thicknesses are required to prevent failures of aggregate base and subgrade....Pavements, Minnesota, Design and Construction, Testing...Isackson, Cassandra; Boerner, Dan; Dai, Shongtao
379.MnROAD 1999 Superpave Construction Report (Cell 33-35) 1999
This paper's purpose is to provide an update on the pavement condition of MnROAD's three low volume road (LVR) Superpave test cells constructed in 1999 with different asphalt binders, see table below. These cells were built to field validate the current low temperature performance grading (PG) system currently being used at Mn/DOT and many other agencies around the world. The paper will document the mix designs, laboratory testing, forensics, environmental conditions, and the resulting distresses observed include rutting, transverse cracking, fatigue cracking and how they are affecting pavement performance and ride....Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Superpave, Evaluation, Design and construction , Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Cracking...Mulvaney, Ronald; Worel, Benjamin; Andersen, Tim
380.MnROAD Pavement Condition (Internal) Library Title: MnROAD pavement condition 1994-1998P1999-111999
...Pavements, Minnesota, Performance...Palmquist, David
381.One Year Performance Summary of Whitetopping Test Sections at the MnROAD Test Facility 1999
Accepted for publication at the Accelerated Pavement Testing 1999 International Conference....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Whitetopping...Vandenbossche, Julie; Rettner, David
382.Seal Coat Research Project2000-031999
This study evaluates the use of seal coating as a method to protect bituminous pavements from oxidation, water infiltration, and raveling. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) applied seal coating to a roadway segment of Trunk Highway (TH) 2 1 in August 1998. The report outlines optimal requirements for the application of seal coat. MnDOT will continue to examine the test strip for performance and provide regular updates until the strip's condition requires reconstruction or overlay....Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Roads, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Sealing Technology, Sealing compounds, Sealcoat, Asphalt emulsions, Surface treatments...Wood, Thomas
383.Statistical Analysis of the Sources of Flexable Pavement VariabilityP99-121999
This project identifies, quantifies, and statistically characterizes the components of asphalt pavements that may lead to spatial variability of pavement performance. Researchers analyzed extensive data sets at the Minnesota Road Research Project (Mn/ROAD) project, including Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) data, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data, core analysis, and loading history data on 22 asphalt test sections. On the average, the as-built thickness is slightly thicker than the design. However, even at this carefully constructed site, there is a significant chance that the as-built pavement thickness can be in error by more than 2.5 em (one inch). Spatial statistics indicate that overly thin zones will occur in areas on the order of 1 01s of square meters, on the average. While the more heavily traveled lane shows a consistent increase in the measures of pavement distress--for example, rutting depths--a quantitative and predictive conclusion is impossible from currently available data. At the time of this study, the pavement structures have not degraded sufficiently to clearly correlate long-term pavement performance with the available measures of pavement stiffness."...Mn/ROAD, Falling Weight Deflectometer, Ground Penetrating Radar, Geostatistics...Barnes, Randal; Froment, Arnaud; Jankovic, Igor
384.Tranverse Cracking in Concrete Bridge Decks1999-051999
This study sought to determine the dominant parameters that lead to premature transverse cracking in bridge decks and to make recommendations that help reduce cracking tendency in bridge decks. The project includes two main parts: a field study and a parametric study. The field study identified 72 bridges in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area and explored the correlation between the observed cracking of those bridges and available design, material, and construction-related data. The parametric study investigated the relative influence of the factors that affect transverse deck cracking through a controlled nonlinear analysis study. Variables included: shrinkage, end restraint, girder stiffness, supplemental steel bar cutoff, cross frames, splices, deck concrete modulus of elasticity, and temperature history. In addition, four bridges from the companion field study were modeled to compare the analytical results with the actual crack patterns. Based on these results and correlation with other research, the study identified the following dominant factors affecting transfer cracking: shrinkage, longitudinal restraint, deck thickness, top transverse bar size, cement content, aggregate type and quantity, air content, and ambient air temperature at deck placement. Recommended practical improvements to bridge deck construction, in order of importance, include: using additives to reduce shrinkage of the deck concrete, using better curing practices, and minimizing continuity over interior spans....Bridges, Concrete, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Bridges, Concrete, Cracking, Minnesota, Bridges, Concrete, Decks...French, Catherine; Eppers, Laurice; Le, Quoc; Hajjar, Jerome
385.1997 - 1998 Transportation research, biennial report. Realizing the benefits of knowledge.pgs 15-401998
...Minnesota, Dept of Transportation, Periodicals, Transportation, Research, Minnesota, Periodicals, Highway research, Minnesota, Periodicals...
386.An Asphalt Paving Tool For Adverse Conditions1998-181998
Poor compaction can lead to early deterioration of an asphalt pavement. It often happens when paving occurs during adverse weather conditions. Yet, in Minnesota, paving must often occur under adverse conditions. A new tool now simulates the cooling of an asphalt mat behind the paver under a variety of environmental conditions. The software, PaveCool Version 2.0, offers users insights into how adverse climate conditions will affect their ability to produce a durable, quality road surface. Users input the type of existing surface, type of asphalt mix, and weather conditions. The output shows a cooling curve with recommended compaction starting and stopping times. Field tests confirm the value of this program as an aid to cold weather paving. A Windows program, PaveCool 2.0 runs on laptop computers (Windows 95, 98, or NT required). This report documents the study of thermal properties and compactibility of hot-mix asphalt, related laboratory tests on the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of hot-mix asphalt at typical compaction temperatures, a literature review, and testing results. It also includes a copy of the PaveCool Version 2.0 software....asphalt paving, cold weather construction, asphalt compaction...Chadbourn, Bruce
387.An Evaluation of the Cambridge Telework Center1999-241998
This report summarizes an evaluation of the first year of the Cambridge Te1ework Center, where Minnesota Department of Transportation employee volunteers work one or two days a week instead of commuting to Twin Cities sites. Researchers surveyed participants and their supervisors at the beginning of their involvement, six months later, and a fmal survey a year later. The surveys asked questions about commuting time and distance, expectations about and experiences with telework, job satisfaction and other work attitudes, job performance, day-to-day operations at Cambridge, and other issues. The Telework Center reduces commuting time and distance by a per day average of32 miles and 74 minutes. In the first survey, participants and supervisors expected to see improvements in a wide variety of areas, including quality and quantity of work, job satisfaction, and reduced stress. One year later, the two groups reported that most of these expectations were met, and they rated their telework experience as positive. However, according to direct measurements, teleworker job satisfaction and commitment to the organization remained unchanged from the program's start to one year later. The same proved true with job performance....telework, human resources , alternate transportation...Sackett, Paul
388.Calibration of Rigid Pavement Structural Model Using MnROAD Field Data 1998
A study was conducted to evaluate testing procedures and methods used to collect and analyze pavement response data from full-scale instrumented portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement sections at MnROAD....Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Pavements, Performance, Flexible, Minnesota, Design and construction, design methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, calibration, MnROAD...Forst, Jesse
389.Estimating Arterial Travel Time Using Loop Data- Phase II1998-191998
Successful implementation of advanced traveler information systems over an entire urban network requires realtime measurement or estimation of arterial travel times (or equivalently arterial journey speeds). This project develops an arterial journey speed model using data from inductive loop detectors and traffic controllers. This model incorporates the following key findings of traffic data analysis that researchers collected in Phase I. • Spot speeds are highly correlated with journey speeds when both speeds are low (0-15 mph) and uncorrelated with journey speeds when both speeds are high (greater than 25 mph). • Signal offsets or greenband width, traffic demand, green splits and capacity-reduction incidents are major factors that affect arterial travel time/journey speed. The model consists of two parts--the speed estimated from the volume and occupancy measured by detectors and the speed estimated based on critical volume/capacity ratio. Researchers tested and compared the model with a number of existing models, with promising results....travel time, detector, arterial traffic...Zhang, Michael; Kwon, Eil; Qiang Wu, Tong; Sommers, Kevin; Habib, Ahsan
390.Fuel Cells in Transportation1999-221998
This report explains the current state of the art in fuel cell development for transportation and presents industry goals and opinions regarding when it may become commercially feasible. It discusses consumer acceptance and future implications for transportation departments. The report also provides sources for ongoing information about fuel cells. Large companies are investing funds into prototype development of fuel cell vehicles and into size, weight, cost, and performance solutions. Much progress has been made in those areas. The fact that methanol or gasoline can be reformulated into hydrogen on board the vehicle makes it a more viable technology. A few fuel cell buses already are on the streets. Time estimates for the on-the-road use of a significant number of fuel cell vehicles vary from 20 10 to 2025....fuel cells, electric vehicles , alternative fuels, hydrogen as fuel...Newsome, Pamela
391.Interpreting traces from a lossy TDR system and optimizing system performance : final report1998-03U1998
The Minnesota Road Research Project (MnIROAD) has completed time domain reflectomev measurements of soil moisture since 1993. But questions about interpretation about the data remain, because of soil characteristics at the site, the unusual design of waveguides, and long transmission lines that are known to degrade TDR system performance. This study's objectives included developing a procedure to recover moisture content data measured in situ with TDR since 1993 at the MnIROAD site. Researchers calibrated the relationship between TDR system response and soil water content and characterized the influences of unusual waveguide design, high soil bulk density, high soil clay content, cable length, and soil temperature. Cable lengths greater than 33 m caused errors in the TDR calibration relationship. In addition, soil temperature had a small effect on TDR measurements. Researchers developed correction equations to correct TDR measurements of water content for long cable lengths and soil temperature. Past TDRmoisture measurements taken at the MnIROAD site must be interpreted usingthis report's calibration equation and cable lengthlsoil temperature corrections. Additionally, present and future interpretations of soil moisture using the existing TDR system at the MnROAD site must use these equations....Soil moisture, Measurement, Time-domain reflectometry, Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Measurement, Mathematical models...Reece, Clive; Baker, John; Brieter, William
392.Microbial Deterioration of Asphalt Materials And Their Biochemical Changes During Stripping Process1999-021998
Chemical analysis, enumeration of heterotrophic microorganisms and asphalt degraders, metabolites produced by asphalt degraders, and tensile strength were assayed after Marshall pucks had been buried for 3, 7, 12, and 23 months in soils that were held in 20-gallon aquarium tanks and maintained at 30, 60, and 90 percent water holding capacities. Good correlation was found between loss of hydrocarbons in asphalt materials and reduction of tensile strength of Marshall pucks. Total hydrocarbon (percentage) in Marshall pucks that were buried in soils was less than those in control and fresh puck samples. The study confrrmed that asphalt samples buried in soils that were maintained at 60 percent water holding capacity for 23 months had significantly more asphalt degraders and had undergone most severe biodegradation. GC, HPLC, MS, and IR chromatographs show that major peaks of biochemicals and meabolites almost disappeared in most asphalt samples. The higher visual stripping and broken aggregate percentages also were found in Marshall pucks that had been treated under the same environmental conditions. The study also confrrmed that under optimum environmental conditions, microorganisms caused significantly more damage to asphalt pavement in all instances. Therefore, microbial degradative activities are considered major mechanisms to stripping process of asphalt pavement....microbial deterioration, biochemical changes, asphalt degradation...Chang, Fu-Hsian
393.Minnesota Ground Penetrating Radar Project (GPR) 1998, TH28, Burtrum, District 3 1998
The purpose of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey on TH28 was to detect base and subgrade problem areas, as there are several frost heave problems on this site....Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Pavements, Subgrades, Testing, Ground penetrating radar, GPR, Nondestructive testing...Saarenketo, Timo
394.Minnesota Seal Coat Handbook1999-071998
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has concluded a research study on the proper techniques involved in seal coating. A key part of the research project involved performing seal coat designs using the procedure developed by Norman McLeod. In addition, research personnel were present on many seal coat construction projects assisting the inspector and contractor. The primary purpose of this handbook is to provide a solid background in seal coat materials, equipment, design and construction for the field inspector. Divided into two main sections, the handbook provides direction for designers and field personnel....Pavements Cracking Prevention, Roads Maintenance and repair, Sealing Technology, Sealing compounds...Janisch, David; Gaillard, Frank
395.Overseas Air Cargo Service, Airborne Export Producing Industries and U.S. Cities, 1980-19951998-121998
This report presents results of an analysis of changes in the geographic patterns ofU .S. markets for overseas cargo service between 1980 and the mid-1990s. The study determines which U.S. cities have and have not participated in the period's dramatic service expansion, and the ways in which their competitive positions have changed as a result. The study identifies industries that rely heavily on air cargo service to facilitate export activities and examines their employment distributions among U.S. cities to demonstrate demand for overseas air cargo service. A classification ofU.S. metropolitan regions based on the mismatches revealed improvement or decline in service supply and demand, as well as identifying cities with winning and losing records during the period. Case studies of Portland, Oregon; St. Louis; Washington-Baltimore; and Minneapolis--St. Paul indicate the influences of location, local economic conditions, airline networks, carrier health, and industry changes; and leadership on and off the airport. Study results make clear the need for coordinated local and regional efforts to actively promote better air service for communities in the face of competition for limited service. Civic leaders must address those issues within their influence and develop long-range plans carefully attuned to concurrent airline industry and regulatory changes....air transport, air service development, air cargo, air freight, U.S. exports...Loughlin, Melissa; Adams, John
396.Relationship Between Timber Bridge Characteristics and Asphalt Pavement Wear Surface Performance1998-071998
Asphalt wear surfaces cover 1,378 of Minnesota's timber bridges. This study assessed the magnitude of premature asphalt deterioration on timber bridges; identified the primary mechanisms responsible for wear surface eterioration; and suggested methods for improving asphalt pavement performance on timber bridges. Research methods included surveys, meetings with several county engineers and tours of their timber bridges, interviews with both asphalt and timber bridge industry professionals, and literature reviews. The study revealed that approximately 50 percent of counties experience some problems with premature reduced serviceability of the asphalt pavement wear surfaces that cover their timber bridges. Possible pavement failure mechanisms include low-temperature cracking, reflective cracking from deck fault lines found at deck panel joint lines and deck lamination separations, asphalt fatigue fracturing, and asphalt de-bonding due to oil preservatives interference. The report presents the following proposed solutions for controlling timber bridge asphalt pavement cracking: asphalt pavement saw & seal, asphalt pavement fabric or material underlay, removal of extruded oil-type preservative before surfacing, conditioning of bridge timbers to the expected equilibrium moisture content before bridge installation, and tightening of timber decks through maintenance practices....timber bridge maintenance, wood transportation structures, asphalt pavement wear surfaces...Larson, Timothy; Seavey, Robert; Lange, Douglas
397.Review of Local Road Research Board (LRRB) Research Implementation 1980-19961998-061998
This report summarizes 16 years of projects and products of the Minnesota Local Road Research Board's (LRRB) Research Implementation Committee. The report includes a general overview of the LRRB's Research Implementation Committee (RIC) and also provides a summary of implementation products and projects that the RIC sponsored from the years 1980 to 1996. The report divides implementation products into three areas: research syntheses, Research Implementation Series (RlS), and videotapes. It also presents the following information on implementation projects: title, author, date summary, project number, and a description of implementation or current status....Research Implementation Series, RlS, LRRB, RIC, Research, Videotapes...Marti, Michael
398.Salt Solutions-Statewide Salt and Sand Reduction Initiative1998-201998
This report evaluates the Minnesota Department of Transportation's (Mn/DOT) Salt Solutions program over the past two years. The evaluation documents the components of the program, describes the technology, and provides a detailed cost-benefit analysis. Recognizing the potential to reduce the level of salt and sand use, the maintenance division began a reduction initiative in District 1 during the 1996-97 snow and ice season. The Salt Solutions program sought to develop a set of tools and a system that allowed operators to make better application rate decisions, support those tools and systems with ongoing training, develop controls and measurements to track the effectiveness of the tools and training, and recognize improved performance. The program expanded statewide in the 1997-98 winter season. Results of this evaluation show that the program is cost-effective means of reducing the amount of salt and sand applied to Minnesota roadways while still maintaining a safe operating environment. In its first year, the program saved an estimated $177,000....infrared, pavement temperature, sensors, salt, sand...Masoud, Osama; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos
399.Salt Tolerance in Short-Statured Native Grasses1998-161998
In this project, researchers used extensive laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies to determine the relative salt tolerance of select native grasses and forbs used tore-vegetate rights-of-ways within four meters of the pavement edge. The studies found that grasses prove relatively tolerant to salt, but show poor survivability in the field during over-wintering. In contrast, forbs generally are sensitive to salt in their environment. Planting success of monocultures and mixtures of grasses near the pavement edge was poor. Observed percent coverage after two years ranged from about 10 to 20 percent over all tested species. Monitoring of longer established sites also shows that native species do not increase as a stand ages. Soil amendments including gypsum, potash, and potassium nitrate were only minimally effective in alleviating salt stress in sodic soils, although gypsum may have some promise in further field testing. The application of salt during winter salting operations also permanently and negatively impacts soil chemistry, which in concert with other plant stress factors such as soil compaction and infertile roadside soils, will continue to limit the success of establishing desirable vegetation on the inslopes of heavily salted roadways in Minnesota....salt tolerance, highway inslopes, native prairie grasses, soil ammendments, NaC1, sodium chloride, roadside seed mixtures...Biesboer, David; Neid, Stephanie; Darveaux, Bettina
400.Shear Capacity of High-Strength Concrete Prestressed Girders1998-121998
As part of a project at the University ofMinnesota to investigate the application ofhigh-strength concrete in prestressed girders, four shear tests were performed on high-strength concrete prestressed girders. Originally constructed in August 1993, the girders, Minnesota Department ofTransportation (Mn/DOT) 45M sections were 45 inches deep. Each girder utilized 46 0.6-inch diameter prestressing strands on 2-inch centers. The girders were designed assuming a 28-day compressive strength of 10,500 psi. Later, a 4-foot-wide and 9-inch-thick composite concrete deck was added to each girder using unshored construction techniques. The shear test results were compared with predicted results from ACI 318-95 Simplified Method, ACI 318-95 Detailed Method (AASHTO 1989), Modified ACI 318-95 Procedure, Modified Compression Field Theory (AASHTO LRFD 1994), Modified Truss Theory, Truss Theory, Horizontal Shear Design (AASHTO 1989), and Shear Friction (AASHTO LRFD 1994). The calculated shear capacities were in all cases conservative compared to the actual shear capacity....high performance concrete, prestressed bridge girders, Shear...Cumming, David; Shield, Carol; French, Catherine
401.The construction of US-169 and I-94 experimental thin and ultra-thin whitetopping sections in Minnesota2001-071998
This report presents the results of research project to investigate the design and performance of thin and ultra-thin whitetopping. To learn more about whitetopping, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) constructed a whitetopping project consisting of six test sections on I-94 at a research facility and three test sections at intersections on US-169 at Elk River. This report includes a brief description of Mn/DOT history with whitetopping and a detailed description of the construction of the heavily instrumented whitetopping test sections of I-94 and US-169. All concrete mixes contained either polypropylene and polyolefin fibers. The compressive strength, flexural strength, Poisson's ratio, and elastic modulus were measured for these mixes, and the results are provided....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Whitetopping, Pavements, Concrete, Thin Whitetopping, Ultra-thin Whitetopping, Concrete overlay...Vandenbossche, Julie; Rettner, David
402.1996 Stearns County Superpave Research Project97-231997
In 1987, the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) began developing the Superior Performing Asphalt Pavements (SUPERP AVE â„¢) system. The five year, $50 million research effort created a new way of specifying testing and design for asphalt materials. Superpave is not only a computer program, but also an improved system for specifying component materials, pavement performance predictions, asphalt mixture design and analysis.... ...Isackson, John;
403.A Lateral Dynamic Model of a Tractor-Trailer Experimental Validation1997-181997
The SAFETRUCK program focuses on preventing accidents on rural highways, especially those associated with run-off-the-road incidents and driver fatigue, by giving the vehicle the ability to steer to the side of the road and come to a safe stop if the driver falls asleep or is otherwise incapacitated. Researchers have equipped a Navistar 9400 series class 8 truck tractor with the sensors and control computers necessary to perform this task....Trucks, Automatic control, Trucks, Dynamics, Trucks, Electronic equipment, Tractor trailer combinations, Dynamics...Alexander, Lee; Donath, Max; Hennessey, Michael; Morellas, Vassilios; Shankwitz, Craig
404.A Report on Community Action In other States to Placing a Wireless Infrastructure in the Right-Of-Way1999-231997
Digital phone service, also lmown as Personal Communication Systems (PCS), is becoming the preferred choice in wireless phone systems. PCS requires a communications transmittal network, which involves the placement of antennae about one mile apart. This report provides information about community reaction in other states to placing a wireless infrastructure in the right-of-way. It provides a general summary of the industry, a general summary of community reaction to wireless infrastructure placed in rights-of-way, and a summary of issues and topics related to community reaction to wireless infrastructure. The report includes a three-part bibliography that includes essential reading on the topic, items specific to the economic aspects, collocation, and aesthetics of wireless infrastructure, and other selected items that provide background information....personal phone systems, community planning, , wireless communication systems, public/private sector,antenna blight...Hatchell, Sheila
405.An evaluation of aggregate and chip seal surfaced roads at MnROAD1998-241997
A pavement testing facility, the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) contains a two-lane Low Volume Road (LVR) loop with dedicated traffic supplied by a five-axle tractor semi-trailer truck that has maximum legal gross weight of 356kN (80,000 pounds) when it travels in the clockwise direction and an overloaded 456kN (102,500 pounds) in the counterclockwise direction. The LVR contains four 152.4m (166 yard) sections with a 305mm (12 inch) aggregate structure, two of which are surfaced with a double chip seal. These four sections include three main experimental variables: vehicle loads, graduations of aggregate, and surface types. This study involved monitoring the performance of these four sections from June 1994 to May 1995. Study conclusions include the following: Aggregate gradations are not reliable predictors of performance as an aggregate wear. A simplified test is needed to evaluate aggregate wearing materials. The performance of chip seals with respect to ride and rutting was better than the aggregate surfaced sections constructed with the same aggregate....Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Testing, Aggregates (Building materials), Minnesota, Testing...Lukanen, Erland
406.Application of Empirical and Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Procedures to MnROAD Concrete Pavement Test Sections1997-141997
Current pavement design procedures are based principally on empirical approaches. The current trend toward developing more mechanistic-empirical type pavement design methods led Minnesota to develop the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD), a long-term pavement testing facility. The project consists of40 heavily instrumented test sections, 14 of which are jointed plain concrete (JPC) designs. MdROAD researchers determine the predicted lives of the concrete test sections by applying design and as-built data to three currently accepted concrete pavement design methods: Minnesota Department of Transportation's rigid pavement design guidelines, MSHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures 1993, and the PCA Thickness Design for Co,narete Highway and Street Pavements (1984)....Pavements, Empirical, Subgrade Strength, Mechanistic, Mn/ROAD, Portland Cement Assoc., Pavement Design, AASHTO, Jointed Concrete Pavement...Burnham, Thomas; Pirkl, William
407.Application of the dynamic cone penetrometer to Minnesota Department of Transportation pavement assessment procedures1997-191997
Mn/DOT currently specifies two applications of DCP testing in its pavement assessment procedures. One application involves using the DCP as a quality control device during the backfill compaction of pavement edge drain trenches. The second application involves its use in quality control of granular base layer compaction. This report details these applications and includes a copy of both specifications in the appendices....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, DCP, Road drainage, Minnesota, Testing , Compacting, edge drains, base compaction...Burnham, Thomas
408.Arterial Link Travel Time Estimation Using Loop Detector Data - Phase I97-161997
The envisioned operational tests of Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area call for the provision of timely and reliable travel times over an entire road network. Unfortunately, travel time cannot be directly measured by certain new detection technologies, such as Automatic Vehicle Identification (A VI) or Automatic Vehicle Location (A VL) systems, these new technologies are not widely deployed and are much more costly than loop detectors. Finding an accurate way to estimate link travel time using loop detector data offers great economic benefits. This project examines the development if improved arterial travel time models. In the project's first phase, researchers reviewed existing travel time database. The project's second phase will seek to develop and evaluate new travel time estimation models....travel time, detector, arterial traffic...Zhang, Michael; Kwon, Eil; Qiang Wu, Tong; Sommers, Kevin; Habib, Ahsan
409.Asphalt mixture laboratory tests1997-201997
Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) conducted wheel tracking and fatigue tests of Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) bituminous mixtures as a result of the cooperation between Finnish National Road Administration (FinnRA) and Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT). FinnRA funded the tests. MnROAD, Mn/DOT's pavement testing facility, sent raw materials (aggregates and binders) and ready- made mixtures. In spite of the differences between MnROAD and Finnish mixtures, the rutting of MnROAD mixture measured by wheel tracking device was similar if compared to a dense graded mixture with binder of similar penetration. The MnROAD mixture with low stiffness binder deformed much more and tested outside the Finnish specifications. However, it may be successful in Minnesota because of smaller axle loads. The fatigue properties in strain control tested about the same as corresponding Finnish bituminous mixtures. However, the behavior in stress mode was different. The MnROAD fatigue line tested flatter than any Finnish bituminous mixture with straight run bitumen, and only some with polymer modified bitumen were similar. The report recommends careful analysis of the fatigue properties of MnROAD pavement performance....Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Asphalt, Fatigue, Testing, Aggregates (Building materials), Testing, rutting...Hahtala, Matti; Spoof, Harri; Saarinen, Leena; Halonen, Pekka
410.Blue Earth County (C.S.A.H. No. 24 from T.H. 30 to C.S.A.H.25)1997-121997
Koch Oil designed the mix, the Loveall Constructions of Winnebago, Minn., constructed the mix, with construction inspection and contract administration by Blue Earth County. Separate pay items for gravel, quartzite, asphalt, and produce and lay gave the County the flexibility to modify the mix design based on design information an to conduct construction in two demonstration sections: one with 100 percent quartzite and one with 50 percent gravel and percent quartzite. Significant segregation of the mix occurred during construction, which was repaired by spray injection and seal coating. The County reports performance after one winter as good, with initial construction cost about 33 percent less than a traditional 7-ton hot mix bituminous pavement design. No maintenance experience is available to date....Roads, Gravel, Minnesota, Blue Earth County, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Blue Earth County, Testing...Forsberg, Alan
411.Blue Earth County Superpave Level I Project C.S.A.H. #8 from T.H. 22 TO TWP. 16797-131997
Superpave technology was developed under the Strategic Highway Research (SHRP) to provide superior performing pavements. In 1996, Blue Earth County paved a newly graded, two-lane County State Aid Highway using this technology. The County wanted to explore Superpave's potential in offering a higher quality, more durable pavement with lower life cycle costs. M1E of Onalaska, Wis., designed the mix and Loveall Construction ofWinnebago, Minn., constructed the mix, with construction inspection and contract administration by Blue Earth County. The aggregate structure was on the coarse side of the maximum density line. Separate pay items for gravel, quartzite, asphalt, and produce and lay allowed the County to modify the mix design based on design and to gain construction information for the highest quality pavement. PG 52-34 binder was used. Aggregate was about 45 percent gravel and 55 percent crushed, coarse quartzite. The constructibility and performance to date have been excellent. Initial construction cost was about 18 percent higher than the County's traditional, fine mix designs. Total pavement structure costs, including aggregate base and pavement, ran about 9 percent higher. The County will continue to monitor the relatively open texture and tendency of the pavement to weep at isolated locations after rains for potential problems....Superpave, Level l, Mix Design, Asphalt...Forsberg, Alan
412.Calculating maximum frost depths in MnROAD test cells : Winter 1993-94, 1994-95 and 1995-961997-211997
This effort involved calculating maximum frost penetration depths for each of the 40 test cells at MnROAD, the Minnesota Department of Transportation's pavement testing facility, for the 1993-94, 1994-95, and 1995-96 winters. The report compares results with measured maximum frost penetration depths for the same three winters. Generally, calculated depths were within plus or minus 15 percent of measured depths, but differences were much greater for the four test cells underlain by the granular subgrade. Researchers conducted sensitivity tests to determine the influence of the n-factor, soil moisture content, material density, layer thickness, thermal conductivity, mean annual soil temperature, and volumetric latent heat of fusion. Conclusions included the following: 1) Small variation in layer thickness will have a very minor effect on computed frost depths. 2) Reasonable variations in moisture content and density of the various base course, subbase course, and subgrade layers will have a minor effect on calculated frost penetration depths. 3) Large n-factors caused deeper calculated frost penetration depths, and the use of n-factors of .90 and .95, respectively, for flexible and rigid pavements provided the most reasonable estimates of frost depths. 4) Increasing the thermal conductivity of the materials by 25 percent resulted in closer calculated agreement with measured frost...Frozen ground, Soils, Thermal properties, Frost...Berg, Richard
413.Damage of Failure Anaylsis of Brittle Materials by Acoustic Emission 1997
Application of stress or changes in environmental conditions can cause a material such as concrete or rock to become damaged, thereby affecting the performance of the structure. Because damage processes produce microseismic events called acoustic emission (AE), the growth of damage and the onset of failure can be identified by monitoring AE. In particular, a probability density function of acoustic emission events was used to describe the development of damage. It was observed that more porous or cracked materials displayed a higher AE rate than less porous or cracked materials at the same percentage of the maximum stress prior to failure. This suggests that the AE technique may be applied to diagnose the level of damage in a brittle material and may be useful to select materials for certain applications. Also, the experimental results indicated that the average root-mean square value from a number of AE signals could be used as a real-time monitoring tool to predict the onset of failure.... ...Dai, Shongtao; Labuz, Joseph
414.Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model, Version 2.0DTF MN/DOT 721141997
This report describes a major enhancement to the Integrated Climatic Model. The Integrated Climatic Model is a one-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow p r o w that is intended for use in analymg pavement-soil systems. It has the capabiity of generating internally realistic patterns of rainfall solar radiation, cloud cover, wind speed, and air temperature to simulate the upper boundary conditions of a pavement-soil system. It has a variety of options for specifying the moisture and temperature, or the flu of these at the lower boundary and at the interface between the subgrade and the base course. It considen the lateral and vertical drainage of the base course m determining the amount of water that enters the subgrade by infilmtion through the pavement surface and drainage through the base course. The program calculates the temperature, pore pressure, moisture content and resilient modulus for each node in the profile for the entire analysis period This p r o w also predicts frost behavior, including heave and penetration depth; thermal gradient and curl strain in the pavement layers; and infiltration and drainage behavior of the base course. The Integrated Climatic Model Version 2.0 has a graphical user interface to model soil-pavement profiles. Through a series of dialog boxes the user mputs all data required for pavement performance calMons. The user may also input climatic data directly from a computer file. After a model run, an interactive dialog box allows the user to generate a wide assortment of output aes in both tabular and graphical formats. These output files can be output using the program or can directly be used as input m other graphing sohare. The Integrated Climatic Model Version 2.0 is intended for use on IBM compatible computers using the Wmdows 95 or Wmdows NT 32-bit operating systems. A 486 DX2-66 processor or better is recommended for eEcient operation of this program....Pavements, Flexible, Minnesota, Testing, Mathematical models...Larson, Gregg; Dempsey, Barry
415.Estimation Theory Approach to Monitoring and Updating Average Daily Traffic97-051997
This report considers some of the statistical issues arising when one attempts to estimate an annual mean daily traffic (MDT) from a sample of daily traffic volumes. Two sources of estimation error are identified, one caused primarily by the inherent random variability in daily traffic volumes, the other due to bias in the estimation procedure. A review of early research indicates that traditional estimates of the likely error arising from using short counts to estimate :MDT were computed under experimental conditions which minimized or eliminated the effect of bias. On the other hand, a computational example shows that bias caused by the use of incorrect monthly and day-of-week correction factors could be the dominant source of error. A review of more recent research leads to the conclusion that if bias due to incorrect seasonal adjustment could be eliminated, a 48-hour short count could give a reasonable estimate of :MDT, but that the site's monthly and day-of-week adjustment factors must be identified with an accuracy equivalent to that provided by two 1-week counts in order to eliminate this bias.... ...Davis, Gary
416.Innovative Herbicide Sprayers for Roadsides, Slopes and Ditches97-081997
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn!DOT) has been active in developing the best technology for roadside vegetation control. One method, herbicide spraying, helps eliminate unwanted vegetation. Treatment of unwanted weeds often requires the use of different herbicides. Sprayers must have the capacity to spray more than one chemical at a time, negotiate rough terrains, and apply herbicides safely and in a way that preserves the environment. This report presents the results from testing and evaluating four automated sprayers: The B&B Ditch Sprayer 300 Prototype, a Wanner Innovative Sprayer, the Micro-Track Spray System, and the SCS 750. All four tested sprayers are more economically feasible than the traditional sprayer. The B&B Ditch Sprayer has the lowest net annual savings of the four tested sprayers. The Wanner Sprayer is more economical for use in large districts or in areas with extensive road miles. The Micro-Track Sprayer has the highest rate of return, and also reduces annual costs. The SCS Sprayer has the highest net annual savings and also can monitor, tabulate, and print all vital statistics. The report details product features, testing, and results....Roadside Management, Vegetation Control, Herbicide Sprayer, Innovative Equipment...Toussaint, Claudius
417.Investigation of Flexible Pavement Response to Truck Speed and FWD Load Through Instrumented Pavements 1997
Falling-Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and truck tests have been conducted on the Minnesota Road Research project (Mn/ROAD) in an effort to (1) study truck speed effects on flexible pavements, (2) compare pavement response under FWD and truck loads; and (3) investigate the effects of wheel path offset on the pavement response. Three flexible pavement sections were used for this study. The truck tests were performed at various speeds ranging from 10 to 103 km/h....Mn/ROAD project, Truck speed, International Roughness Index (IRI), FWD...Dai, Shongtao; VanDeusen, David; Beer, Michael; Rettner, David; Cochran, George
418.Investigation of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures at MnROAD1997-061997
This effort will provide the historical base line information on properties needed for the validation of future pavement evaluation and design models. The objectives of the work were to 1) Document construction of MnROAD, 2) Establish a series of test methods for characterizing the materials and 3) Develop a data base of material properties to develop mechanistic pavement design procedures. Documentation on construction included mixture design, construction techniques and a summary of test results. The laboratory test methods represent a wide variety of tests developed by the Strategic Highway Research Program, the National Cooperative Highway Research Program and the Federal Highway Administration. The materials represent those tested during the mixture design, construction and post construction phases of MnROAD. Documentation on construction included mixture design, construction techniques and a summary of test results. The laboratory test methods represent a wide variety of tests developed by the Strategic Highway Research Program, the National Cooperative Highway Research Program and the Federal Highway Administration. The materials represent those tested during the mixture design, construction and post construction phases of MnROAD....Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, Design and construction, Pavements, Asphalt, Materials, Additives, Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Testing...Stroup-Gardiner, Mary; Newcomb, David
419.Measured and Theoretical Comparisons of Traffic Loads and Pavement Response Distributions 1997
The correlations between traffic load distributions and tensile strains in flexible pavements are discussed in this paper, and these relationships are compared against theoretical strains computed from layered elastic theory. Six flexible pavement test sections at the Minnesota Road Research Project (Mn/ROAD) were selected for the analysis presented in this paper. Wheel-weight data from the weigh-in-motion station at the Mn/R O A D site were taken for a number of time periods during 1995. Weight data distributions were then matched to temperature corrected transverse strains measured at the bottom of the asphalt concrete in the test sections. Finally, a layered elastic analysis was performed, the results of which were compared to actual measurements under traffic. It was found that the measured strains and the strains computed from the analytical model matched well when the loads were modeled as dual wheels with constant tire pressure and a varying load magnitude....Pavement Design, Pavement Analysis, Traffic Data, Weigh-in-Motion Data, Pavement Performance....Chadbourn, Bruce; Newcomb, David; Timm, David
420.Minnesota's District/Area Transportation Partnership Process Volume II: Case Studies and Other Perspectives97-031997
The University of Minnesota's Center for Transportation Studies conducted a study on Minnesota's district/area transportation process (A TP). Building upon existing planning processes, the A TPs involve a broad range of transportation professionals, elected officials, special interest groups, and the public in developing the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP). Volume II of this study includes eight case studies that report the data heard from the members of the eight A TPs. It also contains other perspectives from the point of view of the Minnesota Department of Transportation's (Mn!DOT's) Central Office, non-ATP members and Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) directors. The case study infoi:mation is organized around these key features: project selection and ranking process, ATP membership make-up, boundary issues, financial data, goals, relationships with regional entities and local units of government, the role of elected officials, and the public involvement process. Through eight case studies, one for each district/ATP, and a cross-case analysis, the study documents information gathered from A TP members and representatives from Mn!DOT on the key features of the A TP process. A summary of the perceived strengths and challenges for the three themes of partnership, prioritization, and planning shows that several of the strengths and challenges appear more than once across the three themes. As the ATPs and Mn!DOT explore the possibility of future changes, the cross-cutting issues in the A TP process are: the composition of ATP membership; the nature of public involvement; decentralized decision making; enhancement projects; ranking regional significance; intermodalism; urban and rural tension; fiscal constraint; and the role of planning in the A TP process. Volume I of the report includes the cross-comparison of A TP processes and practices, findings from the common characteristics of the research data, and issues and challenges identified by A TP members in the interviews....Partnerships, Prioritization, Planning, Decentralized Decision Making, Public Involvement, Regional Significance...DeCramer, Gary; MacGillis, James; Klancher, Wendy; Krinke, Mara; Johns, Robert
421.MnROAD testing protocols, Volume I1997-221997
This report presents a series of testing protocols used at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD), the Minnesota Department of Transportation's (Mn/DOT) pavement testing facility. This report helps establish a history of the tests conducted and testing procedures, and also serves as a reference for researchers outside of Mn/DOT to compare the values found in independent or cooperative studies to MnROAD test results and procedures. The following protocols are included: pavement condition testing plan and testing protocols, deflection test protocols, subsurface temperature testing protocols, frozen soil measurements testing protocols, traffic measurements testing protocols, material samples testing protocols, soil moisture measurements testing protocols, climate data testing protocols, bituminous testing protocols...Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, Soil moisture, Measurement, Aggregates surface, Base courses Subgrades, Testing Protocols, Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Measurement, Mathematical models...Cochran, George; Palmquist, David; Siekmeier, John; Burnham, Thomas; Roberson, Ruth
422.Relationship Between Timber Bridge Characteristics and Asphalt Pavement Wear Surface Performance - Summary1998-07S1997
This summary offers an overview of on a research study that assessed the magnitude of premature asphalt deterioration on timber bridges; identified the primary mechanisms responsible for wear surface deterioration; and suggested methods for improving asphalt pavement performance on timber bridges. The study revealed that approximately 50 percent of counties experience some problems with premature reduced serviceability of the asphalt pavement wear surfaces that cover their timber bridges. The summary looks at possible pavement failure mechanisms and presents the following proposed solutions for controlling timber bridge asphalt pavement cracking: asphalt pavement saw & seal, asphalt pavement fabric or material underlay, removal of extruded oil-type preservative before surfacing, conditiomng of bridge timbers to the expected equilibrium moisture content before bridge installation, and tightening of timber decks through maintenance practices....timber bridge maintenance, wood transportation structures, asphalt pavement wear surfaces...Lange, Douglas; Larson, Timothy; Seavey, Robert
423.Rollover Protection and Wheelchair Securement for Special Transportation Services97-111997
The project objective was to assess two Minnesota Rules pertaining to the transportation of the disabled. Minnesota Rule 8840.5940 subpart 1 requires that any vehicle first used to transport the disabled after January 1, 1993 must comply with the rollover protection stated in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 220. This standard applies to school buses and was adopted in Minnesota since there were no federal standards that applied to vans which were converted to accommodate handicapped transit. The conversion consists of installing a fiberglass pop-up top and increasing the door height to accommodate American with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards. Since the pop-up top affords little rollover protection, van converters designed and installed roll bar structures to comply with FMVSS 220, and passed the costs along to transit providers. Complaints of these providers to the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) provided one motivation for this assessment. A second motivation was the amending of FMVSS 216 in April 1993 which extended passenger car rollover protection standards to multipurpose passenger vehicles. It was thought that this standard may be more appropriate, and thus remove the need for the Minnesota Rule.... ...Starr, Patrick
424.Safetruck: Sensing and Control to Enhance Vehicle Safety1998-291997
This report summarizes the work performed during the 18-month period ending in December 1997. Researchers investigated the use of differential global positioning systems (GPS), inertial measurement, and other sensing technologies as the basis of a system that would prevent crashes. Such a system attempts to control the vehicle if it leaves the lane because the driver is incapacitated. The report includes in its appendices related work on driver fatigue and a bibliography on the effect of drugs and alcohol on driving behavior. The long-term goal of this research involves development of a "driver-centered" vehicle control system capable of providing lane-keeping feedback to the driver, and, if necessary, of imposing aggressive intervention strategies to take over control of the vehicle, steer it to a safe position on the shoulder, and stop it. This research also targets the development of "driver assistive" technologies--such as Heads Up Display and torque feedback supplied by the steering wheel--which provide information to the driver without necessarily requiring computer control of the vehicle. The highlight achievement during this funding period has been the successful demonstration of a GPS-based automated lane-keeping mode of a tractor-trailer on the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) test track. The report concludes with a strategy for pursuing future deployment....Truck driving, Steering, Truck drivers, Psychology, Trucks, Safety measures, Global Positioning System, Fatigue...Alexander, Lee; Morellas, Vassilios; Bajikar, Sundeep; Moms, Ted; Lim, Heon-Min; Donath, Max
425.Sustainable Development Task Force Report97-151997
On April 11, 1996, Governor Arne Carlson signed into law an act relating to sustainable development in Minnesota. This act defines sustainable development as ""development that maintains or enhances economic opportunity and community well-being while protecting and restoring the natural environment upon which people and economies depend. Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."" The Minnesota Department of Transportation's (Mn/DOT) Sustainable Development Task Force adopted this definition. This report examines four different aspects of transportation policy and their roles in a sustainable community. It reviews Mn/DOT's activities currently under way in those policy areas including: land use and transit; pricing; technology; and research and education. It outlines the following seven specific steps for future action: - Comply with sustainable development legislation in Minnesota--Minnesota Legislative Act Chapter N. 454, H. F. No. 1800 -Integrate sustainability measures into Mn/DOT's family of measures - Improve the link between tr~sportation investments and land use decisions - Participate actively in sustainable development interagency working group - Establish a statewide access management program - Review the Transportation Research Board report on sustainable transportation - Develop alternatives for sustainable transportation Mn/DOT Deputies' Staff adopted these recommendations on June 3, 1997....Sustainable Community, Transportation Policy, Economic Opportunity...
426.The Development of Edit Procedures from Wim Data and Mn/ROAD 1997
Mn/DOT has been using automatic continuously operating WIM since 1981. At that time, vety few states were using WIM and no state had a continuously operating system. There were no edit procedures which could be used to determine the validity of the data. Vendors, FHW A and the few states using WIM had not yet developed any procedures beyond using a test truck to calibrate the system. Consequently, it was necessary for Mn/DOT to develop procedures which they could use on their WIM data. In order to do that, the data collected by the WIM was analyzed over an extended period of time. A significant effort was made to identify pattems in and characteristics of the data which could be used in a data verification program. This report contains those procedures which were developed over the years and also in the past year when working a mobility assignment at MnROAD. One measure of the validity of an edit procedures is the level of acceptance with which it is received by others working in the field. One procedure discussed in this report involves the distribution of gross weight for type 9 vehicles which are 5 axle semis. This technique is fundamental to the validation of weight data. It has been adopted by the SHRP/LTPP project in evaluating the weight data collected at hundreds of WIM sites in the US and Canada. It was also the WIM edit procedure cited in the 1992 AASHTO Guidelines for Traffic Data Programs. Finally, this specific procedure and others discussed in this report are also being incorporated in traffic data edit procedures which are currently being developed by a 15 state pooled fund study headed by Mn/DOT.... ...Dahlin, Curt
427.Traffic Densification of Asphalt Concrete Pavements 1997
A value of 4 percent air voids is commonly used as a mix design parameter for selecting the optimum asphalt content. This value is selected based on the traditional assumption that traffic densification eventually results in in-situ voids of about 4 percent (I). This level of final in-situ voids is considered a compromise between low voids for limiting moisture and oxidation damage while providing room for the asphalt cement so that rutting and flushing are not a problem (2). In order to confirm this design void level for today's typical trafic considerations, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) initiated a research program which periodically evaluated changes in insitu air voids over the first five years after construction. Air voids more than 15 years after construction were also evaluated with the idea that a terminal level of air voids could be established....Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Design and construction...Stroup-Gardiner, Mary; Newcomb, David; Olson, Roger; Teig, Gerald
428.Blue Earth County CSAH 30 Superpave Level I Mix Design96-181996
In 1987, the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) began developing the SUPERP A VEâ„¢ system, which offers a new way of specifying testing and design for asphalt materials to increase performance and longevity. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn!DOT) completed the first county highway SUPERP A VEâ„¢ project in Minnesota in Blue Earth County during August 1995. This project brought SUPERP A VEâ„¢ technology from the laboratory to the field and obtained real Minnesota mix comparisons between the standard Marshall mix design and the new SUPERP A VEâ„¢ system; gathered and analyzed data from actual field studies; and demonstrated new equipment and testing procedures to state, county, and city staff. Equipped with a gyratory compactor for on-site testing, the Mn!DOT mobile laboratory provided level I mix design and production testing on a portion of the 3.5 mile overlay project. This project used unmodified asphalt binders. This project showed that SUPERP A VEâ„¢ Level I mix design applications are not as expensive as originally perceived. Lower asphalt binder contents offset higher aggregate costs. Researchers learned a great deal of information from this overlay project and a good mix design was provided that is expected to perform at or above the control or current specified requirements....Superpave, Level I, Mix Design, Asphalt...Schmidt, James; Isackson, John
429.Breakthrough InnovationsP99-51996
This report is an evaluation of the benefits resulting from the Breakthrough Innovations (BI) program, done by Minnesota Department of Transportation's Management Analysis Unit. This program provided a means for people to apply for funding outside of the department's normal budgeting process. The program was greeted with enthusiasm. Since its inception, the program has generated several projects that may not have been funded through normal means. Because of funding availability, it has resulted in projects being funded sooner than they would have by other means. The program began in the spring of 1992 when money was allocated from the 1991-92 budget to support ""Breakthrough Innovations"" (BI) projects submitted through department-wide application. In the initial year, seventy-two proposals were evaluated; nine received either partial or full funding....Breakthrough innovations, Evaluation...Iverson-Roesler, Bobby; Lemke, Terry
430.Consideration of Hot-Mix Asphalt Thermal Properties During Compaction 1996
A computer program was developed at the University of Minnesota to predict asphalt concrete cooling times for road construction during adverse weather conditions. Cooling models require extensive experimental data on the thermal properties of hot-mix paving materials. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine which thermal properties affect pavement cooling times significantly. The results indicated that more information on asphalt thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity is required. Two suitable test methods for determining these properties at typical paving temperatures and densities were developed, and preliminary results for dense-graded and stone-matrix asphalt (SMA) mixes agreed well with values reported in the literature....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Testing, Concrete, pavements, design methods...Chadbourn, Bruce; Newcomb, David
431.Corrosion Investigation of Four Bridges Built Between 1973 and 1978 Containing Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel96-251996
Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. performed an in-depth field investigation into the performance of epoxy-coated reinforcing bars in four bridge decks for the Minnesota Department of Transportation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of four of the oldest bridge decks containing epoxy-coated reinforcing steel that are subjected to deicing chemicals. The study included two decks built on steel girders and two built on precast concrete girders. Two decks had been overlaid with a 2-in. portland cement-based concrete low slump overlay as part of the original construction. The bridges were all built between 1973 and 1978 and are now approximately 17 to 22 years old. A visual, crack, and delamination survey was performed on each structure. Deck cracking allows direct and immediate access of deicing chemicals to the reinforcing bars. Deterioration of the epoxy coating due to underfilm corrosion was most evident in areas having cracking or delaminations. Transverse deck cracks were commonly aligned directly over reinforcing bars. The steel girder bridges had more deck cracks than the concrete girder bridges. The decks without cracks were in better condition than those containing cracks.... ...Krauss, Paul; McDonald, David; Sherman, Matthew
432.Determination of Asphalt Content by Ignition Method1996-301996
This report presents the results of a four-month research project on the use of the ignition method for determining the asphalt content and aggregate gradation of a hot-mix asphalt concrete mixture. The report includes a review of the available methods on asphalt content determination and the development of ignition method. This research expanded the knowledge in this area by focusing on Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) mixtures and providing ways to estimate the combined weight loss factor of RAP mixes and virgin mixes made from multiple sources of aggregate. The conclusions drawn from this research are based on the laboratory results of 36 RAP and 36 virgin mixes. Testing showed that regardless of RAP or virgin mix, as long as appropriate procedures are followed, the ignition method can accurately determine asphalt content and aggregate graduation of a mixture. The easy-to-use spreadsheet program written for estimating the combined weight loss factor can save the operator from repeating laboratory calibration on mixes made from identical aggregates but different proportions....Aggregates (Building materials), Testing, Pavements, Asphalt, Testing...Zhang, Wei
433.Digital Signal Processing for MnROAD Offline Data1996-091996
This study led to the development of a computer program based on statistics and signal process theory that automatically detects peaks and valleys from sensor response signals obtained during live heavy truck and falling-weight deflectometer testing....Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Measurement, Signal processing, Digital techniques, Detectors, Falling Weight Deflectometer FWD...Dai, Shongtao; VanDeusen, David
434.Investigation of Water Quality in Runoff from Stockpiles of Salvaged Concrete and Bituminous Paving1996-31, LRRB Inv. 6821996
The objectives of this study were to determine the presence, quantity and characteristics of leachates occurring in water runoff from salvaged pavement stockpile, and the possible impacts of those leachates on surface and ground water resources. The results of this study provide state, county and city engineers guidance on the selection of storage sites and best management practices for using recycled pavements....Runoff, Minnesota, Waste products as road materials, Environmental aspects, Pavements, Bituminous, Recycling, Pavements, Concrete, Recycling, Minnesota....Busacker, Greg; Faruq, Keith; Foote, Lawrence; Moxness, Ken; Sadecki, Roger
435.Material testing and initial pavement design modeling: Minnesota Road Research project1996-231996
This report discusses the result of the Corps of Engineer-developed mechanistic design and evaluation method of pavements in seasonal frost areas. Between January 1990 and December 1994, a study verified and applied a Corps of Engineer-developed mechanistic design and evaluation method of pavements in seasonal frost areas as part of a Construction Productivity Advancement Research (CPAR) project between Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). The study involved four primary components. Mn/DOT constructed a full scale pavement test facility referred to as the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD). CRREL performed extensive laboratory tests on the base and subgrade materials from MnROAD to characterize them and their behavior under seasonal frost conditions. Laboratory tests provided the input parameters necessary for the study's third component, modeling with the CRREL Mechanistic Pavement Design and Evaluation Procedure. The modeling effort was conducted in three phases, which investigated the effects of freeze season characteristics, water table position, asphalt model, and subgrade characteristics on the predicted performance of selected MnROAD test sections. Delays in construction on the MnROAD facility prevented the completion of the study's fourth component--using performance data from MnROAD to validate the mechanistic pavement design and evaluation procedure. The report details results from the other three components....Pavements, Effect of temperature on, Pavements, Moisture, Pavements, Design and construction, Mathematical models, Road materials, Testing, Frost heaving...Bigl, Susan; Berg, Richard
436.Minnesota's Experience Using Shingle Scrap in Bituminous Pavements1996-341996
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has experimented with the use of shingle scrap in hot mix asphalt (HMA) since 1990. To date, the source of the shingle scrap has been shingle manufacturers exclusively. The manufactured shingle scrap consists primarily of tab punch-outs but also contains some mis-colored and damaged shingles. Test sections were constructed on the Willard Munger Recreational Trail, T.H. 25 in Mayer, Minnesota and on County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 17, in Scott County, Minnesota. Not only are the test sections performing as well as the control sections, but using shingle scrap reduces the amount of virgin asphalt cement required in a bituminous mix, thus creating the potential for a cost savings when using shingle scrap in HMA. Based on the performance of these test sections, shingle manufacturing scrap is now an allowable salvage material in hot mix asphalt under Mn/DOT specification 2331.E2e, Recycled Mixture Requirements. This report outlines the history of shingle scrap use in Minnesota, presents laboratory and field performance data and contains the current Mn/DOT specification allowing shingle scrap to be used as a salvage material in HMA pavements...Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Additives, Shingles, Recycling, Minnesota, Waste products as road materials, Minnesota, Pavements, Asphalt, Recycling, Minnesota...Janisch, David; Turgeon, Curtis
437.MnROAD Aggregate Base Profile 1996
Four different aggregate materials were used as base and subbase materials in the construction of the MnROAD project. These materials are referred to as Class 3sp, Class 4sp, Class 5sp and Class 6sp and are labeled "special" due to the fact that they are used for MnROAD exclusively, this is shown in Appendix A. The Minnesota DOT uses Class 3, Class 4, Class 5, and Class 6, not labeled "special", as base materials on a regular basis. A simple interpretation of the base materials consistency and strength can be determined with a series of tests including, gradations, Proctor tests, rapid shear strength tests and frost susceptibility tests. Gradations, Proctor and shear strength tests were run on all four base materials, while frost susceptibility tests were run on Class 5sp and Class 6sp material exclusively. Testing agencies responsible for the various tests include: ò Minnesota DOT, gradations and Proctor tests ò University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Thompson 1998), rapid shear tests ò US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (Bigl+Berg,1990), frost susceptibility...Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Aggregates surface, Base courses Subgrades, Minnesota, Design and construction...Bigl, Susan; Berg, Richard
438.MnROAD Original Semi Description 1996
The primary vehicle used for the loading of the low volume road will be a 5-axle semi tractor-trailer with a gross weight of as much as 102,000 lbs (kN). The vehicle is equipped with such features as a moveable fifth wheel, sliding rear tandems and a hydraulic crane, which will allow researchers to vary load configurations. Some of the other features are presented below....Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Low-volume roads, LVR loading vehicle, Pavements, Performance Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, design methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, calibration, MnROAD...
439.Modeling of MnROAD test sections with the CRREL mechanistic pavement design procedure1996-221996
The U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) is developing a mechanistic pavement design procedure for use in seasonal frost areas. The procedure was used to predict pavement performance of some test sections under construction at the MnROAD facility. Simulations were conducted in three phases, investigating the effects on predictions of water table position, subgrade characteristics, asphalt model, and freeze season characteristics. The procedure predicted significantly different performance by the different test sections and highly variable results depending on the performance model applied. The simulated performance of the test sections also was greatly affected by the subgrade conditions, e.g., density, soil moisture, and water table depth. In general, predictions for the full depth asphalt sections indicate that they will not fail due to cracking, but two of the three criteria for subgrade rutting indicate failure before the five- or 10-year design life of the sections. Conventional sections are predicted not to fail due to subgrade rutting; however, sections including the more frost susceptible bases in their design are predicted to fail due to asphalt cracking relatively early in their design life, and sections with non-frost susceptible bases are predicted to fail towards the end of their design life....Pavements, Design and construction, Mathematical models, Pavements, Effect of temperature on, Frost heaving...Bigl, Susan; Berg, Richard
440.Moisture Sensitivity In Asphalt Concrete Mixtures1996-041996
...Pavements, Asphalt concrete, Moisture, Testing, Aggregates (Building materials), Testing...Stroup-Gardiner, Mary; Newcomb, David; Crow, Benita; Kussman, William; Wegman, Dan
441.Performance of a Thirty-Two Year Old Concrete Pavement1996-011996
This report reviews testing results on an experimental concrete pavement built on Minnesota T.H. 3 in 1968 that contains variations in joint spacing, reinforcement dowels, and transverse joint fillers....Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Evaluation, Pavements, Minnesota, Performance, Concrete pavements, joints, dowels...Beaudry, Terry
442.Reassessment of Diametrical Compression Test on Asphalt Concrete1997-011996
This report examines the diametral compression test, as described in ASTM D4123-82 (1987) and SHRP Protocol P07 (1993) procedures. The test helps determine the resilient modulus of asphalt concrete, and less frequently its Poisson's ratio, both mechanical parameters of an ideally elastic material. However, the actual behavior of asphalt concrete is not elastic, but viscoelastic. The viscoelastic behavior of asphalt concrete under traffic-induced loads can be described by the phase angle and the magnitude of the complex compliance or complex modulus. These can be determined from the diametral compression tests that subject the specimen to haversine load history, and from the viscoelastic data interpretation algorithms derived in the current research. To avoid inaccuracies in the data interpretation, the vertical deformation should be measured over a 1/4 diameter central sector of the cylinder by means, for example, of the in-house developed displacement gage. A series of tests on specimens with various asphalt binder viscosity verified the validity of the viscoelastic data interpretation. Specimens from MnROAD materials showed the presence of viscoelastic properties even at temperatures well below freezing....Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Testing, Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Viscoelasticity...Drescher, Andrew; Newcomb, David; Zhang, Wei
443.Resilient modulus testing of materials from MnROAD, Phase 11996-211996
The U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) conducted resilient modulus tests on materials from the MnROAD test site for the Minnesota Department of Transportation. Materials tested included samples of the lean clay subgrade at the site and the two extreme grades of base designed specifically for MnROAD. Some specimens were tested in both frozen and subsequently "thawed" conditions; others were tested at room temperature without ever having been frozen. Researchers performed linear regression analysis on the data to develop equations that predict frozen modulus based on unfrozen water content and unfrozen modulus based on stress, degree of saturation, and density. We also reanalyzed data from two previously tested materials. CRREL can use the study's equations in the Mechanistic Pavement Design and Evaluation Procedure under development at CRREL to predict estimated damage in some MnROAD test sections...Pavements, Subgrades, Testing, Soil mechanics, Pavements, Minnesota, Resilient Modulus, Mathematical models...Berg, Richard; Bigl, Susan; Stark, Durell
444.Runway Crack Repair Research Project. ( Silver Bay Municipal Airport)1996-201996
A research project at Silver Bay Municipal Airport evaluated six different repair methods alternated along the 3,200-foot bituminous runway developed significant transverse cracks and needed repair to maintain aircraft operations. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) and Ralph Burke Associates (RBA) identified 17 cracks for repair and analysis. Over the past seven years, Mn/DOT, RBA, and others monitored the repair behavior of the methods. ...Bituminous Pavement Faulting, Pavement Differential Heaving, Runaway Crack Repair, Joint Sealant, Frost Behavior, Runway Maintenance....Huston, Paul; Nybakken, David
445.Sawing and Sealing Joints in Bituminous Pavements to Control Cracking1996-271996
The practice of sawing and sealing joints in pavements is not a new one. In fact, it is common practice in the construction of jointed Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pavements. The idea of sawing and sealing joints in bituminous pavements is much less endorsed by those responsible for the construction and maintenance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. Minnesota began experimenting with sawing joints in HMA pavements in the late 1960's. Since then more than 50 test sections have been constructed throughout the State. Test sections include HMA overlays of Jointed Concrete Pavement, HMA overlays of HMA pavements and newly constructed HMA pavements. The results show that in over 76 percent of the test sections, the formation of cracking was controlled by the sawing of joints. The unsuccessful sections were those where a deep saw cut was not made, those where the existing joints were badly deteriorated and those where the underlying joints were poorly re-located. All of these factors can be minimized through proper project selection and good design....Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Joints, Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Cracking, Pavements, Overlays...Janisch, David
446.Selection of flexible pavement backcalculation software for MnROAD1996-291996
This report presents the results of an evaluation process of several different flexible pavement backcalculation programs. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the candidate programs in terms of useability and accuracy of backcalculation results. This was accomplished by evaluating Ihe selected programs using both field and simulated data. The results of the analysis were used as the basis for selecting a program for routine analysis of Mn/ROAD pavement deflection data. In situ pavement strains were measured during falling-weight deflectometer tests. The measured strains were then compared to backcalculated strain values from each program. In addition to the field tests, a series of hypothetical pavement structures with a range of prescribed layer thicknesses and moduli were analyzed to obtain surface deflection data. These surface deflections were then used as input for each program involved in the study. The output from each program was compared to the expected values. Four different programs were evaluated in the study: EVERCALC v. 3.3, EVERCALC v. 4.1, WESDEF, and MODCOMP3. Based on results from the analyses, the program recommended for routine research of the Mn/ROAD test sections is EVERCALC v. 4.1. Recommendations and general guidelines for performing backcalculation analysis are provided....Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Research, Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Testing, Data processing...VanDeusen, David
447.Soybean Oil and Soapstock as a Dust Control Agent 1996
The full name of soapstock is Acidulated Soybean Oil Soapstock. It is a soybean oil byproduct of the caustic refining process. It is biodegradable, locally grown and processed, and is a renewable resource. The properties of soapstock are highly dependent on the refining process. The variety in the process results in the variety of soapstock materials.... ...Han, Chunhua; Marti, Michael
448.Stresses in Steel Curved Girder Bridges96-281996
Composite, !-shaped, steel curved girder bridges are relatively stiff and strong when the structure is completely erected and subjected to service loading resulting from daily traffic. However, the structure may be quite flexible and potentially susceptible to stability problems during construction, prior to its stabilization after hardening of the concrete deck. When designing these types of bridges, linear elastic analysis software is typically used to determine the stresses and deflections in the steel members due to wet weight of the concrete, and after hardening of the concrete deck. In order to insure safe design, it is vital that the stresses and deflections resulting from such analyses be representative of the stress state in the actual bridge structure. In addition, it is important to know whether the stress state in this type of bridge at other points in the construction process may be represented computationally, to insure that no unusual stress states occur which are possibly being neglected in current design practice. Curved girder bridge systems exhibit special behavior as compared to bridge systems with straight girders. Such unique behavior includes, for example, the effect of warping restraint on the behavior of the !-girders, the behavior of crossframes in a curved girder system, and the potential susceptibility of these bridges to lateral-torsional buckling during construction, due to the initial curvature of the girders. These added considerations require special care to be taken regarding the accuracy of the computational simulations used to obtain forces for design. In spite of this, to date there have been few measurements of actual stresses in these girders recorded during construction. Consequently, this project seeks to determine the range of stresses exhibited in a typical steel curved girder bridge during all stages of construction, and to compare these stresses with results obtained using linear elastic analysis software commonly used for design.... ...Galambos, Theodore; Hajjar, Jerome; Leon, Roberto; Huang, Wen-Hsen; Pulver, Brian; Rudie, Brian
449.Testing of materials from the Minnesota cold regions pavements research test facility1996-241996
The U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) conducted various laboratory tests on pavement materials from the MnROAD facility. The tests helped to characterize the behavior of materials under season frost conditions, and to provide input necessary for modeling the materials with the Mechanistic Pavement Design and Evaluation Procedure under development at CRREL. This report describes test results that define the physical characteristics, such as grain size, specific gravity, Atterberg limits, organic content, and compaction, as well as hydraulic properties, such as moisture retention and hydraulic conductivity, frost susceptibility, and unfrozen moisture content of two subgrade samples and two base materials from MnROAD....Road materials, Effect of temperature on, Road materials, Testing, Pavements, Testing, Frost heaving...Bigl, Susan; Berg, Richard
450.Woodchips as a lightweight fill 1998-051996
Wood products have been used as a lightweight fill in roadway embankments in the past, primarly in situations where slope stability was a concern. The U.S. Forest Service reported [1] on the use of sawdust and bark chips as a lightweight fill in slide areas. That report indicated that sawdust was commonly used as a lightweight fill, or to provide support over soft soils near sawmills in the United States, Canada, and Norway. No information, however, is available regarding the use of wood chips as a lightweight fill for embankments floated over peat swamps. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) conducted an experiment with such a construction technique in 1976 on T.H. No. 53 in Koochinching County. [2,3] The trees used for manufacture of the chips were primarily aspen with the common name of poplar. ...Roads -Design and construction. Road materials. Wood chips. Fills (Earthwork) ...Braun Intertec
451.1995 MnDOT Transportation Research Annual Reportpgs misc1995
...Transportation, Research, Minnesota, Periodicals, Highway Research, Minnesota, Periodicals...
452.199522.pdf Traffic Data Management for Advanced Driver Information Systems95-221995
This project focuses on route planning algorithms of Advanced Driver Information Systems, which are also known as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). Route planning has been approached by graph-theoretic algorithms for all-pair (transitive closure) and singlesource (partial transitive) path computations. These algorithms compute many more paths beyond the single-pair path that is of interest to ATIS, and hence may not be satisfactory for ATIS due to the dynamic nature of edge costs (travel-time). For single-pair path computation, we explore specialized algorithms such as A*, which are designed to reduce irrelevant computation and to quickly discover the shortest paths. Our cost models and performance studies show that single-pair algorithms can outperform traditional algorithms in many situations.... ...Shekhar, Shashi
453.Autonomous Vehicle Guidance Evaluation1995-121995
This report provides an overview of autonomous vehicle technology, specifically focusing on sensing and control technologies....Trucks, Automatic control, Trucks, Electronic equipment, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, Truck accidents...Donath, Max; Shankwitz, Craig
454.Collision avoidance: smart trucks on rural roads1995-111995
With interest in collision avoidance technology for highway vehicles on the rise, this report presents an overview of current collision avoidance technology, the technical work required to bring these systems to a commercially viable product, and the societal issues that need addressing before widescale deployment can occur....Trucks, Automatic control, Trucks, Electronic equipment, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, Truck accidents...Donath, Max; Shankwitz, Craig
455.Comparison of Pavement Drainage Systems1995-281995
Pavement drainage systems have become a common addition to construction and reconstruction plans. Several types of transverse and longitudinal drains that vary in shape, size and cost are often included in designs although little is known about their performance. This study describes and evaluates the drainage characteristics and pavement performance of four drainage systems under jointed portland cement concrete pavement. Included are the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) standard dense graded base, two dense graded base sections incorporating transverse drains placed under the transverse joints, and permeable asphalt stabilized base, a design which reflects current Mn/DOT drainable base thinking. All sections include longitudinal edge drains. ...Permeable Asphalt Stabilized Base, Dense Graded Base, Transverse Drain, Drainage, Moisture Content...Hagen, Mark; Cochran, George
456.Dynamic Pile Driving Analysis Using the Pile Driving Analyzer95-211995
The current method for monitoring pile driving on Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) construction projects uses the Engineering News Record (ENR) formula. This formula, first developed in 1893, uses an oversimplified model ofthe pile driving system to predict the pile capacity in the field. Since the beginning of this century, however, engineers have known that this formula neglects many complexities involved in the pile driving system including wave action, hammer energy loss, pile flexibility, and different soil resistance factors. Modified versions of the formula have attempted to compensate for these shortcomings by including empirical adjustments and large safety factors. However, the formula still has been proven very erratic in predicting pile capacities. According to numerous pile load tests, the real factor of the formula's safety can be as low as 0.67 and as high as 20. This means that piles monitored with the ENR formula are most likely being driven deeper than required, which results in higher foundation costs. It also shows that the formula may potentially prove unsafe by allowing piles to be driven to shallower depths than required.... ...Person, Gary; Rich, Lamb; Nelson, Blake
457.Effect of Salt Additives on Concrete Degradation (Phase II)1996-101995
This report describes methods used to detect the chemical reactions between concrete and corrosion-inhibitor-added deicing salts, and to determine the chemical composition of the precipitates formed by chemical reactions between concrete and the corrosion-inhibitor-added deicing salts. This research builds on a previous investigation, which found that corrosion-inhibitor-added deicing salts caused degradation of concrete by both anions and cations. The latest research phase looked at methods to detect the chemical reactions between concrete and corrosion-inhibitor-added deicing salts, and to determine the chemical compositions of the precipitates formed by the chemical reactions....Concrete, Deicers, Inhibitors...Jang, Ji-Won; Iwasaki, Iwao; Weiblen, Paul
458.Extended Evaluation of Selected Bridge Deck Protection Systems1995-331995
From 1976-1981 Mn/DOT conducted a research study to evaluate several new types of bridge deck protective systems in an effort to reduce the extent of reinforcing steel corrosion. These systems included membranes with bituminous overlays, modified concrete overlays, and coated rebars. When the study concluded, it was felt that a long term study was needed to provide a better indication of service life. Two decks from each system type which appeared promising were selected for extended testing. This extended study continued the evaluation program tlhrough 1990....Bridges, Concrete, Maintenance and repair, Sealing Technology, Concrete bridges, decks, corrosion protection...Hagen, Mark
459.Field Performance of Penetrating Sealers for Concrete Bridge Decks1995-261995
Sixteen different concrete sealers (plus an untreated control section) were tested on a new bridge deck with a low slump dense concrete overlay for a period of three years. Concrete drill dust samples were collected annually from each test section to determine chloride penetration into the deck. The data collected determined the relative effectiveness and service life of the various sealers....Bridges, Concrete, Maintenance and repair, Concrete coatings, Evaluation, Concrete bridges, decks, penetrating sealers...Hagen, Mark
460.General Guidelines for Publication of Research Reports 1995
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) research report is the key document for a researcher to present research results, transfer knowledge to users, and encourage possibilities to implement research. If these aims are to be achieved, it is important for report authors to produce a well-organized and cl€aFlycwritten document. The Mn/DOT Office of Research Administration (ORA) has developed this document, General Guidelines for the Publication of Research Reports, to aid the author in writing and constructing the research report. Following the guidelines will also ensu_re the quality and consistency of presentation in all Mn/DOT research reports.... ...Ruiz, Micky; Troedsson, Kim
461.Ground Penetrating Radar Survey of Pavement Thickness on MnROAD Sections1995-061995
This research shows that highway speed horn antenna ground penetrating radar equipment and automated analysis software can accurately measure asphalt thickness. To accurately measure concrete and base thickness, lower speed ground coupled equipment also must be used. In the project, researchers collected radar data for pavement layer thickness at the 40 MnROAD research pavement sections to obtain accurate as-built pavement layer thickness data on the sections. A blind comparison between radar asphalt thickness data and available cores shows an R-squxed of 0.98.For concrete thickness, the R-square was 0.76. The report details results for base and subbase thickness and for the layer thicknesses of the four aggregate sections....Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Pavements, Subgrades, Testing, Ground penetrating radar, GPR, Nondestructive testing...Maser, Kenneth
462.Incorporation of reliability into the Minnesota mechanistic-empirical pavement design method1995-351995
This report documents the research that incorporated reliability analysis into the existing mechanistic-empirical (M-E) flexible pavement design method for Minnesota. Reliability in pavement design increases the probability that a pavement structure will perform as intended for the duration of its design life. The report includes a comprehensive literature review of the state-of-the-art research. The Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) served as the primary source of data, in addition to the literature review. This research quantified the variability of each pavement design input and developed a rational method of incorporating reliability analysis into the M-E procedure through Monte Carlo simulation. Researchers adapted the existing computer program, ROADENT, to allow the designer to perform reliability analysis for fatigue and rutting. A sensitivity analysis, using ROADENT, identified the input parameters with the greatest influence on design reliability. Comparison designs were performed to check ROADENT against the 1993 AASHTO guide and the existing Minnesota granular equivalency methods. Those comparisons showed that ROADENT produced very similar design values for rutting. However, data suggests that the fatigue performance equation will require further modification to accurately predict fatigue reliability....Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, ROADENT (Computer program)...Newcomb, David; Timm, David
463.Initial characterization of subgrade soils and granular base materials at MnROAD1996-191995
Falling-Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests were conducted on the test sections at all stages of pavement construction (pre-base, post-base, and post pavement). Deflection values were highly variable due to variability in surface condition, soil moisture content, density, and stress-dependent effects. In general, backcalculated subgrade moduli tended to increase with increasing FWD sensor offset (decreasing stress). Post-base and post-pavement testing also indicated an apparent increase in subgrade modulus relative to pre-base values. Moduli values were also determined for granular base results. These results were compared to Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) penetration index values as well as to resilient moduli values from tests conducted on subgrade and granular base materials in the lab. The backcalculated subgrade soil modulus values compared well with the laboratory resilient modulus values, bot no correlation was seen between backcalculated moduli and penetration index values....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Roads, Minnesota, Base courses...Newcomb, David; Chadbourn, Bruce; VanDeusen, David; Burnham, Thomas
464.MIMIC Sensor Technology for Highway Vehicle Applications: Potential and Challenges for the Future1995-101995
Recent advances in MIMIC (Millimeter Monolithic Integrated Circuit) radar technology play an important role in the development of automated highway systems and automated vehicle control systems. This report presents results of a preliminary investigation into MIMIC-based automotive radar technology, and makes recommendations for hardware evaluation....Trucks, Automatic control, Trucks, Electronic equipment, Automotive sensors, Radar, Integrated circuits...Donath, Max; Shankwitz, Craig
465.Mn/DOT's Non-Destructive Testing Program1995-071995
A committee consisting of Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) Bridge, Pavement, and Geotechnical personnel was formed to examine the present and propose a future comprehensive Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Program. The overall intent of their study was to define the scope Mn/DOT program focusing on the Offices of Construction and Materials Engineering, Minnesota Road Research, and Bridge, with the intent of providing basis for future investment and use Mn/DOT methods....Pavements, Asphalt, Testing, Pavements, Subgrades, Testing, Nondestructive testing...Beaudry, Terry
466.Nuclear Asphalt Gauge Testing95-311995
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has been performing asphalt extraction testing on bituminous road materials for more than 50 years. Currently, Mn/DOT annually performs about 3,500 extractions. Extraction testing requires the use of chlorinated solvents, which generates a considerable amount of hazardous liquid waste that must be disposed of by strictly following increasingly complex and stringent federal regulations. The objective of this research project was to replace or supplement the current chemical extraction method for testing the asphalt content of road construction bituminous mixtures with nuclear asphalt gauge testing. This research led to the following conclusions: 1. Nuclear asphalt gauge testing gives asphalt cement content results that are at least as accurate as solvent extraction testing. 2. Gradation testing cannot be done using nuclear asphalt gauge testing procedures. 3. Nuclear asphalt gauge testing works well for bituminous materials containing up to about 20 percent recycled asphalt pavement (RAP)....Nuclear, Asphalt, Gauge, Extraction, Testing, Trichloroethane...Wegman, Dan; Plutko, Ernest
467.Polymer Literature Review1995-271995
This report compiles a vast majority of research on polymer modified asphalt cements and mixtures. It covers a general discussion of polymer chemistry and terms typically used by polymer suppliers; asphalt cement chemistry; typical test methods historically used to evaluate modified asphalts; reported results; comparisons of polymer modified asphalt cements and mixtures; proposed binder specifications; and a summary of field trials reported in the literature. Based on this information, the report suggests several experimental designs for use in the completion of the laboratory and field trial phases of this project....Polymers, Polymer-impregnated Concrete, Pavements, Asphalt, Additives...Stroup-Gardiner, Mary
468.Regular Route Passenger Services in Minnesota95-241995
The Minnesota Department of Transportation, Office of Motor Carrier Services (OMCS), issued a report entitled The Regulation of Passenger Services in Minnesota in 1993 which reviewed the operations of for-hire motor carriers who provide passenger services in Minnesota. This report also discussed the regulations under which they operate. When preparing this report, it became clear that carriers who provide regular route passenger service have experienced a sharp decline in their ridership and breadth of service. The OMCS decided it was necessary to investigate the reasons for this decline and document the level of regular route service currently provided. This report contains these findings. The OMCS used three means to gather information for this study. First, it interviewed executives of companies who are authorized to operate as regular route common carriers of passengers in Minnesota. Second, it consulted the annual reports provided by regular route passenger carriers. Finally, it conducted focus groups of local government officials about the current needs for intercity passenger services.... ...Berndt, Mark; Feige, Jennifer
469.Road Powered Electric Vehicle Technology Study (Saints Road Project) Volume II: Test Reports with Data Sheets97-071995
Volume IT of this study is a compilation of test reports that result from a 10-month evaluation. of E-TRAN Road Powered Electric Vehicle technology to determine operational safety and system durability/reliability; technology effectiveness; snow and ice removal requirements; and cost effectiveness. The test reports identify several areas for further study and development. Through a series of theoretical and laboratory tests, this evaluation concludes that the E-TRAN RPEV concept remains sound in theory, but as tested under the current design, the system does not yet provide a safe and reliable transportation power alternative. The study addressed some findings of a previous report (No. MN/RC 93/03). However, the system design is still an immature technology under development, and must address significant safety and practical problems. Especially, the system must be made more robust and resistant to stresses and conditions found in a northern public roadway environment. A laboratory test indicated a 46 percent reduction in energy consumption compared to gasoline power. The E-TRAN RPEV concept holds further promise as a possible solution to the limited range and energy efficiency of battery-powered vehicles. Volume I presents summary results and also provides conclusions and recommendations to focus on future development of identified safety and technical design areas.... ...Diedrich, E.R.; Dillingham, John; Lehn, Mike; Musachio, Nick; Oriani, Richard; Palmer, John; Shores, David; Thiesse, William; Benson, Lowell;
470.Saw and Seal Test Section Layout, 3.14.95 1995
This paper records various test sections locations from across the state....Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Joints, Test Section Layout...Olson, Roger
471.Statewide Statistical Subgrade Characterization1995-161995
This report presents a detailed statistical analysis and graphical presentation of more than 120,000 subgrade modulus values from Minnesota state roads and highways. These subgrade modulus values are based on falling weight deflectometer measurements collected by the Minnesota Department of Transportation between 1983 and 1993....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Measurement, Mathematical models...Barnes, Randal; Jankovic, Igor; Colom, David
472.Use of Crushed Concrete Products in Minnesota Pavement Foundations1996-121995
This report reviews eleven field and laboratory studies that have been performed to address concerns about the use of recycled concrete aggregate in pavement foundations. Performance concerns have centered on the possible impairment of drainage systems by deposits of calcium carbonate precipitate and other fines derived from the recycled concrete base materials....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Waste products as road materials, Minnesota, Concrete, Recycling, Recycled Concrete, base materials, pavement drainage...Snyder, Mark
473.1994 MnDOT Transportation Annual Reportpgs 20-321994
...Transportation, Research, Minnesota, Periodicals, Highway Research, Minnesota, Periodicals...
474.Characterization of the Subgrade Soils at the Minnesota Road Research Project1994-191994
This study characterized the embankment and granular base soils at MnROAD using various testing methods. This report describes a soil sampling and testing program conducted on pavement embankment at the Minnesota Road Research Project during different stages of construction. The objective of the study was to characterize embankment and granular base soils, using both destructive and nondestructive approaches....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Subgrades, Falling Weight Deflectometer FWD, Resilient Modulus...Newcomb, David; VanDeusen, David; Burnham, Thomas
475.DFQL A Graphical Data Flow Query Language for Retrieval, Analysis, and Visualization of a Scientific Database96-02U1994
This report describes the design, functionality, and implementation of a data flow query language (DFQL), that visually represents a query as a directed acyclic data flow graph. The language is well suited for application domains such as scientific databases, where data analysis and visualization need to be tightly coupled with data retrieval, and the relationships between the entities are ill-defined. Unlike most visual query languages that are declarative, DFQL is a functional language and thus provides the ability to combine data retrieval, analysis, and visualization, intuitively in a single query....Database Query Language, Visual Query Language, Graphical User Interfaces, Data Flow Graphs...Dogru, Sait; Rajan, Vijay; Rieck, Kieth; Slagle, James; Tjan, Bosco; Yang, Yuewei
476.Development of Design Guidelines for Use of Shredded Tires as a Lightweight Fill in Road Subgrade and Retaining Walls1994-041994
The use of shredded tires as a lightweight fill material over weak soil deposits is gaining popularity as a means of disposing a great quantity of an undesirable waste material in a beneficial manner. This report discusses the production, past applications, and properties of shredded tires with respect to their use in lightweight fills. Shredded tires have the advantages of low bulk density, high permeability, and insensitivity to the presence or state of moisture. However, they possess a high degree of compressibility, and they exhibit a degree of rebound atypical of materials normally used in lightweight fills (e.g., woodchips). Before using shredded tires in a fill, one must consider the layer thickness of the shredded tires, the amount of overburden to be placed on the tires, the type of pavement surface, and the volume of heavy traffic expected to use the roadway. Because of the orientation of shredded tires after placement, the importance of anisotropy as a future research topic is discussed....Shredded tires, Lightweight fills, Bearing capacity...Drescher, Andrew; Newcomb, David
477.Development of Simulation Software for Modeling Pavement Response at Mn/ROAD1994-311994
This report presents the development of simulation software for modeling dynamically loaded pavement response. The analysis is carried out by employing the finite element method and by integrating the resulting discrete equations of motion through the central difference method....Pavements, Minnesota, Performance, Simulation methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, Data processing, Pavements, Minnesota, Loads, Testing, calibration...Newcomb, David; Stolarski, Henryk; Zhang, Zhonglan
478.Enhancements of the KRONOS Simulation Package and Database for Geometric Design Planning, Operations and Traffic Management in Freeway Networks/Corridors (Phase II)95-171994
KRONOS is a personal computer-based, dynamic freeway simulation software, which is based on continuum flow modeling approach. Unlike other macroscopic simulation programs, KRONOS explicitly models interrupted flow behavior such as merging, diverging and weaving. The coupling effects of ramps on the main freeway are considered in determining actual amount of flows entering/exiting freeways, which makes it possible to follow the simultaneous development of queues and propagation of congestion on both the freeway and the ramps. KRONOS employs the simple continuum modeling approach with a numerical scheme specifically designed to solve timedependent, compressible flows containing strong shocks. With this scheme, the space domain is discretized in short increment, i.e., 100 ft, and the macroscopic parameters such as speed, flow and density are calculated every 1 second for each 100 ft segment in a given freeway.... ...Kwon, Eil; Michalopoulos, Panos
479.Evaluation of the E-TRAN Vehicle Propulsion Concept94-031994
The viability of the patented E-TRAN electric roadway and vehicle concept was examined from an engineering systems point of view. Specific recommendations are made regarding the end-usage and development of the propulsion concept. Based on this study, two research areas were identified and investigated in more detail: (a) quantify the auxiliary power needs due to power input discontinuities and (b) the dynamic effects of road pantograph bounce. Auxiliary power needs arise because of power input discontinuities, either due to: (1) power strip segment failures, (2) lane changing, and/or (3) E-TRAN grid discontinuities, which includes getting the vehicle to and from the grid. Simulation results indicate that power strip segment failures will have the least effect on system performance. E-TRAN grid discontinuities will have serious effects on the system while the effects of lane changing will affect performance at a level in between the other two. The dynamic effects of a road pantograph in contact with a road mounted power strip was also studied, first using simulated models and then verified by experiment. From a mechanical point of view, key issues that affect the design include friction, wear and dynamic bounce effects. Since good correspondence was achieved between the experimentally measured and simulated support forces and pantograph angular displacement, the models can be used for future design analysis....Electric vehicles, Electrified roadways, dynamics, pantograph...Hennessey, Michael; Donath, Max
480.Field Examination of Epoxy Coated Rebars on Concrete Bridge Decks94-141994
A limited field survey was conducted to determine the extent of corrosion of epoxy coated rebars in bridge decks in Minnesota. One core was taken from each of ten bridge decks and examined in the laboratory for evidence of rebar corrosion. The bridges are located on I-35E south of st. Paul, Minnesota, and were consructed in the late 1970's with the upper rebar mat epoxy coated and the lower mat uncoated black steel. Conclusions that appear justified are: • The first bridge deck built in Minnesota with epoxy coated rebars shows no signs of distress after almost 20 years of service. The significant corrosion of epoxy coated rebars that has been observed in highway structures by other transportation agencies was not discovered by this limited survey. • The bridge decks with prestressed concrete girders tended to show fewer transverse cracks than the decks with steel girders.... ...Gillis, Henry; Hagen, Mark
481.Field Performance of High Molecular Weight Methacrylate Monomers and Silanes on a D-Cracked, Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement1994-071994
This report describes how two relatively new materials were placed on three separate test sections on I-90 in southwestern Minnesota and evaluated. Those two materials were (1) silanes, which attempt to retard the D-cracking process by protecting pavement from moisture and chemical damage, and (2) high molecular weight (HMW) methacrylate monomers, which generally act as glue to cement fractured concrete particles back together. Silanes were used on a section of I-90 in southwestern Minnesota in an attempt to retard the D-cracking process by protecting the pavement from moisture and chemical damage. High Molecular Weight (HMCW) Methacrylate monomers were also placed on the three separate test sections. Four silanes and three HMW methacrylates were used. Each test section varied in the extent of D-cracking present....Concrete pavements, silanes, methacrylate, Pavements, Concrete, Minnesota, Maintenance and repair, Polymer-impregnated Concrete, Pavements, Concrete, Cracking...Engstrom, Glenn
482.Following Advice from Traffic Advisories94-291994
As Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) technology is introduced, we can anticipate that the amount of traffic information and advice made available to travelers will increase. Even with the limited amount of infonnation and advice available now, we do not know how travelers respond to it Nor do we know how to structure information and advice in order to receive a predictable response from travelers. The objective of this study was to determine how travelers respond when confronted with information and advice about traffic conditions and the means for avoiding congestion. It was our contention that the structure of traffic advisory messages would influence travelers' responses.... ...Wende, Dewing; Stackhouse, Stirling
483.In Situ Foundation Characterization using the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer1993-051994
Subgrade and base material sampling and testing guide. This report presents ways pavement and materials engineers can use dynamic cone penetrometers (DCPs). The Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) is a test device used for measuring the strength and variability of unbound layers of soil and granular material. The DCP is not a new test device but transportation organizations in Cainada and the United States, including the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), have shown a renewed interest in its unique capability of measuring a profile of in situ foundation characteristics. A desire to more fully characterize subsurface conditions on the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnlROAC)) led to the initial use of DCP's by Mn/DOT. From an operational perspective it is very attractive because the DCP is both portable and simple to use. The objective of this research was to explore ways that DCP's coulcl eflec:tively be used by Minnesota pavement and materials engineers and to perform the testing, analysis, and learning necessary far establishing relationships between DCP test results and other commonly used foundation parameters. This report describes the design and operation of the DCP as well as an overwiew of the theoretical basis for use of the device. In addition, correlation results, data profiles, case histories and related information are presented....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, DCP, Road drainage, Minnesota, Testing , Compacting, base compaction...Burnham, Thomas; Johnson, David
484.Load response instrumentation installation and testing procedures1994-011994
This document presents the step-by-step installation and testing procedures developed for load response instrumentation measuring parameters such as strain, deflection, and pressure in pavement layers from dynamic axle loadings at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD)....Pavements, Live loads, Testing, Pavements, Performance Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction, design methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Testing, calibration, MnROAD...Baker, Harris; Buth, Michael; VanDeusen, David
485.Physio-chemical evaluation of asphalt-aggregate interactions1994-121994
The three objectives of this research were to Evaluate asphalt-aggregate interactions for typical Minnesota paving mixtures, Determine key aggregate physical and chemical properties that influence adhesion of the asphalt cement to the aggregate surface and Develop recommendations and guidelines for the implementation of the net adsorption test as a screening test for asphalt-aggregate compatibility for Mn/DOT. The mixture testing indicated that three of the six projects had tensile strength ratios of less than 70 percent and could be expected to show some evidence of moisture related damage. An evaluation of these results suggested that any moisture sensitivity could be due to mix design parameters such as lower film thicknesses, and lower initial, strengths rather than a chemical loss of adhesion at the asphalt-aggregate interface. The influence of conventional mix design parameters on the moisture sensitivity of asphalt concrete mixtures should be more thoroughly investigated prior to any consideration of the use of additives....Pavements, Asphalt concrete, Moisture, Testing, Aggregates (Building materials), Testing...Stroup-Gardiner, Mary; Newcomb, David
486.Polymerized Crumb Rubber Modified Mixtures in Minnesota1994-081994
On behalf of the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources and the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT), the University of Minnesota conducted an evaluation of both asphalt-rubber interactions and asphalt-rubber mixtures using the dry process. Experimentation with pre-treating the rubber in order to reduce its demand for key asphalt components was also investigated. OBJECTIVES The objectives of the research program were to, define asphalt-rubber interactions, conduct a preliminary assessment of both laboratory tests and the resulting mixture properties of crumb rubber modified bituminous (CRM) mixtures and evaluate both the fundamental properties and field performance of CRM mixtures....Pavements, Asphalt, Asphalt-rubber, Testing, Minnesota, Waste Rubber Tires, Minnesota, Waste products as road materials...Newcomb, David; Stroup-Gardiner, Mary; Kim, Jong; Allen, Bruce; Wattenhoffer-Spry, Jeff
487.Spatial Variability of Falling Weight Deflectometer Data 1994
...Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Subgrades, Falling Weight Deflectometer FWD, Resilient Modulus...Kestler, Maureen; Harr, Milton; Johnson, David
488.Statewide Evaluation of Overlays with Fabrics and Geogrids10191994
Reflective cracking has long been an issue of concern. Pavement rehabilitation techniques often are established in an attempt to address this issue. During the 1970 1 S several products were introduced to the highway market for the purpose of retarding reflective cracking in bituminous overlays. Since then, a wide variety of geosynthetics including full coverage fabrics, strip fabrics and geogrids have been placed throughout Minnesota to evaluate their performances. This paper presents a brief history of geosynthetics, a literature search and review to obtain information on geotextile applications in asphalt overlays and their performances. This includes a list of known installations of fabrics and geogrids in Minnesota. In addition to MN/DOT test sections, numerous sections constructed by cities, counties, airports and other agencies were looked into. This paper shows the historical performance results of known installations of various types of fabrics and geogrids used for mitigating crack reflectance. Results of a statewide crack counts and survey did not show noticeable improvements of test sections over controls. "... ...Evbayekha, Robert
489.Subgrade and Base Material Sampling and Testing Guide (MnROAD Project)1995-031994
This report provides comprehensive information regarding the type and location of soil and base material samples collected from the MnROAD project. Information regarding nondestructive soil testing is provided, including dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and falling weight deflectometer (FWD) testing....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, DCP, Pavements, Minnesota, Live loads, Measurement, Detectors, Falling Weight Deflectometer FWD...Burnham, Thomas
490.Using Shredded Waste Tires as a Lightweight Fill Material for Road Subgrades1994-101994
Waste tires have been a disposal problem in the past and are continuing to accumulate throughout the U.S. today. Using shredded waste tires as a lightweight fill material for road construction has proven to be a beneficial use of this waste product. Shredded tires have been used as a lightweight fill material in Minnesota, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, North Carolina, Virginia, and Wisconsin. Minnesota began using shredded tires as a lightweight fill material in 1985 on logging roads through areas with weak soils. Minnesota began using shredded tires as a lightweight fill material in 1985 on logging roads in areas with weak soils. This report documents seven sites in Minnesota that used shredded waster tires as lightweight fill. This report documents seven sites in Minnesota that used shredded waste tires as lightweight fill. Shredded tires were proven to be a viable form of lightweight fill because they are irelatively lightweight, inexpensive and non-biodegradable. In general, the material is very elastic, very porous, contains good vibration damping properties, and is easily compacted. On the downside, shredded tires lack set design standards and specifications. The report also documents some of the environmental testing completed on shredded tires to date....Waste products as road materials, Minnesota, Case studies, Tires, Recycling, Base courses, Subgrades...Engstrom, Glenn; Lamb, Rich
491.Effect of Salt Additives on Concrete Degradation1993-101993
Many chemical additives designed to inhibit the corrosive effect of salt on rebars are being marketed. Their effort on Portland Cement Concrete is neither known or understood. This study is an attempt to determine if there is an effect and to understand the nature and results of the effects....Concrete, Deicers, Inhibitors, Deicing chemicals, Concrete, Corrosion, Inhibitors...Jang, Ji-Won; Iwasaki, Iwao
492.Effect of salt additives on rebar corrosion: evaluation methods of effectiveness of deicing salts on rebar corrosion under various conditions1993-141993
This report describes evaluation of various chemicals and their effects on rebar corrosion under room temperature, high temperature, wet-dry, and excess oxygen (bubbled and stirred) conditions in a laboratory setting....Deicing chemicals, Reinforcing bars, steel, rebar, Corrosion, Salt, Additives, Roads, Snow and ice control, Research, Minnesota, Design and construction, Pavements, Concrete...Jang, Ji-Won; Iwasaki, Iwao
493.Evaluation of Bituminous Overlay on Mechanically Cracked / Shattered PCC PavementsINV 2081993
This report evaluates the effect of cracking, breaking, or shattering PCC pavements before overlay as a means of reducing the amount and severity of reflected cracking. This investigation was expanded from Special Study No. 375, "Evaluation of Variable Thickness of Bituminous Overlay on Cracked PCC Pavement." A report on this study was issued in 1981....Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays, Design and construction, Pavements, Bituminous, Pavements, Concrete, Maintenance and repair, Shattered Concrete base, overlay...Baker, Harris; Allen, Harvey; Teig, Gerald; Buth, Michael
494.Geostatistics for Subgrade Characterization1994-061993
Subgrade modulus values for roads around Minnesota can be effectively modeled as spatially correlated log-normal random variables. Based upon this geostatistical model, this report presents guidelines and nomographs for selecting preliminary sample spacing for assessing the subgrade modulus. Poor tech doc scan...Geology, Minnesota, Statistical methods, Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Evaluation, Roads, Minnesota, Subgrades, Evaluation...Barnes, Randal
495.Influence of Roofing Shingles on Asphalt Concrete Mixture Properties1993-091993
It is estimated that the production of new roofing shingles generates approximately 1,000,000 tons of waste annually in the U.S. and about 36,000 tons of this waste is in the Twin Cities Metro Area of Minnesota. With another 8.5 million tons of waste materials which are similiar to those used in asphalt concrete, it seems viable that their use in hot-mix would be an attractive alternative to disposing of them in landfills. This report presents the results of an effort to avaluate the use of roofing waste generated by manufacturers and from reconstruction projects. It was shown that up to 5%, by weight of mixture, manufacturing waste roofing shingles could be used in asphalt concrete with a minimum impact on the properties of the mixture. At a level of 7.5% a noticeable softening of the mixture occurs, and this might be detrimental to pavement performance. The use of shingles from roof reconstruction projects resulted in the embrittlement of the mixture which may be undesirable for low temperature cracking of pavements. The manufactured shingle waste seems to work well in stone mastic asphalt mixtures....Asphalt Concrete, Additives, Testing, Waste products as road materials, Minnesota, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Materials, Additives, Testing...Newcomb, David
496.Joint and Crack Fillers1993-111993
Nine experimental joint sealants were installed in a one-mile long section of Interstate 94 near Sauk Centre, Minnesota. The sealants were evaluated for five years, beggining in 1988, and compared for performance against Dow Corning 888, the only silicone joint sealant currently approved for use on transverse joints by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. This report presents results of nine experimental joint sealants from a five-year evaluation period. Also included is a rating procedure for quantitatively evaluating joint sealants....Concrete pavements, joints, silicone sealants, Road materials, Minnesota, Testing, Sealing compounds, Testing, Evaluation, Pavements, Concrete, Joints, Testing, Evaluation...Hagen, Mark
497.Metro Division Snow and Ice Research Field Studies 1992-1993 Winter Season93-121993
As stated in the Mn/DOT Ice and Snow Removal Training Manual: ""Ice forms a very tight bond to the porous surfaces of highway pavements. Since water expands when it freezes, water filled pores become tightly wedged pockets of ice that serve as anchors to any additional ice that forms above them."" 1. De-icing refers to the process of breaking the ice bond after it forms. 2. Anti-icing refers to the process of preventing this bond from happening by applying chemicals prior to the snow and ice. 3. Pre-wetting is the process of putting a liquid chemical onto dry material for either deicing or anti-icing.... ...Barnes, Michael
498.Motor Grader and Snowplow Cutting Edge Durability Study93-021993
The life of the various types of cutting edges for use on Motor Graders and Snowplows varies with the type of steel and its treatment by the manufacturer. This is an evaluation of the wear characteristics of five types of cutting edges, both Motor Patrol and Snowplow, used in the maintenance of gravel roads. Comparing the two sets of data (gravel and snow) excluding the Carbide edges, the Carbon is best on snowplows and second best but only slightly lower in durability than flame hardened on gravel blading. Gravel blading is about three times more severe than snowplowing on cutting edges other than Carbide Insert....Motor Grader - Patrol, Snowplow, Gravel Blading, Cutting Edges, Carbon Steel, Thru Hardened, Flame Hardened Carbide...Gillis, Henry; Zollars, John
499.Regional Linkages in Minnesota: Region Nine and the Twin Cities93-071993
Past research into Minnesota's regional linkages documented the Twin Cities - Greater Minnesota relationships. Some of the their conclusions include: *The Twin Cities is the major market for Greater Minnesota firms. *Commuter traffic to the Twin Cities is increasing from Greater Minnesota counties especially those adjacent to the Twin Cities. *Retail Sales are increasingly concentrated in Regional Market Centers. *Twin Cities is the major source of tourists for Greater Minnesota's recreational areas. *Greater Minnesota's households have family and friendship ties with Twin Cities' households.... ...Rafter, David; Renner, Donald; Wood, Perry
500.Snowplow Truckcab Ergonomics Task Force Report93-061993
In the fall of 1992, the NTREC Committee asked that a Snowplow Truck Cab Ergonomics Task Force be organized to look at Mn/DOT's fleet. The charge was to improve snowplow truck ergonomics (cab environment) .... ...Peterson, Dan
501.Transportation Facilities and Services Available to Minnesota Exporters to Serve Pacific Area Markets93-131993
The transportation facilities and services available to Minnesota exporters to export to Pacific area countries were identified. This included the modes of transportation, individual carriers, third parties, and ocean ports and airports available to Minnesota shippers. The service provided was evaluated as were its accessibility toMinnesota exporters and the ability of the system to handle a substantial increase in exports from Minnesota. Included were international water and air transportation and domestic railroad, motor truck, and intermodal railroad-truck transportation. - The conclusions drawn were that ( 1) the transportation service from Minnesota to the Pacific area is sufficient in quantity and quality in all modes, with some problems with lack of enough air freight service at Minneapolis-St. Paul; (2) the transportation service is satisfactory in terms of cost for water and motor truck service, with. Less satisfaction with the cost of the other modes; (3) the transportation service is generqlly accessible to Minnesota exporters; and (4) the transportation system for the most part should be able to handle a major increase in the quantity of exports to the Pacific region from Minnesota, the possible exception is air freight transportation in terms of both carrier capacity and airport capacity....International, Export, facilities, services, pacific...Harper, Donald
502.Unbonded concrete overlays, Minnesota Experiences 1993
...Pavements, Minnesota, Overlays ...Engstrom, Glenn
503.User Guide to the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer 1993
Subgrade and base material sampling and testing guide. This report presents ways pavement and materials engineers can use dynamic cone penetrometers (DCPs). The Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) is a test device used for measuring the strength and variability of unbound layers of soil and granular material. The DCP is not a new test device but transportation organizations in Cainada and the United States, including the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), have shown a renewed interest in its unique capability of measuring a profile of in situ foundation characteristics. A desire to more fully characterize subsurface conditions on the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) led to the initial use of DCP's by Mn/DOT. From an operational perspective it is very attractive because the DCP is both portable and simple to use. The objective of this research was to explore ways that DCP's coulcl eflec:tively be used by Minnesota pavement and materials engineers and to perform the testing, analysis, and learning necessary far establishing relationships between DCP test results and other commonly used foundation parameters. This report describes the design and operation of the DCP as well as an overwiew of the theoretical basis for use of the device. In addition, correlation results, data profiles, case histories and related information are presented....Pavements, Minnesota, Subgrades, Testing, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, DCP, Road drainage, Minnesota, Testing, Compacting, edge drains, base compaction...
504.Waste Products in Highway Construction1993-161993
This report describes legislation and restriction, material properties, construction and application, field performance, and recycling at the end of service life for each of several waste categories. Poor Tech Doc Scan...Pavements, Minnesota, Design and Construction, Waste products as road materials, Minnesota, Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Materials, Additives, Testing, Tires, Waste Recycling...Han, Chunhua
505.A Review of Instrumentation Technology for the Minnesota Road Research Project1992-101992
This report presents a literature review of the instrumentation practices for the measurement of stresses, strains, and deflections in pavement structures. Various types of instruments that are commonly employed in the pavement instrumentation projects are discussed, as well as the factors that influence their performance. In a series of laboratory experiments, the performance of three different types of embedment strain gauges, two LVTDs, and one soil stress cell are investigated. These experiments are designed to evaluate the accuracy and durability of commercially available transducers. For strain gauges, the selection of an appropriate transducer must balance compliance and measurement sensitivity. All of the strain gauges tested in concrete gave reasonable results. It was found that hermetically sealed LVDTs should be sufficient enough for robust installations. Experiments with soil stresses embedded in sand indicate the variability that may be expected in the field due to installation procedures, and emphasize the need for in-soil calibrations. A set of recommendations are provided with respect to the sensor procurement and installation specifications for Mn/ROAD....Pavement instrumentation, pavement sensors, stress cells, LVDTs, strain gauges, H-gages, embedment gages, pavement response, pavement performance, pavement stress, pavement strain, pavement deflection...VanDeusen, David; Newcomb, David; Labuz, Joseph
506.Crack Sealing Bituminous Pavements in Minnesota92-031992
One of the most common maintenance activities performed on bituminous pavements by local governmental agencies is crack treatment. Crack treatments include crack sealing, crack filling and crack repair. Crack sealing is defined as placing material in a crack to create a water tight barrier (1 ). Crack filling involves coating the sides or edges of a crack in an attempt to reduce the rate of deterioration. Crack repair is more extensive than sealing or filling and can involve fine mix patching, tight blading, mill and repair, and overlays (1 ). It is apparent from a recent survey that these terms are often used interchangeably. Generally, rubberized materials, due to their ductile properties are considered to be crack sealants while asphalt based materials are considered fillers. Procedures that involve sand or fine aggregate are considered to be crack repairs. The goal of crack sealing is to prevent water and incompressible material from entering the pavement system. Water intrusion through cracks leads to softening of the underlying subgrade soil. This situation may result in a weak pavement which can be damaged by heavy loads. For many pavements with extensive cracking, water enters the pavement system from the surface at a much higher rate than from below or laterally. Crack filling is done to reduce the effects oxidation has on the asphalt. When asphalt pavements begin to oxidize, they become brittle and cannot withstand the bending imposed by passing vehicles as well as when they were flexible. The application of fresh asphaltic material along the sides of an existing crack slows the rate of oxidation and thus the rate of deterioration. In Minnesota, most cities and counties seal cracks on a periodic basis in an attempt to combat the deterioration of city streets and county highways within their jurisdiction. However, there are many different reasons, materials, equipment and techniques for crack sealing. It is for this reason that this report was written. It is the goal of the authors to assist local engineers and street/highway superintendents, in determining what their peers are doing in the area of crack sealing/filling. A secondary goal is to present guidelines used by other agencies outside Minnesota which may be applicable.... ...Janisch, David; Sexton, Jean
507.Culvert Renewal92-021992
The replacement of a deteriorated culvert under a roadway is an expensive proposition. The work required to remove and replace (r & r) such a structure is both disruptive to the driving public and to the structural integrity of the existing pavement. Finding an inexpensive and less disruptive alternative would be very desireable.... ...Johnson, Dave; Zollars, John
508.Dust Control on Unpaved Roads92-071992
This report summarizes dust control procedures on unpaved roads used by various states and local agencies. The research results related to dust control are also outlined. The report starts with a brief introduction on dust problems associated with unpaved roads and three main dust control methods: chemical, mechanical, and administrative. Preliminary concepts and background of a temporary surface treatment for dust control are presented. The relative effectiveness of a dust control program is estimated based on traffic levels, road conditions and the climate. The report discusses various materials used in dust control, selection of a proper dust palliative, dust control procedures, and evaluation of a dust control program. Results from a survey sent to Minnesota city and county agencies are presented summarizing current dust control practices used on unpaved roads. The concludes with evaluation and recommendations based on the survey results and as extensive literature review....dust control procedures, dust palliative, dust evaluations, method selection, application frequency, unpaved roads, gravel roads, parking lots, rating system, costs/benefits, Minnesota, counties/cities, residence area, application rate, material properties...Han, Chunhua
509.Infrastructure Management Software Use in Minnesota92-041992
The purpose of this report is to give an overview of the number of Minnesota agencies that use Infrastructure or Pavement Management software and provide information as to their common components and requirements. Software of this type is used to store and analyze the various components of an infrastructure. This might include such things as streets, highways, bridges, utilities, etc. Most systems of this type are capable of data storage, retrieval, analysis and forecasting or future conditions and need for maintenance. A Federal Highway Administration policy, issued January 13, 1989, requires all states to have a fully operational Pavement Management System (PMS) within four years of the issuance of the policy. As more and more states implement a PMS, the number of county and city agencies will also likely increase. This report reviews the current status of Minnesota cities and counties in terms of their implementation and use of software of this type....infrastructure management software, pavement management software, pavement management system, PMS, IMS, software, infrastructure...Janisch, David; Chamberlin, Richard
510.Intersection Control Through Video Image Processing92-091992
Among the most promising and innovative concepts today for alleviating urban traffic congestion is the use of video imaging for vehicle detection, automatic surveillance, and advanced control strategies. The concept of using video image processing for traffic surveillance and control is not new. Because of its conceptual appeal, research in this area was initiated in the mid 70's in the U.S. and abroad (most notably in Japan, France, and England) . Despite the major worldwide efforts to develop a machine vision system for traffic surveillance and control, a real-time, fieldable device having the capabilities and performance required for practical applications has been elusive. Even though claims to the contrary have surfaced in recent years, concrete functionality performance and reliability verification is still lacking."... ...Michalopoulos, Panos
511.Material Properties and Corrosion Condition of Twenty-Year-Old Prestressed Bridge Girder93-031992
This report presents the results of a series of nondestructive tests to estimate the strength of concrete in a twenty-year-old prestressed bridge girder removed from an interstate overpass. Nondestructive test results were compared with compressive strength tests of cores obtained from both the girder tested nondestructively and a second girder from the bridge. In addition, the chloride ion concentration of the concrete was analyzed to determine whether corrosion of the bridge reinforcing steel may have occurred.... ...Coggins, Florie; French, Catherine
512.Minnesota's Design Guide for Low Volume Aggregate Surfaced Roads1992-111992
This Soil Factor Design Method was written for counties, townships, and municipalities for use in designing aggregate roads. Although many design methods for aggregate roads exist, most require thorough soil identification and soil Strength testing. Since most local agencies do not have the mearis to perform elaborate testing of soils and because they are familiar with soil factors, this design method should be helpful. This procedure requires soil identification, traffic counts and rational judgement. At present Mn/DOT does not have a design method for aggregate roads. It is not the intention of this manual to change the present legal load limits for gravel roads. For those who would like a more thorough design method, or more background information on aggregate roads, the method includes information on the use of the U.S. Forest Service aggregate Surface Design Guide. Also included is information regartding compaction, drainage, frost action, geosynthetic use, lime stabilization, and an appendix with sample problems biased on the Soil Factor and Forest Service design methods....Low-volume roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Rural roads, Minnesota, Design and construction, Aggregates surface, Base courses Subgrades Soils identification...Beaudry, Terry
513.Pavement Performance Prediction Models 1992
The Minnesota Department of Transportation has collected pavement distress and ride data from the pavements in their system since 1967. In 1986, the data was analyzed to develop pavement performance prediction models that were based on the growth of pavement distresses such as cracking, rutting, and roughness. The analysis at that time was limited by the amount of data available and was considered to be an interim study. The amount an quality of data presently available has improved from that available in 1986 and new or improved models could be developed. The work involved the analysis of all of the pavement condition data collected since 1983 when improved collection procedures were implemented. A literature search was also conducted. The results of the study was the evaluation of pavement life and the development of mathematical models that describe the growth of the distresses rated and the change in roughness over time. Over 100 pavement groupings were evaluated. The groupings were selected on the bases of a variety of pavement attributes including surface type, functional class, and region (construction district). The life of the pavements were evaluated based on the number of years they remained in service and on the basis of performance indices. It was found that the number of years a pavement remains in service can not be used to infer performance potential since a number of pavements were rehabilitated for reasons other than condition; the predicted pavement condition provides a better indication of the performance life of a pavement. The prediction of future pavement performance is accomplished by using the distress growth models to predict the growth of the distresses; the future condition indices are than calculated from the predicted distress amounts....Pavement Rating, Pavement Life, Pavement Distress, Pavement Serviceability, Rating Prediction Models, Surface Distress, Pavement Performance, Performance Predictions...Lukanen, Erland; Han, Chunhua
514.Recycling of Pavement Materials in the 1990's92-051992
Pavement recycling is a necessity due to the diminishing supply of available construction materials and increasing :regulations concerning the disposal of removed concrete and asphalt pavements. Since the 1950's and 60's recycling has grown to include hot and cold mix asphalt recycling, the use of crushed asphalt pavement as an aggregate base, and the use of Portland Cement concrete as an aggregate base, concrete aggregate, and bituminous aggregate. Crack and seating and rubblizing of concrete pavement are also common forms of recycling in Minnesota. The Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) requested that a report be written to provide information regarding the common methods of recycling, and to determine the status of :recycling in Minnesota. This report outlines the recycling methods listed above, and gives specifications and mix designs for their use in Minnesota....recycling, asphalt, concrete, pavement, hot-mix, crack-and-seat, break-and-seat, rubblize, aggregate, cold-mix...Johnson, Ann; Han, Chunhua
515.Repairing Utility Trenches92-081992
Each year miles of utility trenches are cut, backfilled, and surfaced by utility companies, government agencies, and contractors. Improper repair of these trenches leads to bumps, settlements and pavement failure. Unfortunately, city and county governments are not always responsible for the repair and have little control over the construction methods used. To provide information regarding the methods of repairing utility trenches that are commonly used in Minnesota, the Local Road Research Board (LRRB) requested that this report be written The report outlines the results of a survey of Minnesota cities who were asked to detail their specifications and construction methods for backfill and surface repair....utilities, trenching, backfill, asphalt, concrete pavement, aggregate, unshrinkable fill, flowable flyash, Minnesota City Engineer's Association...Johnson, Ann
516.Reusability and Impact Damage Repair of Twenty-Year-Old AASHTO type III Girders93-041992
Prestressed concrete has been used as a bridge construction method in the United States since 1949. Presently, there are thousands of pretensioned prestressed concrete bridges in service in North America. Each year, approximately 200 girders are damaged as a result of impact damage (primarily overheight vehicles striking a bridge from below) . This thesis describes the results of a four girder test series which evaluated impact damage and repairs. The girders used for the study were fabricated in 1967 and placed in service. They were removed from service in 1984 as a result of a road realignment project. The objectives of the research project were: 1) to determine the effective prestress in the strands after 20 years, 2) to determine the influence of impact damage on girder performance, 3) to evaluate the performance of two impact damage repair schemes under static, fatigue, and ultimate loadings, and 4) to develop a model to estimate the strand stress ranges in damaged girders.... ...Olson, Steven; French, Catherine; Leon, Roberto
517.Turf Establishment and Erosion Control93-151992
Accelerated soil erosion and the sedimentation caused by it pose serious problems for the construction industry and state and local agencies. Runoff from construction sites has high sediment loads which may contain various pollutants, including oil, chemicals, and soil wastes. Natural erosion in ditches and along roadways may result in sedimentation that may result in costly damage to water and land. Drainage channels, culverts, and storm sewers may be filled and plugged by sediment, resulting in frequent and costly maintenance. This report addresses those problems and outlines methods for controlling erosion both during and after construction. Structural and vegetative practices for reducing sedimentation are given, and turf establishment techniques for native grasses and wildflowers are discussed. Information regarding the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water Permit Requirements is also given....Erosion control, sediment, soil stablization, pollution, turf establishment, mulch, seeding, sodding, wildflowers, storm water, slope preparation, topsoil, ground cover, salt, drainage, ditches...Johnson, Ann
518.Use and Operation of Advance Warning Flashers at Signalized Intersections93-011992
Advanced Warning Flashers (AWF) should be considered as supplementary traffic control devices. The study concluded that A WFs can be useful at reducing right angle and rear end accidents at high speed intersections. However, before A WFs are installed, other remedial action should be considered. In general. A WF devices should only be installed in response to a specifically correctable problem not in anticipation of a future problem. A requirement should be added to the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) signal justification report process to document the basic A WF need and the design objectives for this type of device."... ...Klugman, Allan; Boje, Bruce; Belrose, Mike
519.lightweight Fill Materials for Road Construction92-061992
The use of lightweight fill is increasing in the state of Minnesota. This material is used to replace a heavier insitu soil so as to reduce the load burden on the subgrade. There may be several alternative materials to consider for any construction project, however design engineers might not consider them because of a limited or with them. Various materials have been used, but specific design guidelines are not available because this type of construction is still considered experimental. The current selection is generally based on local knowledge. Additional research is required to determine more specific design guidelines for each lightweight fill material. The Local Road Research Board (LRRB) has therefore requested this synthesis to determine what technology and materials are available for the appropriate use of lightweight fill material in road construction....Lighweight fill, Elastizell, Rubber tires, Wood chips, Expanded polystyrene...Kohlnhofer, Guy; Marti, Michael
520.An Evaluation of Dense Graded Asphalt-Rubber Concrete in Minnesota1992-011991
The Minnesota Department of Transportation is continually investigating ways to improve the cold temperature performance of its asphalt concrete pavements. One reported method is to modify the asphalt binder with ground reclaimed automobile and truck tire rubber. In 1984, a project on TH 7 (State Prolject 4703-17) was selected for the field trial of an asphalt-rubber cement dense graded concrete utilizing a product produced by Arizona Refining of Phoenix Arizona. Construction of the asphalt-rubber cement dense graded asphalt concrete required some special effort and specialized equipment to maintain adequate mixing and placing temperatures. Evaluations included crack counting, resilient modulus, inplace air voids rutting, roughness, recovered penetration and cost considerations. Interesting results regarding the resilient modulus of the asphalt rubber samples were found. However, this formulation used provided little or no perceived benefits to the roadway at much higher costs. The high costs were due in part to the nature of the project. However, this appears to be a cumbersome and expensive procedure with the primary benefit being waste tire utilization....Pavements, Asphalt Concrete, Minnesota, Roads, Rubberized, Minnesota, Asphalt Concrete, Additives...Turgeon, Curtis
521.An Interactive Simulation Program for Intersection Design and Operational Analysis91-071991
Road reconstruction and maintenance budgets have recently increased significantly, affecting the availability of funding for new construction. Traffic engineers search for new ways of managing traffic operation and designs for intersections in urban areas. The operation of an intersection can change dramatically during intersection reconstruction. Therefore, it is advantageous to evaluate alternative methods of traffic control and geometric intersectionconfigurations to be implemented during the reconstruction period. In addition, it is desirable to evaluate several geometric and operational alternatives, toensure that the reconstruction yields the desired results. Empirical methods, such as those detailed in the 1985 HIGHWAY CAPACITY MANUAL(HCM) exist to perform such analyses.... ...Plum, Roger; Michalopoulos, Panos; Yuan, Bo
522.Design and Construction of Seal Coats1991-021991
This report covers the basic fundamentals and practices of seal coat technology in Minnesota, along with several alternatives. The report includes recommendations for developing and implementing a seal coat program....Pavements, Bituminous, Maintenance and repair, Pavements, Minnesota, Seal Coat Design and Construction...Wegman, Dan
523.Detour Management Study91-011991
A simple and fair method for reimbursing local government units for use of their roads as detours by Mn/Dot was agreed upon by a task force consisting of Mn/DOT and county engineers. Nine different detours were evaluated by three methods of payment. The methods of payment are described in detail and the theoretical amount of payment for each detour is given. The actual amount expended for each detour under current practices is also given....Detours, Gas Tax, Equivalent Overlay, Deflection, FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer), Condition Rating, Pavement Serviceability Rating...County Engineers Task Force and Technical Advisors
524.Frost Heave Patterns and Optimal Design of Insulated Culverts91-081991
When a culvert is placed under a road, the presence of air at freezing temperatures in the culvert may induce differential frost conditions in pavements. Also, a differential frost heave pattern can appear when the culvert is placed in a frost-susceptible soil. In this project, computer simulations of temperature distributions and frost heave patterns around culverts were carried out, and the effects of various insulation techniques were analyzed under weather conditions representative of Minnesota winters. The pavement slope variance, which is a commonly used variable describing the roughness (or loss of serviceability) of a given pavement section profile, proved to be a valuable indicator under frost heave conditions. Results indicate that culvert insulation reduces the value of the pavement slope variance throughout the freezing period: the higher the insulation thickness, the lower the resulting slope variance (or loss of serviceability)....Culvert Heat and mass transfers, Culvert insulation, Freezing index, Frost heave, Insulation, Pavements, Roads, Slope variance, Soil, Soil stresses, Thermal differential...Duquennoi, Christian; Sterling, Raymond
525.Mn/DOT Salvaged Materials Task Force, Final Report 1991
Environmental concerns, restrictions by local units of government regarding stockpiles, and increasing costs of disposal of excess material in landfills prompted the State Construction Engineer and the Director of the Office of Materials and Research to appoint a 15-member task force to investigate possible uses of salvage material, such as bituminous and concrete, from construction projects. The task force sought input from the bituminous, concrete, aggregate, and construction industries and researched the Mn/DOT Standard Specifications for Comtruction to identify allowabIe, restricted, and prohibited uses....Recycling, Minnesota, Waste products as road materials, Building materials, Roads, bituminous, concrete, Base courses...
526.Rational Test Methods for Predicting Permanent Deformation in Asphalt Concrete Pavement93-081991
Permanent deformation in asphalt concrete pavements manifests itself as depression along the wheelpaths; rutting. The prediction of the depth of rutting requires a knowledge of materials characteristics that relate the asphalt concrete permanent strains to stress and temperature.... ...Kim, Jong; Drescher, Andrew; Newcomb, David
527.Report on Joint Spacing of Concrete Pavement on T.H. 36 1991
Experimental concrete pavement containing variations in joint spacing, reinforcement, dowel sections, and joint fillers were used on Minnesota T.H. 36 to determine optimum design. Surface rating, South Dakota Profile Surface Rating (PSR), and Concrete Pavement Evaluation System (COPES) studies were performed to evaluate the pavements. The best sections were the 15 foot and 20 foot sections with bituminous coated or rust inhibitor painted dowels. The longer sections, 33 foot and 65 foot, and the panels with sleeved dowels performed poorly. All joint fillers failed within three years.... ...Beaudry, Terry
528.Study For Determining Traffic Volume Projection Factors90-051991
The estimation of future year traffic volumes is a key component in the overall process of designing roadways. Reliable traffic projections are required to estimate construction needs and to develop cost estimates. Methods used by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) to project future year traffic volumes have been found to be statistically unreliable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the procedure used by Mn/DOT, to examine and evaluate other available methods, and to develop a more reliable and accurate method to project traffic volumes....Traffic volumes, Traffic counts, Vehicle miles of travel, Forecast, Projection factor, Growth factor, County State Aid Highway, Needs study, Highway funding needs, Funding allocation...Robinson, Ferrol; Kern, Joseph
529.Waste Tire and Shingle Scrap/Bituminous Paving Test Sections on the Willard Munger Recreational Trail Gateway Segment1991-061991
This report is about the need to reduce our state's dependence on land fills and a resulting unique cooperative venture by three state agencies (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and Minnesota Department of Transportation) to investigate the use of recycled tire rubber and processed asphalt shingle scrap. The result as a two mile section of the Willard Munger Recreational Trail in St. Paul, Minnesota. That portion of the trail was constructed with asphalt paving mixtures containing varying percentages of recycled tire rubber and shingle scrap. The need to reduce our states dependence on land fills resulted in a unique cooperative venture by three state agencies. A partnership was forged between the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) to investigate the use of recycled tire rubber and processed asphalt shingle scrap. The result is a two mile section of the Willard Munger Recreational Trail in St. Paul, constructed with asphalt paving mixtures which contain varying percentages of recycled tire rubber and shingle scrap. Special bituminous mix designs were formulated using 3% rubber, 6% rubber, 3% rubber with 6% shingles and 9% shingles. The mixtures containing rubber did not exhibit acceptable mix characteristic values under present Mn/DOT bituminous specifications. The shingle-only mix met specifications and yielded an economic advantage of decreasing the asphalt cement demand of the mix. Conventional mixing and paving equipment was utilized for construction. This application appears to be a viable alternative containing rubber increased from 35% to 50% over the cost of the conventional mixture. Since the use of shingle scrap was negotiated by the private companies involved, no comparable cost data is available....Waste Rubber Tires, Minnesota, Waste products as road materials, Minnesota, Tires, Recycling, Willard Munger Recreational Trail...Turgeon, Curtis
530.A Summary of Friction Numbers for Seclected Minnesota Highways90-021990
... ...Teig, Jerry
531.Evaluation of "Plus Ride" (A Rubber Modified Plant Mixed Bituminous Surface Mixture)90-011990
One of the Mn/DOT priorities 1s to reduce the amount of chemicals used for ice and snow control without reducing the level of service. Alternative methods are needed to control the accumulation of ice on the roadway surface. ""Plus Ride"" is a rubber modified plant mixed bituminous wearing course that is advertised as having unique de-icing ability. This product was developed in Sweden and is patented in the United States. The license to sell this product is held by All Seasons Surfacing Corporation of Bellevue, Washington. Rubber ground from old tires is used to replace some of the fine aggregate material in the bituminous mixture. This mixture is advertised to have elastic deformation under wheel loadings that will cause the ice layer to crack. Wind created by passing vehicles is reported to clear the surface.... ...
532.Floatable Litter Entering Waterways Through Storm Sewers90-061990
... ...Folen, Dale; Zagar, Michael
533.Frost Resitivity Gages - Assembly and Installation Technigues - Technical Note 1990
Resistivity gages rely on the measurement of electrical resistance between conductors mounted along a cylindrical probe (see Figure 1) to determine where the soil is frozen and where it is thawed. This determination is based on the wide difference between the volume resistivity of frozen soil (from 500,000 up to several million ohms) and thawed soil (20,000 to 50,000 ohms normally)....Pavement instrumentation, data acquisition, Pavements, Minnesota, Mathematical models...Atkins, Ronald
534.Minnesota Roadway Research Project95-01U1990
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has proposed the development of a_Rqad Research Facility which will be located in Wright County, between Monticello and Albertville. The intent of this project is to provide a facility where intensive research on flexible and rigid pavements can be conducted using ""real world"" vehicle loading. To this end, a Pavement Research Test Facility Task Force was formed to oversee the implementation of the facility. To assist Mn/DOT in the development of the test facility, the services of the University of Minnesota and the National Engineering Technology Corporation (NET) have been obtained. The Civil and Mineral Engineering Department of the University will provide guidance to Mn/DOT on sensor selection and usage. The Computer Science Department of the University will design the computerized processing system and be responsible for development of the database software. NET's purpose in this project is to develop overall design scenarios, alternatives, costs and recommendations for the preliminary design concepts of the entire system with particular attention to the communications and data collection subsystems. This report will present the various design alternative concepts investigated and the cost estimates for the different subsystems. After analyzing the alternatives, a recommendation is made on the preferred concept together with an implementation and management plan....Sensors, Communications Link, Data Collection, Power Link...National Engineering Technology Corporation (NET)
535.Numerical Assessment of Three-Dimensional Rigid Pavement Joints Under Impact Loads91-031990
This study was conducted for the Minnesota Department of Transportation with the aim of improving the state of knowledge on the behavior of joints in concrete pavements 1 and to explore the feasibility of developing a non-destructive testing technique based on frequency response of dynamically loaded joints. One of the objectives of this study was to numerically investigate the existence of a relationship between load transfer capacity of a joint in rigid pavements and its dynamic response, and the obtained results confirm the existence of such a relationship.... ...Koubaa, Amir; Krauthamrner, Theodor
536.Resistivity Probes, Installation and Readout Techniques 1990
Resistivity gages discussed in this manual rely on the measurement of electrical resistance between conductors mountedalong a cylindrical probe (see Figure 1) to determine where the soil is frozen and where it is thawed. This determination is based on the wide difference between the volume resistivity of frozen soil (from 500,000 up to several million ohms) and thawed soil (20,000 to 50,000 ohms normally). Frost penetration is determined by making sequential resistance measurements between adjacent pairs of electrodes down the resistivity probe and documenting at what depth the resistance goes from a high to a low value. It is not even necessary to actually read the resistance since a readout circuit may be used in which voltage measurements for each probe section may be ratio'ed to a fixed one megohm resistor located in the output circuit. This arrangement will work just as well as the actual resistance measurement since it is the shape of the curve that contains the frost depth information, not the absolute value of the measurements. Figure 1 is a sample resistivity installation. Typical curves are shown in Figure 2. For comparison, two curves of temperature vs depth are also shown, one at mid-winter conditions and one during spring thaw. The resistivity gage measurements were made by reading the resistance (or voltage drop) between solid copper rings spaced evenly on a buried PVC rod using an alternating current (ac) voltage source....Pavement instrumentation, data acquisition, Pavements, Minnesota, Mathematical models...Atkins, Ronald
537.Synthesis Report of Aggregate Testing Methods Used to Prevent D-Cracking of Concrete Pavements 1990
D-cracking can be defined as freeze-thaw generated distress in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC), caused primarily by expansion of water in coarse carbonate aggregates (limestone and dolostone). Staining or slight darkening of the concrete at the joints or cracks is usually the first indication of a D-cracking problem. A series of closely spaced parallel cracks first appear at the intersection of the transverse and longitudinal joints and cracks. As the distress continues, the cracks migrate around the corners, and may eventually progress toward the central area of the slab.... ...Folsom, Dan
538.Viberation Spectroscopy for Rigid Pavement Joint Assessment 1990
This study was conducted for the Minnesota Department of Transportation with the aim of improving the state of knowledge on the behavior of joints in concrete pavements, and to explore the feasibility of developing a non-destructive testing technique based on the frequency response of dynamically loaded joints. One of the objectives of the present study was to experimentally investigate the existence of a relationship between load transfer capacity of a joint in rigid pavements and its dynamic response, and the obtained results confirm the existence of such a relationship.... ...Palmieri, Lucio; Krautharnrner, Theodor
539.Work plan for research objectives Library Title: Minnesota Road Research Project work plan for research objectives.1990-031990
This document describes the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) pavement research facility. This facility will enable the Minnesota Department of Transportation to evaluate pavement performance under actual existing conditions....Minnesota Road Research Project, MnROAD, Highway research, Minnesota, Planning, Pavements, Minnesota, Design and construction...Newcomb, David; Baker, David; Johnson, David; Lund, Steve
540.Computer Simulation of Two-Dimensional Frost Heaving in Soils89-041989
A three-month research project was conducted on the fros~. heaving patterns of a culvert. Problems are typically encountered when such a culvert is placed under a road in a frost-susceptible soil. Major differential frost heaving is produced and has a negative effect on the structure of the road itself while creating a rough ride and reducing safety for road users. This project analyzes the performance over the winter period of several potential remedial designs. The goal is to find a design that will minimize the differential frost heave for the broadest possible conditions in terms of frost-susceptibility and of freezing pattern.... ...Hoven, Jean-Michel
541.Evaluation of Materials and Methods for Bituminous Pavement Crack Sealing and Filling89-191989
The most common form of asphalt pavement distress is cracking and the subsequent destruction from the intrusion of water. Some crack patterns such as alligatoring and longitudinal cracks in the wheel paths suggest structural deficiency and require at least partial reconstruction to rehabilitate the pavement adequately. This type of crack can be eliminated through proper pavement design and base drainage. Thermal transverse cracks, reflective cracks, and block cracking are, as yet, unavoidable facts of life for an AC pavement. If left untreated, the intrusion of water, coupled with climate and traffic, can lead to multiple cracking, lipping, spalling and/or cupping due to stripping of the underlying material. Proper and timely treatment can limit these problems and greatly extend the life of an AC pavement."... ...Turgeon, Curtis
542.Evaluation of Verglimit (A De-Icing Additive in Plant Mixed Bituminous Surface1989-021989
This document reports on the proprietary product, Verglimit, which claims to decrease the amount of materials and man-hours needed for snow and ice control while maintaining adequate safety levels, Verglimit consists of calcium chloride flakes encapsulated in linseed oil, which are blended into the plant-mixed bituminous wearing surface, The manufacturer claims that exposed CaCl will attract moisture and form a solution that prohibits adhesion of snow and ice to the pavement, A Verglimit test section was constructed in Minnesota, Evaluation of the test section consisted of deicing observations as well as other pavement performance characterizations,...Deicing chemicals, Roads, Snow and ice control, Pavements, Bituminous, Verglimit...Turgeon, Curtis
543.MINNESOTA TRANSIT LABORATORY ; Phase I Conclusions Improving Transit Service89-211989
The desire to increase the attractiveness and use of transit has led the Minnesota Department of Transportation, the Center for Transportation studies, and the Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering at the University of Minnesota to set up a Laboratory for developing improved service and encouraging innovation in transit. Prior to seeking improvement of transit opperations and the attractiveness of public travel, the problems of the transit industry had to be clearly defined. To that effect, an initial set of eight problem areas was defined and prioritized on the basis of short- and long-term by a group of local experts. However, as seeking solution to all the problems hence defined would be a rrost demanding task, it was desirable to .reduce the set to a more manageable size that included the problems that were well defined, important, feasible and desirable for analysis and solution in Minnesota and elsewhere. To conduct this analysis, a well known and proven methodology, the Depri Technique, was used. The findings of the Delpri procedure indicate a prioritization that is, in principle, different from what was initially suggested by the group of local experts. Both groups - the Delpri participants and the local experts - did concur on the ratings of a few problems (e.g., EFFECT OF COLD CLIMATE). The results of the Delpri procedure and the suggested prioritization of the local experts are exhibited on the following page.... ...Yorgos, Stephandes; Bangali, Doumbia
544.Pavement Rehabilitation: A Guide for Minnesota Cities and Counties1989-01, INV6451989
This manual describes the evaluation and design procedures for pavement rehabilitation. The evaluation emphasizes a number of variables or conditions that should be considered. This manual does not introduce any new technology. Thickness designs of new pavements require two primary variables; traffic and soil strength. Rehabilitation design requires several additional variables such as: pavement structure, condition and strength. Rehabilitation design can involve more alternative than new design that deal with materials, equipment, disruption of traffic and work zone safety. This manual has been written as a working reference to help identify and classify the surface distress, explore the various rehabilitation alternatives, select an appropriate alternative and briefly describe the rehabilitation procedure. The manual provides standardized identification of distress types for both flexible and rigid pavements, calculation procedures for Equivalent Axle Loads, and a brief synopsis of the AASHTO thickness design procedure. This manual should be used by cities and counties as reference in developing rehabilitation strategies. ...Rehabilitation, life cycle cost, total cost, modulus, AASHTO, Present Serviceability Rating, Equivalent Single Axle Load, pavement management, Pavement Condition Index, expected life, user impact, surface distress, maintenance....Janisch, David; Lukanen, Erland; Marti, Michael
545.Snowplow Lighting Study89-031989
"The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) formed a Snowplow Lighting Task Force to look into a state-wide problem of snowplow/motorist related accidents and make recommendations to reduce this type of accident. A review of accident records showed that an average of 54 such accidents occurred each winter season involving its snowplow trucks, 54% of those accidents listed the snow cloud created during the snowplowing operation as the contributing factor by obscuring the snowplow and its warning lights. Based on the results of this study, the task force was given the responsibility to study the snowplow visibility problem; specifically, the snowplow lighting. The task force reviewed the issues of warning lights and plowing equipment in detail. It was determined that the snowplow and wing shapes were large contributors to the poor visibility problem by generating snow clouds. Warning lights mounted on the trucks could not be seen because of these clouds. A literature search was conducted but provided no recent studies on the reduction of snowplow accidents through the use of snowplow visibility enhancements. Comparisons of different lighting configurations during snowplowing operations were video taped in the winter of '87-'88. Mn/DOT learned that regardless of the type of light or configuration, it is possible for the snow cloud to obscure the snowplow truck for a period of time. Comparison tests were run during the winter of '88-'89 between an experimental light configuration recommended by the vendor and the present configuration for warning lights generally used by Mn/DOT. The experimental lights proved to be far more visible, but were also obscured by the snow cloud for a period of time. A limited study on a small strobe light mounted on a wing was also made. Conclusions drawn from this short study are that warning lights alone will not solve the snowplow accident problem. Plow and wing design should be studied; snowplow operation procedures should be reviewed; public awarenes should be broadened."...snow cloud, strobe light, snowplow, wing...Hale, John
546.Synthesis on Subsurface Drainage of Water Infiltrating a Pavement Structure89-201989
When a pavement is filled with water, heavy vehicle loads cause severe damaging actions such as erosion and pumping, disintegration of cement-treated bases, stripping of asphalt coatings from bituminous-treated bases and subbases, and over stressing of weakened subgrades. Also, the mere presence of abundant water causes or accelerates numerous non-load bearing actions such as ""D""-cracking, blow-up, frost action, expansion, shrinkage cracking, increased oxidation and loss of flexibility, and general deterioration of wearing courses and stabilized bases. (1) 11 ""Pavements designed without rapid internal drainage can remain filled with water a number of days or weeks after each saturating rainfall, adding up to several months of damaging environmental conditions each year. When good internal drainage is provided, however, the water-related damages can be eliminated or at least greatly reduced. (1)"" The main source of moisture in a pavement structure is surface water infiltrating through cracks, transverse and longitudinal joints (especially the lane/shoulder joint), granular shoulders, and interconnected voids in the pavement (Figure 1). Surface water infiltration can account for as much as 90 to 95 percent of the total moisture in a pavement system. Other sources of moisture include capillary water and water vapor rising through subgrade soils, frost lenses melting during the spring thaw, and groundwater from localized springs and interrupted aquifers.... ...Sambeek, Robert;
547.The Use of Asphalt-Rubber Products In Minnesota1989-061989
The contents of this report were prepared for presentation at the National Seminar on Asphalt-Rubber in Kansas City, Missouri, on October 30-31, 1989. This report is a compilation of completed and soon to be completed asphalt-rubber studies undertaken by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. The goals of each study vary with the manner in which the asphalt-rubber was utilized. Asphalt-rubber has been utilized in hopes of limiting reflective cracking by means of a stress absorbing membrane or a stress absorbing membrane interlayer. Using asphalt-rubber in a dense graded bituminous mixture was also attempted with the intent lo limit reflective cracking while also resisting stripping due to greater film thickness on the aggregate and greater impexmeability to water. The Plus-Ride(TM) system of using granular rubber and a gap graded aggregate in a plant-mixed bituminous surface was employed in hopes of creating a self-deflexing pavement. The results from these tests projects vary from site to site but overall the Department remaims cautiously optimistic that asphalt-rubber can be an effective tool in pavement maintenance and reconstruction....Pavements, Asphalt-rubber, Roads, Minnesota, Design and construction...Turgeon, Curtis
548.Transportation And Economic Development Simulation Of Highway Investment Impacts On The Forestry Sector In Northeast Minnesota89-181989
A time series methodology is developed that differentiates the effects of highways on development from the effects of development on highways. This methodology uses pooled time-series and cross-sectional data on highway expenditures and county employment for the 87 Minnesota counties and all 9 economic sectors over the 25-year period 1957-1982 and includes classification of counties based on access, demographic and socioeconomic features. Results from vector autoregressions are tested against modern causality tests of Granger-Sims type. In the wholesale and natural-resource-based service sectors (e.g., tourism), increased highway expenditures result in long-term employment increases. While regionally very substantial, the impacts are distributional, i.e., the statewide impact is negligible. Government role is mostly reactive, increasing funding to counties whose economy is increasing, except in rural areas where government also attempts to stimulate declining economies. Funding decisions are highly sensitive to changes in the economy, especially in rural areas, and (as our evaluation of the Minnesota Department of Transportation [Mn/DOT) project selection process indicates) are primarily influenced by the District recommendation. Further, a new B/C project selection process is developed and tested on highway weight restriction policies in Northeast Minnesota. Both simulation with large 1/0 model and comparison with actual funding decisions made independently by Mn/DOT indicate agreement with our results. An extensive literature review and 175 references are included....time series, Highway Impacts, Project Selection, Causality, Economic Development...Yorgos, Stephanes; Maki, Wilbur; Akhavi, Hossein; Eagle, David
549.Transportation And Economic Development The Link Between Highway Investment and Economic Development - A Time-Series Investigation89-151989
A time series methodology is developed that differentiates the effects of highways on development from the effects of development on highways. This methodology uses pooled time-series and cross-sectional data on highway expenditures and county employment for the 87 Minnesota counties and all 9 economic sectors over the 25-year period 1957-1982 and includes classification of counties based on access, demographic and socioeconomic features. Results from vector autoregressions are tested against modern causality tests of Granger-Sims type. In the wholesale and natural-resource-based service sectors (e.g., tourism), increased highway expenditures result in long-term employment increases. While regionally very substantial, the impacts are distributional, i.e., the statewide impact is negligible. Government role is mostly reactive, increasing funding to counties whose economy is increasing, except in rural areas where government also attempts to stimulate declining economies. Funding decisions are highly sensitive to changes in the economy, especially in rural areas, and (as our evaluation of the Minnesota Department of Transportation [Mn/DOT] project selection process indicates) are primarily influenced by the District recommendation. Further, a new B/C project selection process is developed and tested on highway weight restriction policies in Northeast Minnesota. Both simulation with large 1/0 model and comparison with actual funding decisions made independently by Mn/DOT indicate agreement with our results. An extensive literature review and 175 references are included....time series, Highway Impacts, Project Selection, Causality, Economic Development...Yorgos, Stephandes; Eagle, David
550.Transportation And Economic Development: Evaluating Criteria For Highway Project Selection89-141989
A time series methodology is developed that differentiates the effects of highways on development from the effects of development on highways. This methodology uses pooled time-series and cross-sectional data on highway expenditures and county employment for the 87 Minnesota counties and all 9 economic sectors over the 25-year period 1957-1982 and includes classification of counties based on access, demographic and socioeconomic features. Results from vector autoregressions are tested against modern causality tests of Granger-Sims type. In the wholesale and natural-resource-based service sectors (e.g., tourism), increased highway expenditures result in long-term employment increases. While regionally very substantial, the impacts are distributional, i.e., the statewide impact is negligible. Government role is mostly reactive, increasing funding to counties whose economy is increasing, except in rural areas where government also attempts to stimulate declining economies. Funding decisions are highly sensitive to changes in the economy, especially in rural areas, and (as our evaluation of the Minnesota Department of Transportation [Mn/DOT] project selection process indicates) are primarily influenced by the District recommendation. Further, a new B/C project selection process is developed and tested on highway weight restriction policies in Northeast Minnesota. Both simulation with large 1/0 model and comparison with actual funding decisions made independently by Mn/DOT indicate agreement with our results. An extensive literature review and 175 references are included....time series, Highway Impacts, Project Selection, Causality, Economic Development...Yorgos, Stephandes
551.Transportation And Economic Development: Heuristic Decision Framework For Upgrading Highway Weight limits89-171989
A time series methodology is developed that differentiates the effects of highways on development from the effects of development on highways. This methodology uses pooled time-series and cross-sectional data on highway expenditures and county employment for the 87 Minnesota counties and all 9 economic sectors over the 25-year period i 957-1982 and includes classification of counties based on access, demographic and socioeconomic features. Results from vector autoregressions are tested against modern causality tests of Granger-Sims type. In the wholesale and natural-resource-based service sectors (e.g., tourism), increased highway expenditures result in long-term employment increases. While regionally very substantial, the impacts are distributional, i.e., the statewide impact is negligible. Government role is mostly reactive, increasing funding to counties whose economy is increasing, except in rural areas where government also attempts to stimulate declining economies. Funding decisions are highly sensitive to changes in the economy, especially in rural areas, and (as our evaluation of the Minnesota Department of Transportation [Mn/DOT] project selection process indicates) are primarily influenced by the District recommendation. Further, a new B/C project selection process is developed and tested on highway weight restriction policies in Northeast Minnesota. Both simulation with large l/0 model and comparison with actual funding decisions made independently by Mn/DOT indicate agreement with our results. An extensive literature review and 175 references are included....time series, Highway Impacts, Project Selection, Causality, Economic Development...Yorgos, Stephanes; Ziotas, John; Arora, Sant
552.Transportation And Economic Development: The Link Between Highway Investment and Economic Development - A Time-Series Investigation: Specific Economic Sectors89-161989
A time series methodology is developed that differentiates the effects of highways on development from the effects of development on highways. This methodology uses pooled time-series and cross-sectional data on highway expenditures and county employment for the 87 Minnesota counties and all 9 economic sectors over the 25-year period 1 957-i 982 and includes classification of counties based on access, demographic and socioeconomic features. Results from vector autoregressions are tested against modern causality tests of Granger-Sims type. in the wholesale and natural-resource-based service sectors (e.g., tourism), increased highway expenditures result in long-term employment increases. While regionally very substantial, the impacts are distributional, i.e., the statewide impact is negligible. Government role is mostly reactive, increasing funding to counties whose economy is increasing, except in rural areas where government also attempts to stimulate declining economies. Funding decisions are highly sensitive to changes in the economy, especially in rural areas, and (as our evaluation of the Minnesota Department of Transportation [Mn/DOT] project selection process indicates) are primarily influenced by the District recommendation. Further, a new B/C project selection process is developed and tested on highway weight restriction policies in Northeast Minnesota. Both simulation with large 1/0 model and comparison with actual funding decisions made independently by Mn/DOT indicate agreement with our results. An extensive literature review and 175 references are included....time series, Highway Impacts, Project Selection, Causality, Economic Development...Yorgos, Stephanes; Eagle, David
553.Transportation And Economic Development: Transportation And The Minnesota Economy; Transportation/Economy Literature89-131989
A time series methodology is developed that differentiates the effects of highways on development from the effects of development on highways. This methodology uses pooled time-series and cross-sectional data on highway expenditures and county employment for the 87 Minnesota counties and all 9 economic sectors over the 25-year period 1957-1982 and includes classification of counties based on access, demographic and socioeconomic features. Results from vector autoregressions are tested against modern causality tests of Granger-Sims type. In the wholesale and natural-resource-based service sectors (e.g., tourism), increased highway expenditures result in long-term employment increases. While regionally very substantial, the impacts are distributional, i.e., the statewide impact is negligible. Government role is mostly reactive, increasing funding to counties whose economy is increasing, except in rural areas where government also attempts to stimulate declining economies. Funding decisions are highly sensitive to changes in the economy, especially in rural areas, and (as our evaluation of the Minnesota Department of Transportation [Mn/DOT] project selection process indicates) are primarily influenced by the District recommendation. Further, a new B/C project selection process is developed and tested on highway weight restriction policies in Northeast Minnesota. Both simulation with large 1/0 model and comparison with actual funding decisions made independently by Mn/DOT indicate agreement with our results. An extensive literature review and 175 references are included....time series, highway impacts, project selection, Causality, Economic Development...Yorgos, Stephandes
554.Transportation and Economic Development89-101989
A time series methodology is developed that differentiates the effects of highways on development from the effects of development on highways. This methodology uses pooled time-series and cross-sectional data on highway expenditures and county employment for the 87 Minnesota counties and all 9 economic sectors over the 25-year period 1957-1982 and includes classification of counties based on access, demographic and socioeconomic features. Results from vector autoregressions are tested against modern causality tests of Granger-Sims type. In the wholesale and natural-resource-based service sectors (e.g., tourism), increased highway expenditures result in long-term employment increases. While regionally very substantial, the impacts are distributional, i.e., the statewide impact is negligible. Government role is mostly reactive, increasing funding to counties whose economy is increasing, except in rural areas where government also attempts to stimulate declining economies. Funding decisions are highly sensitive to changes in the economy, especially in rural areas, and (as our evaluation of the Minnesota Department of Transportation [Mn/DOT] project selection process indicates) are primarily influenced by the District recommendation. Further, a new B/C project selection process is developed and tested on highway weight restriction policies in Northeast Minnesota. Both simulation with large 10 model and comparison with actual funding decisions made independently by Mn/DOT indicate agreement with our results. An extensive literature review and 175 references are included....time series, Highway Impacts, Project Selection, Causality, Economic Development...Stephanedes, Yorgos
555.Transportation and Economic Development89-111989
"A time series methodology is developed that differentiates the effects of highways on development from the effects of development on highways. This methodology uses pooled time-series and cross-sectional data on highway expenditures and county employment for the 87 Minnesota counties and all 9 economic sectors over the 25-year period 1957-1982 and includes classification of counties based on access, demographic and socioeconomic features. Results from vector autoregressions are tested against modern causality tests of Granger-Sims type. In the wholesale and natural-resource-based service sectors (e.g., tourism), increased highway expenditures result in long-term employment increases. While regionally very substantial, the impacts are distributional, i.e., the statewide impact is negligible. Government role is mostly reactive, increasing funding to counties whose economy is increasing, except in rural areas where government also attempts to stimulate declining economies. Funding decisions are highly sensitive to changes in the economy, especially in rural areas, and (as our evaluation of the Minnesota Department of Transportation [Mn/DOT] project selection process indicates) are primarily influenced by the District recommendation. Further, a new B/C project selection process is developed and tested on highway weight restriction policies in Northeast Minnesota. Both simulation with large 1/0 model and comparison with actual funding decisions made independently by Mn/DOT indicate agreement with our results. An extensive literature review and 175 references are included."...time series, Highway Impacts, Project Selection, Causality, Economic Development...Stephanedes, Yorgos
556.Transportation and Economic Development: The Geograpical Literature89-121989
"A time series methodology is developed that differentiates the effects of highways on development from the effects of development on highways. This methodology uses pooled time-series and cross-sectional data on highway expenditures and county employment for the 87 Minnesota counties and all 9 economic sectors over the 25-year period 1957-1982 and includes classification of counties based on access, demographic and socioeconomic features. Results from vector autoregressions are tested against modern causality tests of Granger-Sims type. In the wholesale and natural-resource-based service sectors (e.g., tourism), increased highway expenditures result in long-term employment increases. While regionally very substantial, the impacts are distributional, i.e., the statewide impact is negligible. Government role is mostly reactive, increasing funding to counties whose economy is increasing, except in rural areas where government also attempts to stimulate declining economies. Funding decisions are highly sensitive to changes in the economy, especially in rural areas, and (as our evaluation of the Minnesota Department of Transportation [Mn/DOT] project selection process indicates) are primarily influenced by the District recommendation. Further, a new 8/C project selection process is developed and tested on highway weight restriction policies in Northeast Minnesota. Both simulation with large 1/0 model and comparison with actual funding decisions made independently by Mn/DOT indicate agreement with our results. An extensive literature review and 175 references are included."...time series, Highway Impacts, Project Selection, Causality, Economic Development...Sheppard, Eric
557.Effect of Concrete Shoulders, Lane Widening and Frozen Subgrade on Concrete Pavement Performance88-021988
This is the fourth and final report of a study to determine the effect of concrete s shoulders, lane widening and frozen subgrade on concrete pavement performance. In this portion of the study, Falling Weight Deflectometer tests were ucted seasonally over a two-year period to determine the seasonal variation in pavement deflection. Tests were also conducted to determine the ange in pavement deflection throughout the day. An analysis was run to verify earlier results determined by the Construction Technologies Laboratory the Portland Cement Association.... ...Korfhage, Glenn
558.Potential Application of French Frost Heave Research to Pavement Design in Minnesota88-031988
The French conducted a thorough research program from 1969 to 1977 to produce design standards for build.ing durable and non-frost susceptible roads. Based an this research a frost heave sirrulaticn program was developed by "Laboratoire Central des Pcnts et Chaussees" in France. The intent of this research has been to investigate the possible use of this computer program as well as aquiring information and data concerning French soils that have been tested for frost heave....Soils Analysis, Frost Susceptible Soils, Soil Analysis System Evaluation, Computer Modeling of Frost Heaving Soils...Hoven, Jean-Michel
559.Cathodic Protection of a Four-Lane Divided Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement 1987
This study was initiated to further investigate the cathodic protection continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP). An initial cathodic protection system has been in operation for seven years on two lanes of interstate highway. It was felt that economies could be achieved by building a system that would protect both roadways of a 4-lane, interstate highway. This report is the first product of that study. This report discusses the CRCP pavement problem in Minnesota and describes the design and construction of the cathodic protection system. Future reports will document the performance of the system.... ...Halverson, Andrew
560.Epoxy Injection for Repair of Bridge Deck Delaminations 1987
One of the most difficult and costly problems facing transportation agencies across the country is the maintenance of concrete bridge decks. The application of deicing salts leads to rebar corrosion and delamination of the deck, and eventually to spalling and potholes. A rough and unsafe riding surface results, with repair work being expensive and time consuming, often causing great inconvenience to the driving public.... ...Hagen, Mark
561.Concrete Pavements on Treated Bases 1986
ln 1970, a research project was constructed on I-94 near Rothsay, Minnesota with the objective of determining the feasibility of constructing a portland cement pavement over bituminous or cement treated bases and determining the structural requirements. The project was constructed with an 8-inch and 9-inch thick pavement over a section of bituminous-treated, cement-treated, and conventional gravel base. Each thickness of pavement had doweled and undoweled portions.... ...Halverson, Andrew;
562.Development of Pavement Life Prediction Models86-041986
Construction projects for the purpose of improving exisiting pavement conditions are typically programmed for specific pavement segments when that particular segment has declined to a certain level of serviceability.... ...Lukanen, Erland
563.Evaluation of Deflection Data As Criteria For The Timing of Spring Load Limits 1986
This study was undertaken to study the use of deflection data as a criteria in setting time periods for seasonal load limits. The study was rendered invaluable assistance by District 2 Materials personnel; the Office of Materials Engineering; Research Assistants Karl Keel, EIT and Gerald Teig. The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official view or policies of the Minnesota Department of Transportation. This report does not constitute a standard specification or regulation.... ...Harvey, Allen; Bullock, David
564.Experimental Repair Methods for Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement2001985
Premature deterioration of continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) has become a serious problem in Minnesota. Spalling and delaminations, similar to those found on deteriorating bridge decks, have appeared on sections of CRCP, many after less than 10 years of service. Tension failures, or rupturing of the longitudinal reinforcing steel caused by loss of section due to corrosion, have also been a problem. Other sections of CRCP remain in good condition, but the potential for early deterioration exists for them, as well. Two methods were tried to halt the ongoing corrosion: a cathodic protection system and a low slump dense concrete (LSDC) overlay. Robert G. Tracy, Research Project Engineer, (now in private business), designed and supervised the cathodic protection system project. Installation was done through the cooperation of District 9 Maintenance and Physical Research personnel. Construction of the LSDC overlay was done by Progressive Contractors, Inc., under the control of PaulJuckel, Project Supervisor, Oakdale. The projects were done in conjunction with the FHWA's Highway Planning and Research Program.... ...Hagen, Mark; Cochran, George
565.Methods and Materials for Reducing Crack Reflectance84-091985
This study was initiated to study methods,- procedures and/or materials that may reduce premature pavement failures of asphaltic concrete overlays on pee pavement caused by excessive reflective cracking. Methods included in this study were reducing the existing pee pavement panel size by saw cutting, full coverage fabrics, strip fabrics and Rubber-Asphalt Interlayer as a stress absorbing membrane interlayer (SAMI). No material or method was found that would totally eliminate reflective cracking. Reducing the existing pee pavement panel size and the use of the Rubber-Asphalt Interlayer were the two procedures that provided the best results....Reflective Cracking...Allen, Harvey
566.Review of Minnesota's Concrete Paving Design 1985
This report is the result of a review of the concrete pavement designprocedures currently in use by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. The charge given to the Design Review Task Force was to review Mn/DOT's present process in pavement design, including the AASHTO Standards, along with factors that influence the end product recommendation. This report is a summary of the review which took place. Based on the review and subsequent discussions the Task Force determined which factors in the present pavement design process remained valid, or required modification and if new factors needed to be considered. Included in this report are the conclusions and recommendations of this indepth review.... ...Egan, Ed; Janowiak, Joe; Ingman, Jerry; Olson, Eno; Laingen, Arnie
567.Thickness Design of Low-Volume Bituminous-Surfaced Roads86-071985
Investigation 666 has been conducted to study the design thickness and material requirements for roads in Minnesota with traffic less than 1,000 ADT on the county and city systems. A previous study had been conducted (Investigation 655) to review the methods used by local agencies in Canada and the northern states of the U.S.A. Six of the methods were compared by designing for six specific locations with two levels of traffic each. The designs were from least to most conservative at the different conditions. The Minnesota R-Value and AASHTO Interim Guide procedures were judged to be most appropriate for Minnesota cities and counties. Three traffic counter-classifier devices were evaluated for monitoring of traffic. The Streeter-Amet TrafiComp with a computerized (Model 140 Reader) could be used by the cities and counties for traffic monitoring. A test plan has been devised to document the performance of low-volume roads in Minnesota based on the design parameters used in the Minnesota R-Value and AASHTO procedures. The parameters are pavement materials, embankment soil strength, in place granular equivalent thickness, and traffic. These four, five, three and three levels respectively have been selected to establish cells for a factorial design study Sixty-five field sections have been established throughout the state. They havt been located and documented with the assistance of the respective county engineers. The sections selected have previously been tested with the Road Rater or Benkelman Beam and the traffic analyzed. The thickness has only been checked with the office records. The present field condition has been observed. This information should continue to be obtained to verify the performance relationships used for the AASHTO Interim Guide and the Minnesota R-Value Design Procedure. Additional test sections need to be added to fill out the factorial plan....Present Serviceability Rating, Pavement Condition Index, Surface Condition Rating, Equivalent Axle load, Granular Equivalent, Pavement Strength, R-Value, Sigma N-18...Marti, Michael; Skok, Eugene
568.Field Trails of Polymer Concrete Patching Materials (Brookhaven National Laboratories) 1984
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) investigated a polymer concrete (PC) patching material 1n cooperation with the Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). This material has been previously tested by other states throughout the country. The material is claimed to be a rapid curing, durable material for patching potholes and deteriorated cracks in portland cement concrete pavements and bridge decks. Previous field tests of PC materials have been small in scope and size. The problems associated with the material were the tendency of the monomer to drain from the system, the development of shrinkage cracks in the polymerized material, and the need for a knowledge of chemistry to m1x the monomer system. The BNL material is supposed to correct these drawbacks.... ...Caswell, Donald; Halverson, Andrew
569.Effect of Frozen Support on Concrete Paving Performance2091983
A field program of strain and deflection measurements was conducted by the Construction Technology Laboratories for the Minnesota Department of Transportation. The objective of the measurement program was to evaluate the effect of frozen support. Tied concrete shoulder. And tridem-axle loading on concrete pavement performance. Results of the investigation are reported separately for each of the three topics. Results of the tied concrete shoulder and tridem-axle loading studies are given in References 1 and 2. respectively. Minnesota 1 s current concrete pavement design procedure does not consider climatic effects. When the base. Subbase. And subgrade are frozen. Pavement strains and deflections due to load are smaller. Therefore. Traffic induced damage during winter months is greatly reduced. Since concrete pavement design procedures consider repeated application of traffic loading and fatigue damage. It should be possible to take advantage of the frozen support conditions in the design of concrete pavements.... ...Ball, C.; Tayabji, S.; Okamoto, P.
570.Research Review Volume I - The Implementation Status Of Local Road Research Board Projects 1983
This report is the first of several volumes prepared for the Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) which contain summaries of highway research projects which have been conducted in Minnesota. These summaries will be valuable references to City and County Engineers and others who are responsible for the construction and management of roads, streets, highways and other related facilities. Volume I summarizes over 50 research projects which have been sponsored wholly or in part by the Minnesota LRRB since 1959. These projects cover a wide variety of subjects including geometric standards, pavement design and evaluation, materials evaluation, and roadside turf establishment to name a few. Much of the information resulting from these projects is of value to all city and county engineers, as well as Mn/DOT engineers and the industry.... ...Lukanen, Erland; Skok, Eugene
571.Degradation of Crushed Rock and Gravel Base MaterialsINV. 6241982
The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine if there is any significant breakdown of aggregate base material due to construction procedures or in service degradation caused by traffic and / or environment....Aggregates (Building materials), Testing, Pavements, Base Courses, Testing...Cassellius, Ronald; Robinson, Thomas; Korfhage, Glenn
572.Application of AASHO Road Test Results to Design of Flexible Pavements in Minnesota1980-09, INV 1831981
This study was conducted to expand the results of the AASHO Road Test by studying the effects of various subgrades, local construction procedures, local paving materials, and climatic effects in Minnesota, Emphasis was on deflection response and long-term performance of flexible pavements, A total of 58 test sections were evaluated that included a wide variation in soil type, pavement structure, and traffic,...Pavements, Flexible, Minnesota, Testing, Mathematical models...Lukanen, Erland
573.Evaluation of Variable Thickness of Bituminous Overlay on Cracked PCC Pavement 1981
The need for new rehabilitation designs is very important as the funding for both maintenance and construction projects becomes increasingly difficult to obtain. The design thickness of a bituminous overlay on a pee pavement has often been a matter of the past experience of individual engineers who have to make these recommendations. This special study was undertaken to gather data on three different thicknesses of bituminous overlays on cracked pee pavement. This study will also provide additional data on the effects of cracking pee pavement. It is anticipated that data from this study will provide the Design Engineer with information that will be helpful in selecting the thickness of bituminous overlay and specifications for pavement cracking. This study will continue for a minimum period of 5 years.... ...Allen, Harvey
574.Evaluation of Concrete Pavements With Lane Widening, Tied Concrete Shoulders, and Thickened Pavement 1977
Field and laboratory pavements were instrumented and load tested to evaluate the effect of lane widening, concrete shoulders, and slab thickness on measured strains and deflections. Eight slabs were tested in the field and two in the laboratory. Pavement slabs were 8-) 9-, or 10-in. thick. Other major design variables included the width of lane widening, presence or absence of dowels, presence or absence of a concrete shoulder, joint spacing, and the type of shoulder joint construction. Generally, there was good agreement between measured strains and deflections and values calculated using Westergaard's theoretical equations. Concrete shoulders were effective in reducing.the magnitude of measured strains and deflections. A chart is presented to show the reduction in thickness of the outer lane of the mainline pavement that may be permitted with a tied concrete shoulder.... ...Colley, Bert; Ball, Claire; Arriyavat, Pichet
575.Evaluation of Full Depth Asphalt PavementsINV 1951977
This research investigation, conducted by the Physical Research Unit of the Minnesota Department of Transportation, began in 1971 to learn more about the behavior of Full-Depth Asphalt pavements. The investigation has 26 test sections, each 1200 feet (365.8m) long, of a variety of thicknesses, on a variety of soils. The thicknesses range from approximately five inches (12.7 cm) TO 17% inches (44.5 cm) and soil types include AASHO soil classification A-2-4's. A-3's. A-4's. A-6's and A-7-6's. These soils include a stabilometer R value range of 5 to 75. The major portions of the research work on this investigation consisted of Benkelman Beam measurements on the zest sections at 50 foot (15.2 m) intervals, taken weekly throughout rh2 spring, bi-weekly throughout the summer and monthly into the fall. The temperature of the upper 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) of the mat was measured each time the Benkelman Beam deflections were taken. These data were then used to determine the effect the temperature and the season had on the deflections and also created a set of correction factors to apply to the measured deflections to adjust the deflections to an 80‘F (26.70C) peak season deflection. The peak season 80‘F (26.7C) mat temperature deflection was then taken to be the standard deflection for each of he test sections. These standard deflections were then compared to the deflections of aggregate base pavements and a relationship was developed between the Full-Depth thickness and the granular equivalency of an equivalent deflection aggregate base pavement. That relationship was then used to develop a Full-Depth bituminous pavement design chart which is the deflection equivalent of the flexible pavement design chart currently in use by Mn/DOT. The serviceability of the Full-Depth has also been monitored in terms of pavement roughness, rut depth and surface condition. The serviceability of the rest sections have nor changed enough to adequately estimate the performance of the test sections at the rime of this report....Pavements, Bituminous, Minnesota, Full Depth Pavements, Asphalt, Minnesota, Evaluation, Performance...Lukanen, Erland
576.Design and Evaluation of Roadway Widening Sections Through Swamps 1975
Six methods of floating roadway widening sections over a peat swamp were designed and constructed on a two-lane roadway in 1976. The project location was on T.H. 53 between International Falls and Ray. Peat depths ranged from 8 to 15 feet. The investigation to date has shown that widenings can be floated on peat when fill height and loading rates are controlled. Performance of the sections will be monitored for a period of at least three years. ... ...Lukanen, Erland; Teig, Gerald
577.Evaluation of Limestone BasesSS 3231975
A number of flexible pavment sections were constructed using limestone aggregate as the base material. As controls for comparison, identical sections were built using gravel base material. Evaluation was based primarily on Benkelman beam deflections. The results indicate that there is ont any significant difference in the granular equivalency of the two aggreate types...Aggregates (Building materials), Testing, Pavements, Base Courses, Testing...Fingalson, Wayne; Teig, Gerald
578.Sawing Joints to Control Cracking in Flexable PavementsSS 3151974
Transverse joints were sawed in a deep-strength (12") flexible pavement, which is over a granular subgrade, prior to the opening of the roadway to traffic. This research project was located on the two southbound lanes of Interstate 35 near Stacy. Each of the three test sections is approximately 500 feet long. Joints were sawed at 40, 60 and 100-foot intervals for a total of 30 joints. Two 700-foot control sections, where no joints were sawed, were left between the sawed sections for comparison purposes. After 4-1/2 years or 5 winters of service almost complete crack arresting was accomplished in the test sections where joints were sawed at 40 and 60-foot intervals. A few cracks had formed in the test section where joints were sawed at 100-foot intervals. In contrast, numerous cracks had developed in the control sections. ... ...Morchinek, Richard
579.Flexible Pavement Design 1969Inv. 1831969
The method presently used for flexible pavement design in Minnesota utilizes either average daily traffic (ADT) or heavy commercial average daily traffic (HCADT), along with a designation of 5-ton, 7-ton or 9-ton spring axle loads to catergorize traffic. The AASHO soil system is used to classify the subgrade soil in order to vary the required base thickness from sections designated for an A-6 soil. The relative strengths of the layers in the pavement section are indicated by granular equivalent factors. The procedures and levels of thickness required have been established based on experience and performance evaluation on Minnesota Highway pavements for the past 30 years.... ...Fredrickson, Fredrick; Diethelm, Paul; Zwiers, Duane
580.The Effects of Studded Tires: A research summary report on the effects of studded tires / prepared for the Legislature, State of Minnesota by the Minnesota Department of Highways.INV 1941969
The 1969 Legislature of the State of Minnesota under Minnesota Statutes, Chapter 169.72, directed the Commissioner of Highways to conduct an in-depth study on the safety and pavement-wear effects of studded tires. This, the final report of that study, summarizes the research efforts and the results. The report is prepared for the specific use of the 1971 Legislature. The Commissioner of Highways is indebted to the many organizations that cooperated in providing information: The American Oil Company for conducting the pavement-wear tests; Kennametal Corporation for furnishing and installing studs in test tires; Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories for the accident study and analyses; the Minnesota Highway Patrol and other offices of the Department of Public Safety for accident reporting and survey coordination; and the many city police departments for supplementing accident reports with data required for the study. Participating cities were Brooklyn Center, Duluth, Edina, Grand Rapids, Mankato, Minneapolis, , Richfield, Rochester, Roseville, St. Cloud and St. Paul. Special thanks are due those states that contributed funds for defraying part of the project costs: Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Utah and Wisconsin. The content, findings, and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the Minnesota Department of Highways. They do not necessarily represent the views of the organizations providing data for the report or the cooperating states. ... ...
581.Application of AASHO Road Test Results to Design of Flexible Pavements in Minnesota1968, INV 1831968
The purpose of this investigation has been to study the design of flexible pavements in Minnesota with emphasis on how the findings and concepts of the AASHO Road Test can be applied to the present Minnesota Flexible Pavement Design Procedure. At the AASHO Road Test pavements of various thicknesses were built on one subgrade soil with one material for subbase, one material for base, and one material for the asphaltic concrete surfacing on the main factorial experiment. The base type was varied in a special study. Traffic consisted of about one million applications of ten levels of load. Each of the two lanes on the five test loops had constant weight and axle configuration trucks. Adequate thicknesses have been established, based on performance, which is related to the variation in Present Serviceability of a pavement section with traffic....Pavements, Flexible, Minnesota, Testing, Mathematical models...Kersten, M.S.; Skok, Eugene
582.Flexible pavement evaluation with the Benkelman beam : summary report Inv. 6031968
Not available at this time... ...Kruse, Cameron; Skok, Eugene
583.Load carrying capacity of Minnesota secondary flexible pavements Inv. 6031967
Not available at this time... ...Skok, Eugene
584.Asphalt Emulsion Stabilized Base Construction, TH65 SP0208-18 Near JohnsvilleSS 2661960
This report evaluates the stabilization of fine sand with asphalt emulsion as constructed on TH65 near Johnsville. The report covers the design and construction problems and strength evaluations up to October, 1960... ...Velz, Paul